characterization of borrelia coriaceae antigens with monoclonal antibodies.three monoclonal antibodies (f6f3, f6b11, and f6b3) were developed against borrelia coriaceae antigens. all three antibodies appeared to be specific for this species and did not cross-react with borrelia burgdorferi (strains b31 and irs), borrelia hermsii, borrelia anserina, leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, or treponema hyodysenteriae, as determined by indirect fluorescent antibody staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western immunoblot analysis. only one of these antibodies, f ...19911855995
identification of african swine fever viral antigens in the hemolymph of soft ticks (argasidae: ornithodoros) by the immunodot blot test.the immunodot blot test was used to identify african swine fever virus (asfv) antigens in the hemolymph from soft ticks (ornithodoros coriaceus) fed on asfv-infected pigs. the immunodot blot test was sensitive and specific for asfv antigens and has potential field application. hemolymph from field-collected ticks can be screened for asfv and a variety of other tick-borne pathogens using this test.19863532842
isolation of a spirochete from the soft tick, ornithodoros coriaceus: a possible agent of epizootic bovine abortion.a borrelia-like spirochete was detected in all three parasitic stages of ornithodoros coriaceus, the soft tick implicated in the epizoology of epizootic bovine abortion. after the spirochete had been isolated, its distinctness from other north american tick-borne borreliae as well as from spirochaeta aurantia, treponema pallidum, and leptospira interrogans serovar pomona was established on the basis of its morphology, protein components, and inability to infect mice. the spirochete is passed tra ...19853898367
congenital spirochetosis in calves: association with epizootic bovine abortion.congenital spirochetosis was encountered as a newly recognized infection of cattle. the spirochete was seen in blood of fetuses with lesions of epizootic bovine abortion. a spirochete with morphologic features similar to those found in the fetuses was detected in ornithodoros coriaceus ticks. ticks collected from rangelands were allowed to feed on cows that then produced epizootic bovine abortion-affected fetuses, and the fetuses had spirochetosis. inapparent spirochetosis also was found in fetu ...19863949612
evidence of common and genus-specific epitopes on ornithodoros spp. tick (acari: argasidae) salivary zealand white rabbits were repeatedly infested with ornithodoros turicata (duges), ornithodoros talaje (guérin-méneville), and ornithodoros coriaceus (koch) at 2-wk intervals. blood samples were taken from each animal 10 d after each infestation and the titer of anti-tick antibody was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. subsequent cross-reactivity studies demonstrated that the antitick antisera nonspecifically bound to salivary gland extract proteins prepared from several other ...19957544412
population structure of the relapsing fever spirochete borrelia hermsii as indicated by polymorphism of two multigene families that encode immunogenic outer surface lipoproteins.the tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete borrelia hermsii evades the mammalian immune system by periodically switching expression among members of two multigene families that encode immunogenic, antigenically distinct outer surface proteins. the type strain, b. hermsii hs1, has at least 40 complete genes and pseudogenes that participate in this multiphasic antigenic variation. originally termed vmp (for variable major protein) genes, they have been reclassified as vsp (for variable small protei ...19989453591
african swine fever virus infection in the argasid host, ornithodoros porcinus porcinus.the pathogenesis of african swine fever virus (asfv) infection in ornithodoros porcinus porcinus was examined in nymphal ticks infected with the asfv isolate chiredzi/83/1. at times postinfection (p.i.) ranging from 6 h to 290 days, ticks or dissected tick tissues were titrated for virus and examined ultrastructurally for evidence of virus replication. the asfv infection rate in ticks was 100% in these experiments, and virus infection was not associated with a significant increase in tick mortal ...19989499019
a surface-exposed region of a novel outer membrane protein (p66) of borrelia spp. is variable in size and sequence.a model of the 66-kda outer membrane protein (p66) of lyme disease borrelia spp. predicts a surface-exposed loop near the c terminus. this region contains an antigen commonly recognized by sera from lyme disease patients. in the present study, this region of p66 and homologous proteins of other borrelia spp. were further investigated by using monoclonal antibodies, epitope mapping of p66 of borrelia burgdorferi, and dna sequencing. a monoclonal antibody specific for b. burgdorferi bound to the p ...19989537355
genetic characteristics of borrelia coriaceae isolates from the soft tick ornithodoros coriaceus (acari: argasidae).two borrelia isolates (ca434 and ca435) cultured from the soft tick ornithodoros coriaceus were analyzed by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field gel electrophoresis of unrestricted and apai-restricted dna, standard electrophoresis of bamhi- and hindiii-restricted dna, southern hybridization, restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing of the 16s rrna gene, and amplification of the 5s-23s intergenic spacer region. these isolates were compared with borrelia coriaceae type strain ...200010878063
glycerol-3-phosphate acquisition in spirochetes: distribution and biological activity of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (glpq) among borrelia species.relapsing-fever spirochetes achieve high cell densities (>10(8)/ml) in their host's blood, while lyme disease spirochetes do not (<10(5)/ml). this striking contrast in pathogenicity of these two groups of bacteria suggests a fundamental difference in their ability to either exploit or survive in blood. borrelia hermsii, a tick-borne relapsing-fever spirochete, contains orthologs to glpq and glpt, genes that encode glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (glpq) and glycerol-3-phosphate transporte ...200312562805
analysis of the ability of spirochete species associated with relapsing fever, avian borreliosis, and epizootic bovine abortion to bind factor h and cleave c3b.some borrelia species associated with lyme disease bind the complement-regulatory protein factor h (fh), a process that may aid in immune evasion. in this report we demonstrate that some borrelia species associated with relapsing fever bind fh, but not those associated with avian borreliosis and epizootic bovine abortion. cell-bound fh was also found to mediate cleavage of exogenously supplied human c3b, demonstrating the biological relevance of fh binding and its possible importance in the path ...200312904415
evaluation of groel gene analysis for identification of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.the nucleotide sequences of the groel genes, the flagellin genes, and the 16s rrna genes from 22 reference strains of borrelia were compared. groel sequence analysis is useful not only in interspecies differentiation but also in intraspecies differentiation of borrelia afzelii and borrelia garinii isolates.200415004091
molecular identification of a novel deltaproteobacterium as the etiologic agent of epizootic bovine abortion (foothill abortion).epizootic bovine abortion (eba) is endemic in california's coastal range and the foothill regions of the sierra nevada, where it has been the primary diagnosed cause of abortion in beef cattle for >50 years. investigation of these losses has defined a specific fetal syndrome characterized by late-term abortion or birth of weak or dead calves. although the unusual clinical presentation and unique fetal pathology associated with eba have been recognized since the 1950s, the identity of the etiolog ...200515695652
variable tick protein in two genomic groups of the relapsing fever spirochete borrelia hermsii in western north america.borrelia hermsii is the primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in north america. when its tick vector, ornithodoros hermsi, acquires these spirochetes from the blood of an infected mammal, the bacteria switch their outer surface from one of many bloodstream variable major proteins (vmps) to a unique protein, vtp (vsp33). vtp may be critical for successful tick transmission of b. hermsii; however, the gene encoding this protein has been described previously in only one isolate. here we ident ...200516177341
an insight into the salivary transcriptome and proteome of the soft tick and vector of epizootic bovine abortion, ornithodoros coriaceus.the salivary glands of blood-sucking arthropods contain a redundant 'magic potion' that counteracts their vertebrate host's hemostasis, inflammation, and immunity. we here describe the salivary transcriptome and proteomics (sialome) of the soft tick ornithodoros coriaceus. the resulting analysis helps to consolidate the classification of common proteins found in both soft and hard ticks, such as the lipocalins, kunitz, cystatin, basic tail, hebraein, defensin, til domain, metalloprotease, 5'-nuc ...200818725333
rrp1, a cyclic-di-gmp-producing response regulator, is an important regulator of borrelia burgdorferi core cellular functions.two-component systems (tcs) are universal among bacteria and play critical roles in gene regulation. our understanding of the contributions of tcs in the biology of the borrelia is just now beginning to develop. borrelia burgdorferi, a causative agent of lyme disease, harbours a tcs comprised of open reading frames (orfs) bb0419 and bb0420. bb0419 encodes a response regulator designated rrp1, and bb0420 encodes a hybrid histidine kinase-response regulator designated hpk1. rrp1, which contains a ...200919210621
identification of the etiologic agent of epizootic bovine abortion in field-collected ornithodoros coriaceus koch ticks.epizootic bovine abortion (eba), or foothill abortion as it has often been termed, is a tick-borne disease of pregnant cattle recognized in california, nevada and oregon. the primary objective of this study was to better define the relationship of a novel deltaproteobacterium, the putative etiological agent of eba (aoeba), with the pajaroello tick (ornithodoros coriaceus koch), the recognized vector of eba. three developmental stages of o. coriaceus (larva, nymph, and adult) were collected from ...200717156944
the geographic distribution of the putative agent of epizootic bovine abortion in the tick vector, ornithodoros coriaceus.epizootic bovine abortion (eba), also known as "foothill abortion", is a vector borne disease of beef cattle that graze in the mountainous regions of california, southern oregon and western nevada transmitted by the argasid tick ornithodoros coriaceus. recently, the putative agent of eba was identified as a novel deltaproteobacter in the order myxococcales. in this study, a taqman real-time pcr (tm-pcr) protocol specific to the putative eba agent was developed. the new real-time tm-pcr assay fun ...200616672178
genetic structure of the tick ornithodoros coriaceus (acari: argasidae) in california, nevada, and oregon.the argasid tick ornithodoros coriaceus (koch) is the only confirmed vector of epizootic bovine abortion (eba) in the united states. the disease and its tick vector have historically been reported in the foothills of the sierra nevada mountains and coast ranges of california. in the past two decades, the range of eba has apparently expanded into southern oregon and northern nevada. possible explanations for this expansion include 1) increased recognition and reporting of eba in these regions; 2) ...200515962771
differences in prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi and anaplasma spp. infection among host-seeking dermacentor occidentalis, ixodes pacificus, and ornithodoros coriaceus ticks in northwestern california.previous studies revealed that the pacific coast tick (dermacentor occidentalis) is infected occasionally with the agents of lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi) or human granulocytic anaplasmosis (anaplasma phagocytophilum) and that it is an inefficient experimental vector of b. burgdorferi. the relationship of the pajahuello tick (ornithodoros coriaceus) to each of these bacterial zoonotic agents has not been reported. the primary bridging vector of both bacterial zoonotic agents to humans is t ...201021359090
a further insight into the sialome of the tropical bont tick, amblyomma variegatum.ticks--vectors of medical and veterinary importance--are themselves also significant pests. tick salivary proteins are the result of adaptation to blood feeding and contain inhibitors of blood clotting, platelet aggregation, and angiogenesis, as well as vasodilators and immunomodulators. a previous analysis of the sialotranscriptome (from the greek sialo, saliva) of amblyomma variegatum is revisited in light of recent advances in tick sialomes and provides a database to perform a proteomic study ...201121362191
experimental transmission of epizootic bovine abortion (foothill abortion).advances in defining the biology of epizootic bovine abortion (eba), including identification of the etiologic agent, have been hampered by the inability to reproduce the disease with confidence. experimental reproduction of eba, by feeding the tick vector ornithodoros coriaceus on susceptible pregnant heifers, is not reliable. the primary objectives of this study were to identify specific tissue(s) obtained from eba-infected fetuses that could transmit the disease, and then utilize such an infe ...200212135635
serodiagnosis of louse-borne relapsing fever with glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (glpq) from borrelia recurrentis.human louse-borne relapsing fever occurs in sporadic outbreaks in central and eastern africa that are characterized by significant morbidity and mortality. isolates of the causative agent, borrelia recurrentis, were obtained from the blood of four patients during a recent epidemic of the disease in southern sudan. the glpq gene, encoding glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase, from these isolates was sequenced and compared with the glpq sequences obtained from other relapsing-fever spirochetes. ...200011015364
An insight into the sialotranscriptome and proteome of the coarse bontlegged tick, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes.Ticks are mites specialized in acquiring blood from vertebrates as their sole source of food and are important disease vectors to humans and animals. Among the specializations required for this peculiar diet, ticks evolved a sophisticated salivary potion that can disarm their host's hemostasis, inflammation, and immune reactions. Previous transcriptome analysis of tick salivary proteins has revealed many new protein families indicative of fast evolution, possibly due to host immune pressure. The ...201121851864
babesiosis.babesiosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted, zoonotic disease caused by hematotropic parasites of the genus babesia. babesial parasites (and those of the closely related genus theileria) are some of the most ubiquitous and widespread blood parasites in the world, second only to the trypanosomes, and consequently have considerable worldwide economic, medical, and veterinary impact. the parasites are intraerythrocytic and are commonly called piroplasms due to the pear-shaped forms found within inf ...200010885987
african swine fever virus replication in the midgut epithelium is required for infection of ornithodoros ticks.although the malawi lil20/1 (mal) strain of african swine fever virus (asfv) was isolated from ornithodoros sp. ticks, our attempts to experimentally infect ticks by feeding them this strain failed. ten different collections of ornithodorus porcinus porcinus ticks and one collection of o. porcinus domesticus ticks were orally exposed to a high titer of mal. at 3 weeks postinoculation (p.i.), <25% of the ticks contained detectable virus, with viral titers of <4 log(10) 50% hemadsorbing doses/ml. ...199910482612
cloning and molecular characterization of a multicopy, linear plasmid-carried, repeat motif-containing gene from borrelia turicatae, a causative agent of relapsing fever.borrelia turicatae is one of several spirochete species that can cause relapsing fever. here, we describe the identification and characterization of a gene from b. turicatae and other relapsing-fever spirochetes that exhibits homology with the rep+ and orf-e gene families of the lyme disease spirochetes. this gene, which we have designated repa, encodes a putative protein of 30.2 kda with an isoelectric point of 4.69. the central region of repa harbors a series of amino acid repeat motifs which ...19989733706
detection and quantification of ornithodoros-specific anti-tick antibody by competitive inhibition elisa.the objective of this study was to develop a highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the serological detection of anti-ornithodoros tick antibodies in animals. affinity-purified rabbit anti-ornithodoros igg antibodies were employed in indirect competitive inhibition elisa assays designed to measure the anti-ornithodoros antibody titers in other animal species using the domestic goat (capra hircus) as a large animal model. repeated infestation of goats with ornithodoros cori ...19968627508
co2 flagging - an improved method for the collection of questing ticks.most epidemiological studies on tick-borne pathogens involve collection of ticks from the environment. an efficient collection method is essential for large sample pools. our main aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a new method, where traditional flagging was enhanced by the use of co2 dispersed into the white flannel. the co2 was spread through a rubber hose network inserted into the flag blanket. the research was conducted in spring, in march-april 2011 in two locations from cluj county, roma ...201222720872
preliminary studies on transmission of chlamydia to cattle by ticks (ornithodoros coriaceus).preliminary findings indicate that ornithodoros coriaceus ticks can harbor chlamydia for long periods and are able to transmit the agent to cattle. field-collected o coriaceus ticks, which were infected experimentally with a bovine chlamydial agent from an aborted fetus, transmitted the agent 25 and 48 days later to three pregnant heifers. two of these heifers aborted and the third delivered a term calf. the control heifer also aborted after intradermal (simulated tick) exposure. also, a chlamyd ...19807436080
viral agents recovered from ornithodoros coriaceus, a vector of epizootic bovine abortion.two unidentified viral isolates from the tick, ornithodoros coriaceus, the probable vector of the causative agent of epizootic bovine abortion, did not cause any untoward reactions in pregnant heifers which were experimentally inoculated or which were exposed to bites of o coriaceus that had been infected with cultures of the two isolates. seemingly, neither viral isolate is involved in the cause of epizootic bovine abortion.19807406302
experimental transmission of african swine fever virus by ornithodoros coriaceus, an argasid tick indigenous to the united states.three ticks, indigenous to the united states, were assessed for their ability to maintain and transmit african swine fever virus (asfv). amblyomma americanum and a cajennense adults and nymphs maintained virus for 4 to 7 days after engorging on infected swine blood; however, virus was not carried through the subsequent molt of nymphs and it was not transmitted vertically to the eggs and larvae of the infected females. on refeeding of the ticks, infection was not transmitted to healthy swine. orn ...19807406278
a 24-48 h fed amblyomma americanum tick saliva immuno-proteome.multiple tick saliva proteins, the majority of which are unknown, confer tick resistance in repeatedly infested animals. the objective of this study was to identify the 24-48 h fed amblyomma americanum tick saliva immuno-proteome. the 24-48 h tick-feeding phase is critical to tick parasitism as it precedes important events in tick biology, blood meal feeding and disease agent transmission. fed male, 24 and 96 h fed female phage display cdna expression libraries were biopanned using rabbit antibo ...201424962723
studies on the pathogenesis of epizootic bovine abortion.ornithodoros coriaceus koch ticks were fed on 37 pregnant cows. the fetuses were obtained from the cows at 23 to 126 days after maternal tick exposure. characteristic lesions of epizootic bovine abortion were observed only in those fetuses recovered 100 days more or after maternal tick exposure. fetuses collected between 50 and 100 days showed mild-to-moderate lymphoid and mononuclear cell hyperplasia. reaction in fetuses studied less than 50 days after maternal tick exposure were mild. lesions ...19836410943
identification of 24h ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the united states. this tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (tbd) agents in the usa: borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, b. miyamotoi, babesia microti, and powassan virus disease. except for the powassan virus disease, i. scapularis-vectored tbd agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. this study describes identification of 24h immunogenic i. scapularis tick saliva prote ...201525825233
tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide.the abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors) presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous) developed during long co-evolving processes. ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. they are obligatory hematop ...201527047089
assessment of the geographic distribution of ornithodoros turicata (argasidae): climate variation and host diversity.ornithodoros turicata is a veterinary and medically important argasid tick that is recognized as a vector of the relapsing fever spirochete borrelia turicatae and african swine fever virus. historic collections of o. turicata have been recorded from latin america to the southern united states. however, the geographic distribution of this vector is poorly understood in relation to environmental variables, their hosts, and consequently the pathogens they transmit.201626829327
isolation of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus from the soft-shelled tick, ornithodoros coriaceus.infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus was isolated from the soft-shelled tick (ornithodoros coriaceus). serological identification of the isolated viruses was confirmed by restriction endonuclease digestion of purified virus dna. these isolations indicate that the soft-shelled tick may be a vector for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. this may be the first reported isolation of mammalian herpesvirus from an arthropod vector.19826278596
the salivary secretome of the biting midge, culicoides sonorensis.culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are hematophagous insects with over 1400 species distributed throughout the world. many of these species are of particular agricultural importance as primary vectors of bluetongue and schmallenberg viruses, yet little is known about culicoides genomics and proteomics. detailed studies of members from other blood-feeding dipteran families, including those of mosquito (culicidae) and black fly (simuliidae), have shown that protein components with ...201424949243
platelet aggregation inhibitors from hematophagous animals.salivary glands from blood-sucking animals (e.g., mosquitoes, bugs, sand flies, fleas, ticks, leeches, hookworms, bats) are a rich source of bioactive molecules that counteract hemostasis in a redundant and synergistic manner. this review discusses recent progress in the identification of salivary inhibitors of platelet aggregation, their molecular characterization, and detailed mechanism of action. diversity of inhibitors is remarkable, with distinct families of proteins characterized as apyras ...200920035779
tick-box for 3'-end formation of mitochondrial transcripts in ixodida, basal chelicerates and drosophila.according to the trna punctuation model, the mitochondrial genome (mtdna) of mammals and arthropods is transcribed as large polycistronic precursors that are maturated by endonucleolytic cleavage at trna borders and rna polyadenylation. starting from the newly sequenced mtdna of ixodes ricinus and using a combination of mitogenomics and transcriptional analyses, we found that in all currently-sequenced tick lineages (prostriata, metastriata and argasidae) the 3'-end of the polyadenylated nad1 an ...201223077630
the sialotranscriptome of antricola delacruzi female ticks is compatible with non-hematophagous behavior and an alternative source of food.the hosts for antricola delacruzi ticks are insectivorous, cave-dwelling bats on which only larvae are found. the mouthparts of nymphal and adult a. delacruzi are compatible with scavenging feeding because the hypostome is small and toothless. how a single blood meal of a larva provides energy for several molts as well as for oviposition by females is not known. adults of a. delacruzi possibly feed upon an unknown food source in bat guano, a substrate on which nymphal and adult stages are always ...201222306723
the pajaroello tick bite. the frightening folklore and the mild disease.the pajaroella tick (ornithodoros coriaceus) has a fairly wide distribution in the coastal and mountainous areas of california and mexico. persons engaged in outdoor activities there, are frequently bitten. little is written in the medical literature concerning the tick and its bite. what has been written is liberally injected with frightening folklore that sometimes results in overzealous treatment. conservative and supportive therapy is advisable and only rarely should one have to resort to su ...19724639841
borrelia coriaceae in its tick vector, ornithodoros coriaceus (acari: argasidae), with emphasis on transstadial and transovarial infection. 19883392712
a hemolymph test for the detection of african swine fever virus in ornithodoros coriaceus (acari: argasidae). 19873295242
ornithodoros coriaceus (pajaroello tick) as a vector of bluetongue virus.preliminary studies demonstrated that the argasid tick, ornithodoros coriaceus koch, could become infected with bluetongue virus (btv). ticks became infected after feeding through artificial membranes on btv-infected suspensions of cell cultures, chicken embryos, and sheep blood. ticks also became infected after natural feeding on viremic sheep (btv serotype 17) and cattle (btv serotype 11). virus was recovered from the hemolymph and salivary glands of ticks which had ingested btv either through ...19852988383
a mouse lethal dose assay for detection and titration of cowdria ruminantium (kwanyanga strain) in goats and ticks.a mouse lethal dose assay was used to detect a mouse pathogenic strain (kwanyanga) of cowdria ruminantium, the etiological agent of heartwater in goats and ticks. the titer of the rickettsial organisms in goat blood was directly related to the febrile response of the goat and the rickettsia were undetectable after the fever subsided. the maximum rickettsial titer in goat blood was 10(3) mouse ld50 ml-1. cowdria-infected goat blood was shown to retain infectivity when held on ice for up to 2 h, b ...19892705290
surface markers on bovine fetal lymphocytes and immunoglobulin synthesis in a congenital infection related to epizootic bovine abortion.immunological parameters were studied among 23 late-term bovine fetuses. epizootic bovine abortion (eba) disease was induced in fetuses by feeding ornithodoros coriaceus ticks on pregnant heifers. a spirochaete-like microorganism was detected in the blood of diseased fetuses and in inapparent natural infections in some abattoir-collected fetuses. fetuses were classified according to stages of disease: eba diseased (n = 10), eba infected (n = 7) and normal (n = 6). using flow cytometry, the prese ...19911780574
experimental and epizootiologic evidence associating ornithodoros coriaceus koch (acari: argasidae) with the exposure of cattle to epizootic bovine abortion in california. 19761011232
preliminary characterization and pathogenicity studies of a virus isolated from ticks (ornithodoros coriaceus) and from tick-exposed cattle.several viral isolates from ticks (ornithodoros coriaceus) and from the blood of cattle which aborted after exposure to these ticks were found to be identical by reciprocal cross serum-neutralization tests. characterization studies indicate that the virus is a member of the togaviridae family, although specific identification is still incomplete. whether its natural host is the tick or bovine animals is also unknown. pregnant cows inoculated with the agent by all conventional parenteral routes, ...1976984547
dry-ice (co2) trap for efficient field collection of ornithodoros coriaceus (acarina: argasidae). 1977845909
preparation of primary cultures of tick cells.primary cell cultures were prepared from preimaginal bodies from the nymphal ticks, rhipicephalus sanguineus, dermacentor andersoni, and amblyomma maculatum, and from the hemocytes of late-stage nymphal and adult ticks, ornithodoros coriaceus. the dissection methods for obtaining preimaginal bodies and hemocytes for culture are described. a culture mediu, designated rml 375, was used for both culture methods. primary cultures were established with minimal contamination. preimaginal body cultures ...1978697169
cell lines from the soft tick ornithodoros moubata.primary cell cultures (n = 16) were initiated from tissues of embryonic and neonatal larval ornithodoros moubata following methods developed for hard ticks. after maintenance for 20-25 months in vitro, cell multiplication commenced in surviving cultures, leading to the establishment of six cell lines designated ome/ctvm21, 22, 24, 25, 26 and 27. all lines are maintained at 28 degrees c, with subculture at 2-8 week intervals. the cultures comprise heterogeneous populations of large cells of 15-10 ...200919252822
effect of prescribed fire for tick control in california chaparral.prescribed fire was investigated as a method for controlling ixodid and argasid ticks in chaparral habitats in northern california. two experimental and two adjacent control plots within a wildlife preserve were monitored for 1 yr postburn. ticks were collected by flagging vegetation, by co2-baited pitfall trap, and by live-trapping rodents. twice as many rodents were caught at control sites compared with burn sites and no dusky-footed woodrats, neotoma fuscipes baird, were found in the treatmen ...200919769046
potential role of ticks as vectors of bluetongue virus.when the first outbreak of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (btv8) was recorded in north-west europe in august 2006 and renewed outbreaks occurred in the summer of 2007 and again in 2008, the question was raised how the virus survived the winter. since most adult culicoides vector midges are assumed not to survive the northern european winter, and transovarial transmission in culicoides is not recorded, we examined the potential vector role of ixodid and argasid ticks for bluetongue virus. four speci ...201020358393
co-infection of ornithodoros coriaceus with the relapsing fever spirochete, borrelia coriaceae, and the agent of epizootic bovine abortion.the soft tick, ornithodoros coriaceus (koch) (acari: argasidae), is a common mammalian parasite of livestock in many arid regions of the western u.s.a. the tick is a known vector of the undescribed bacterial pathogen that causes epizootic bovine abortion (eba), which results in late-term abortions in beef cattle and subsequent economic loss, which can be considerable, to producers. a second reported bacterial pathogen, borrelia coriaceae, a member of the relapsing fever complex, has also been id ...201121410735
detection of relapsing fever spirochetes (borrelia hermsii and borrelia coriaceae) in free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) from nevada, united states.abstract surveillance of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus, rafinesque, 1917) populations for tick-borne diseases has helped define the distribution of these pathogens and their subsequent risk of transmission to humans and domestic animals. we surveyed three mule deer herds across the state of nevada for infection with relapsing fever borrelia spp. spirochetes. bacterial prevalence varied by the county where deer were sampled but borrelia spirochetes were detected in 7.7% of all deer sampled. in ...201121995265
lysophosphatidylcholine: a novel modulator of trypanosoma cruzi transmission.lysophosphatidylcholine is a bioactive lipid that regulates a large number of cellular processes and is especially present during the deposition and infiltration of inflammatory cells and deposition of atheromatous plaque. such molecule is also present in saliva and feces of the hematophagous organism rhodnius prolixus, a triatominae bug vector of chagas disease. we have recently demonstrated that lpc is a modulator of trypanosoma cruzi transmission. it acts as a powerful chemoattractant for inf ...201222132309
evolution, expansion and expression of the kunitz/bpti gene family associated with long-term blood feeding in ixodes scapularis.abstract: background: recent studies of the tick saliva transcriptome have revealed the profound role of salivary proteins in blood feeding. kunitz/bpti proteins are abundant in the salivary glands of ticks and perform multiple functions in blood feeding, such as inhibiting blood coagulation, regulating host blood supply and disrupting host angiogenesis. however, kunitz/bpti proteins in soft and hard ticks have different functions and molecular mechanisms. how these differences emerged and whet ...201222244187
bioinformatics and expression analyses of the ixodes scapularis tick cystatin family.the cystatins are inhibitors of papain- and legumain-like cysteine proteinases, classified in merops subfamilies i25a-i25c. this study shows that 84 % (42/50) of tick cystatins are putatively extracellular in subfamily i25b and the rest are putatively intracellular in subfamily i25a. on the neighbor joining phylogeny guide tree, subfamily i25a members cluster together, while subfamily i25b cystatins segregate among prostriata or metastriata ticks. two ixodes scapularis cystatins, aay66864 and is ...201223053911
tick salivary secretion as a source of antihemostatics.ticks are mostly obligatory blood feeding ectoparasites that have an impact on human and animal health. in addition to direct damage due to feeding, some tick species serve as the vectors for the causative agents of several diseases, such as the spirochetes of the genus borrelia causing lyme disease, the virus of tick-borne encephalitis, various rickettsial pathogens or even protozoan parasites like babesia spp. hard ticks are unique among bloodfeeders because of their prolonged feeding period t ...201222564820
the role of cystatins in tick physiology and blood feeding.ticks, as obligate hematophagous ectoparasites, impact greatly on animal and human health because they transmit various pathogens worldwide. over the last decade, several cystatins from different hard and soft ticks were identified and biochemically analyzed for their role in the physiology and blood feeding lifestyle of ticks. all these cystatins are potent inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteases, but not of legumain. tick cystatins were either detected in the salivary glands and/or the mi ...201222647711
factor xa activation of factor v is of paramount importance in initiating the coagulation system: lessons from a tick salivary protein.generation of active procoagulant cofactor factor va (fva) and its subsequent association with the enzyme activated factor x (fxa) to form the prothrombinase complex is a pivotal initial event in blood coagulation and has been the subject of investigative effort, speculation, and controversy. the current paradigm assumes that fv activation is initiated by limited proteolysis by traces of (meizo) thrombin.201323817575
detection of borreliae in archived sera from patients with clinically suspect lyme disease.the diagnoses of lyme disease based on clinical manifestations, serological findings and detection of infectious agents often contradict each other. we tested 52 blind-coded serum samples, including 20 pre-treatment and 12 post-treatment sera from clinically suspect lyme disease patients, for the presence of residual lyme disease infectious agents, using nested pcr amplification of a signature segment of the borrelial 16s ribosomal rna gene for detection and direct dna sequencing of the pcr ampl ...201424619223
brucellosis seroprevalence in bali cattle with reproductive failure in south sulawesi and brucella abortus biovar 1 genotypes in the eastern indonesian archipelago.brucellosis is a major cause of infertility and reproductive failure in livestock. while cattle in the eastern indonesian archipelago suffers from reproductive problems information on bovine brucellosis in the region is fragmentary. the control of brucellosis requires a major and prolonged effort and confirmation of the infection by isolation with detailed knowledge of the spread of the infection is essential when planning a control program.201324279343
disintegrins from hematophagous sources.bloodsucking arthropods are a rich source of salivary molecules (sialogenins) which inhibit platelet aggregation, neutrophil function and angiogenesis. here we review the literature on salivary disintegrins and their targets. disintegrins were first discovered in snake venoms, and were instrumental in our understanding of integrin function and also for the development of anti-thrombotic drugs. in hematophagous animals, most disintegrins described so far have been discovered in the salivary gland ...201222778902
the intracellular bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum selectively manipulates the levels of vertebrate host proteins in the tick vector ixodes scapularis.the intracellular bacteria anaplasma phagocytophilum are emerging zoonotic pathogens affecting human and animal health, and a good model for the study of tick-host-pathogen interactions. this tick-borne pathogen is transmitted by ixodes scapularis in the united states where it causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. tick midguts and salivary glands play a major role during tick feeding and development, and in pathogen acquisition, multiplication and transmission. vertebrate host proteins are fou ...201627561965
whole genome analysis of sierra nevada virus, a novel mononegavirus in the family nyamiviridae.a novel mononegavirus was isolated in 1975 from ticks (ornithodoros coriaceus) collected during investigation of an outbreak of epizootic bovine abortion (eba) in northern california. it was originally designated "bovine abortion-tick virus" (ba-t virus). the eba is now known to be associated with a deltaproteobacterium infection, and not a virus. the ba-t virus had remained uncharacterized until now. we have determined by electron microscopy, serology, and genome sequencing that the ba-t virus ...201424778199
permanent genetic resources: identification and characterization of 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the argasid tick ornithodoros coriaceus.fourteen polymorphic microsatellite loci (di, tetra and di-tetra complexes) were developed for the argasid tick ornithodoros coriaceus. polymorphism was assessed for 56 individuals from two populations separated by ~95 km. all loci were polymorphic (x = 7, range 3-17 alleles). all loci were in hardy-weinberg equilibrium except for one locus (orc 8) in a single population (p < 0.00119, after bonferroni correction for multiple tests).200821585817
genome report: identification and validation of antigenic proteins from pajaroellobacter abortibovis using de novo genome sequence assembly and reverse vaccinology.epizootic bovine abortion (eba), or "foothill abortion," is the leading cause of beef cattle abortion in california and has also been reported in nevada and oregon. in the 1970s, the soft-shelled tick ornithodoros coriaceus, or "pajaroello tick," was confirmed as the disease-transmitting vector. in 2005, a novel deltaproteobacterium was discovered as the etiologic agent of eba (aoeba), recently named pajaroellobacter abortibovis this organism cannot be grown in culture using traditional microbio ...201728040777
quantitative duplex taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction for the assessment of the etiologic agent of epizootic bovine abortion.epizootic bovine abortion (eba), also commonly known as "foothill abortion," is a late-term abortion primarily in beef cattle with significant economic impacts in california, nevada, and oregon. the causative agent is a novel deltaproteobacterium (aoeba) closely related to the order myxococcales and vectored by the soft-shelled tick ornithodoros coriaceus. historically, diagnosis has relied upon the pathologic examination of the fetus and the presence of elevated fetal serum immunoglobulins. ide ...201122362796
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