avian malaria in african black-footed penguins.ten captive-reared african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) from a large outdoor colony were monitored for avian malaria, using several diagnostic tests. one treatment regimen was evaluated. thin smear blood evaluation enabled detection of seven parasitemias involving plasmodium relictum and plasmodium elongatum in the penguins. leukocytosis (relative lymphocytosis) was characteristic of infected birds. parasitemia was detected as early as 21 days prior to onset of clinical signs (dep ...1979521378
herpesvirus-like infection in black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus).a herpesvirus-like infection is described in the black-footed penguin (spheniscus demersus). clinically, the infection was characterized by debilitation and respiratory distress. histopathological lesions were confined to the respiratory tract and consisted of inflammation and syncytial cell formation with type a intranuclear inclusions in sinuses, trachea, and mainstem bronchi. electron microscopy demonstrated polyhedral viral particles 80-140 nm in size consistent with herpetoviridae. the lesi ...19882832625
diel rhythms of tick parasitism on incubating african penguins.1. ticks (ornithodoros capensis neumann) were most abundant on incubating host african penguins (spheniscus demersus linnaeus) at 24.00 hours and least abundant during 09.00-12.00 hours during 4 day periods in may and october at 3 h intervals. 2. ticks were three times as abundant in may, the start of the breeding season, as in october, at its end. 3. air temperature and humidity appear less important than light levels in determining tick activity. 4. the degree of tick parasitism of breeding se ...19872979515
malaria (plasmodium elongatum) in captive african penguins (spheniscus demersus). 19685692933
avian malaria seroprevalence in jackass penguins (spheniscus demersus) in south africa.blood samples of 191 adult jackass penguins (spheniscus demersus) from south africa were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) with plasmodium falciparum antigen (r32tet32) for avian malaria antibodies (ab). the samples originated from free-ranging penguins from offshore islands and southern coast colonies (3 groups, n = 110), from 2 penguin groups (n = 66) rescued after offshore oil-spill contamination and rehabilitated at the rescue station of the south african national ...19957472859
maternal antibodies against plasmodium spp. in african black-footed penguin (spheniscus demersus) chicks.anti-plasmodium spp. antibody titers of mating pairs of adult, captive-reared, african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) and their chicks were determined using the enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (elisa). two plasmodium falciparum antigens were used for the elisa: r32tet32 (sporozoite antigen), and crude red blood cell extract (crbce). eighteen chicks were bled weekly for ten weeks starting with their day of hatching. the yolk sacs of two penguin eggs were biopsed for elisa-detectabl ...19947933279
subclinical avian malaria infections in african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) and induction of parasite recrudescence.the subclinical and clinical plasmodium elongatum and plasmodium relictum infections of captive-reared african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) were evaluated in nine adult and 29 juvenile penguins in the baltimore zoo (maryland, usa) during summer 1988 and winter 1989. two diagnostic methods were used: giemsa-stained thin blood films, and subinoculation of penguin blood into 1-day-old peking ducklings. chloroquine and primaquine treatment was applied to all parasitemic juvenile pengu ...19947933280
hematologic characteristics of avian malaria cases in african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) during the first outdoor exposure season.twenty-nine juvenile, captive-reared african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) were hematologically monitored every 2 wk over the period of 24 wk during their first outdoor exposure. blood samples taken from the penguins were screened for 12 blood evaluation parameters. parasitemic penguins were medically treated. eighteen birds (62.1%) experienced naturally acquired malaria and 11 birds (37.9%) remained nonparasitemic. a total of 32 avian malaria episodes were noted; 25 (78.1%) were i ...19948158474
an elisa for detecting anti-plasmodium spp. antibodies in african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus).an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) utilizing 3 plasmodium falciparum antigens, r32tet32, p.f.r27, and crude red blood cell extract, was developed for the detection of circulating anti-plasmodium relictum or anti-plasmodium elongatum antibodies in sera from naturally infected adult african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) at the baltimore zoo, maryland. a concentration of 2.0 micrograms/ml of each antigen was optimal in terms of specificity, sensitivity, and test speed. it wa ...19948308660
aspergillus spp. seropositivity in new zealand hundred-fifty yellow-eyed penguins (megadyptes antipodes) of 8 populations, 20 little blue penguins (eudyptula minor) of 2 populations, 9 rockhopper penguins (eudyptes chrysocome), and 5 adelie penguins (pygoscelis adeliae) from new zealand (nz) and antarctica (latitude range; 39 degrees 30' s - 77 degrees 13' s) were tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) for fungal aspergillus spp. igg. one hundred-ten of 184 (60%) penguins were seropositive, and seroprevalence was r ...19958587585
maternal transfer of anti-aspergillus spp. immunoglobulins in african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus).anti-aspergillus spp. antibody (ab) levels of seven mating pairs of captive african penguins (spheniscus demersus) and the maternal ab levels of their embryonated and unembryonated eggs were determined by elisa. the egg ab levels were significantly higher than the ab levels of their female or male parents. maternal ab of unembryonated eggs and ab of the embryos were significantly correlated with the ab levels of their female parents. because eggs can be sampled where adult penguins are not acces ...19958592389
parasite diversity in an endemic region for avian malaria and identification of a parasite causing penguin mortality.understanding the population structure of plasmodium parasites is essential for malaria intervention. a survey of parasites in vectors and host infections was conducted in an area of intense mortality due to malaria in a captive penguin (spheniscus demersus) colony, using a novel method for identification of plasmodium species by amplification of ribosomal sequences in dna or rna. three phylogenetically distinct groups of avian plasmodium were detected in mosquitoes (culex) collected at the stud ...19968822810
a model for the prediction of relative titres of avian malaria and aspergillus spp. igg in jackass penguin (spheniscus demersus) females based on maternal igg in egg-yolk.a model for the prediction of igg titres in females of the jackass penguin (spheniscus demersus) was developed, based on igg which was maternally transmitted to the yolk of unembryonated eggs produced by these females. however, prediction of the female titre based on the titre of embryonated eggs may be inadequate. blood samples from 10 s. demersus females and their corresponding embryonated (n = 10) and unembryonated (n = 49) eggs were analysed by indirect elisa for avian malaria (plasmodium re ...19968894766
evidence for incomplete replication of a penguin poxvirus in cells of mammalian origin.the recent discovery of a novel poxvirus [penguin-pox virus (ppv)] from jackass penguins offers the potential of a unique candidate vaccine vector for use in mammals. infectivity studies were therefore undertaken using a number of mammalian cell lines and chick embryo fibroblasts (cef). it was shown that the simian cv-1 cell line was able to support replication of the ppv dna, but no infectious progeny virus could be recovered from the infected cells. electron microscopy was used to establish th ...19989680125
[infections with plasmodium praecox in spheniscus humboldti and spheniscus demersus]. 196314112882
plasmodium juxtanucleare associated with mortality in black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) admitted to a rehabilitation center.five black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) admitted to the southern african foundation for the conservation of coastal birds, in cape town, south africa, died from malaria infection. evidence for malaria as the cause of death included antemortem clinical signs, parasitemia, splenomegaly, pulmonary edema, and the presence of histologically visible schizonts in the reticuloendothelial system. a portion of the malarial small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene was detected by polymerase c ...200314582786
preliminary results of an anticircumsporozoite dna vaccine trial for protection against avian malaria in captive african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus).captive juvenile african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) housed in an outdoor enclosure at the baltimore zoo have an average 50% mortality from avian malarial (plasmodium sp.) infection each year without intense monitoring for disease and chemotherapeutic intervention. during the 1996 malaria transmission season, the safety and efficacy of an anti-circumsporozoite (csp) dna vaccine encoding the plasmodium gallinaceum csp protein against p. relictum were studied. the goal was to reduc ...200415305509
isolation and characterization of mycoplasma sphenisci sp. nov. from the choana of an aquarium-reared jackass penguin (spheniscus demersus).strain ucmj was isolated from the choana of a jackass penguin (spheniscus demersus) with recurrent mucocaseous choanal discharge. isolation of this mycoplasma expands the known range of species hosting mycoplasmas. the name mycoplasma sphenisci sp. nov. is proposed for this new species, for which strain ucmj is the type strain.200515956436
antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed west nile virus vaccine.west nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the united states since 1999. five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for west nile virus: black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (eudyptula minor), american flamingos (phoenicopterus ruber), chilean flamingos (phoenicopterus chilensis), and attwater's prairie chickens (tympanuchus cupido attwateri). all birds were vaccinated intramusc ...200717679507
septicaemia caused by edwardsiella tarda and plesiomonas shigelloides in captive penguin chicks.three cases of fatal septicaemia due to plesiomonas shigelloides and one due to edwardsiella tarda were diagnosed in newborn penguins from the basle zoo, switzerland from 2003 to 2007. the affected penguins were of two different species (king penguin, aptenodytes patagonicus, and african penguin, spheniscus demersus) and between 2 and 10 days old at the time of death. the causative agents, e. tarda and p. shigelloides are ubiquitous bacteria which are reported to be present in the normal intesti ...201121360449
Novel relapsing fever Borrelia detected in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) admitted to two rehabilitation centers in South Africa.The African penguin, Spheniscus demersus, the only penguin species that breeds in Africa, is endangered, and several diseases including avian malaria, babesiosis, and aspergillosis are common in some populations. From 2002 to 2010, spirochetes morphologically consistent with Borrelia were observed on thin blood smears from 115 of 8,343 (1.4%) African penguins admitted to rehabilitation centers in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa. Prevalence rates were significantly hig ...201121870246
disseminated toxoplasmosis in black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus).three 1- to 3-mo-old black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) died within 24 hr of showing central nervous signs such as ataxia. the birds were housed in a baby penguin crèche. at necropsy, peritonitis, pneumonia, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and renomegaly were evident. histologically, the liver, lung, brain, and small intestine contained numerous tachyzoites and a few cysts of toxoplasma. immunohistochemistry identified the protozoal parasites as toxoplasma gondii. ultrastructurally, this wa ...201122312996
discospondylitis caused by staphylococcus aureus in an african black-footed penguin (spheniscus demersus).a 22-year-old female african black-footed penguin (spheniscus demersus), housed indoors with other african and rockhopper penguins, was presented acutely with lethargy, ataxia, and hind limb weakness after a molt. the penguin would assume a hunched position and, when resting, sat on its hocks or lay on its keel. physical and neurologic examination revealed hind limb paraparesis, proprioceptive deficits, and tiptoe walking. results of a complete blood cell count and biochemical analysis revealed ...201223409435
health evaluation of african penguins (<i>spheniscus demersus</i>) in southern africa.the african penguin (spheniscus demersus) is an endangered seabird that breeds along the coast of namibia and south africa, and disease surveillance was identified as a priority for its conservation. aiming for the establishment of baseline data on the presence of potential pathogens in this species, a comprehensive health assessment (blood smear examination, haematology, biochemistry and serology) was conducted on samples obtained from 578 african penguins at 11 breeding colonies and a rehabili ...201627796116
the complete genome sequences of poxviruses isolated from a penguin and a pigeon in south africa and comparison to other sequenced avipoxviruses.two novel avipoxviruses from south africa have been sequenced, one from a feral pigeon (columba livia) (fep2) and the other from an african penguin (spheniscus demersus) (pepv). we present a purpose-designed bioinformatics pipeline for analysis of next generation sequence data of avian poxviruses and compare the different avipoxviruses sequenced to date with specific emphasis on their evolution and gene content.201424919868
intraocular pressure in captive black-footed penguins (spheniscus demevsus) measured by rebound tonometry.intraocular pressure (iop) measurement is a common procedure during eye examinations in birds. differences in the iop between avian species have been reported, which suggests the need to establish species-specific reference ranges. to determine iop values of captive black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus), we obtained iop readings with the use of a rebound tonometer by using two established calibration settings (dog and horse). no difference was seen in the iop between the left and right eye ...201020806659
african penguins (spheniscus demersus) can detect dimethyl sulphide, a prey-related odour.although it is well established that certain procellariiform seabirds use odour cues to find prey, it is not clear whether penguins use olfactory cues to forage. it is commonly assumed that penguins lack a sense of smell, yet they are closely related to procellariiforms and forage on similar types of prey in similar areas to many procellariiforms. such regions are characterized by having high levels of dimethyl sulphide (dms) a scented compound that many marine animals use to locate foraging gro ...200818805811
humoral immune responses of black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) after dna-mediated immunization with a beta-galactosidase reporter gene.humoral immune responses of black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) to dna-mediated immunization with a beta-galactosidase reporter gene expression plasmid were evaluated. six male and 6 female adult penguins received either test plasmid, pcmv-beta, containing the beta-galactosidase gene or control plasmid, pci, lacking a gene for expression. three birds from each group were used previously in a diluent control group and given one injection of sterile saline. all samples were screened for an ...200112790390
characteristics of naturally acquired avian malaria infections in naive juvenile african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus).antibody responses to naturally acquired plasmodium relictum and p. elongatum infections, blood parasitemia, and disease signs were investigated in 23 naive juvenile african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus). anti-plasmodium spp. immunoglobulins were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using p. falciparum antigens. all birds rapidly developed antibody to p. relictum and p. elongatum. five penguins showed detectable parasitemia and signs of the disease. parasitemia was ...19947886030
evaluation of serum chemistry values associated with avian malaria infections in african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus).the value profiles of 5 intracellular enzymes, 15 metabolites (with 2 associated ratios), and 3 electrolytes were monitored over time in 9 captive-reared african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) with different avian malaria clinical status: uninfected, subclinically infected, and clinically infected with fatal outcome. fatal infections were caused by plasmodium relictum. numerous schizonts were visible in the lungs, liver, spleen, and interstitial tissue of the kidneys. the reference ...19957624290
plasma arginine vasotocin and angiotensin ii in the water deprived kelp gull (larus dominicanus), cape gannet (sula capensis) and jackass penguin (spheniscus demersus).1. the basal levels of the osmoregulatory hormones, arginine vasotocin (avt) and angiotensin ii (aii) were measured (by radioimmunoassay) in the plasma of conscious kelp gulls, cape gannets and jackass penguins. 2. the responses of the hormones to similar degrees of hypertonicity and hypovolemia caused by water deprivation have also been determined. 3. dehydration elevated plasma avt and plasma aii in all three species. 4. the avt concentration was increased by 2-4 fold and although in each case ...19882907438
king penguins can detect two odours associated with conspecifics.recent studies on olfaction in penguins have focused on their use of odours while foraging. it has been proposed for some seabirds that an olfactory landscape shaped by odours coming from feeding areas exists. islands and colonies, however, may also contribute to the olfactory landscape and may act as an orienting map. to test sensitivities to a colony scent we studied whether king penguins (aptenodytes patagonicus) could detect the smell of sand, feathers or feces by holding presentations benea ...201526385329
voriconazole toxicity in multiple penguin species.aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in penguins managed under human care. triazole antifungal drugs, including itraconazole, are most commonly used for treatment; however, itraconazole treatment failures from drug resistance are becoming more common, requiring newer treatment options. voriconazole, a newer triazole, is being used more often. until recently, no voriconazole pharmacokinetic studies had been performed in penguins, leading to empiric dosing based on other avian stud ...201526667545
mycobacterium genavense in an african penguin (spheniscus demersus).a 19-yr-old female african penguin (spheniscus demersus) presented with labored breathing and anorexia. radiographs revealed soft-tissue density lesions in the left lung fields and fluid in the right. the penguin died during the night. postmortem examination demonstrated multiple granulomas in the lungs and air sacs. the right coelom was filled with opaque fluid. histopathology of the lung, liver, kidney, and spleen identified mycobacterium as a primary disease etiology. large numbers of acid fa ...201526667564
newcastle disease virus in little owls (athene noctua) and african penguins (spheniscus demersus) in an israeli zoo.newcastle disease is a contagious and often fatal disease, capable of affecting all species of birds. a velogenic newcastle disease virus (vndv) outbreak occurred in an israeli zoo, in which little owls (athene noctua) and african penguins (spheniscus demersus) were found positive for presence of ndv. some of them have died. the diagnostic process included: post-mortem examination, histopathology, real-time rt-pcr assay, virus isolation, serology, intracerebral pathogenicity index and phylogenet ...201423406442
surgical removal of a ventricular foreign body in a captive african black-footed penguin ( spheniscus demersus ).anterior gastrointestinal tract obstruction by a foreign body has been reported in several avian species, most commonly in captive birds. it is often associated with behavioral issues that lead to compulsive consumption of bedding materials or bright moving objects. in penguins, foreign bodies are most commonly identified at necropsy and often are found in the ventriculus because of anatomic characteristics of the species. a captive african black-footed penguin ( spheniscus demersus ) was diagno ...201627088744
chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in african penguin eggs: 30 years since the previous assessment.the african penguin population has drastically declined over the last 100 years. changes in food availability due to over-fishing and other oceanographic changes seem to be major causes. however, it has also been 30 years since organic pollutants as a potential factor have been assessed. we analysed penguin eggs collected in 2011 and 2012 from two breeding colonies 640 km apart: robben island near cape town on the atlantic ocean coast, and bird island near port elizabeth on the indian ocean coas ...201525613517
pond use by captive african penguins (spheniscus demersus) in an immersive exhibit adjacent to human bathers.nonhuman animals in zoos are exposed to a continuous human presence, which affects their behaviors and welfare. however, little is known about what role the "visitor effect" has on penguins in captivity. the african penguin (spheniscus demersus) is an endangered species commonly housed in zoos worldwide. the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the abundance of human bathers could reduce the average time spent in the water of a colony of african penguins housed in an exhibit where their pon ...201525402201
reappraisal of the trophic ecology of one of the world's most threatened spheniscids, the african penguin.many species of seabirds, including the only penguin species breeding on the african continent, are threatened with extinction. the world population of the endangered african penguin spheniscus demersus has decreased from more than 1.5 million individuals in the early 1900s to c.a. 23 000 pairs in 2013. determining the trophic interactions of species, especially those of conservation concern, is important when declining numbers are thought to be driven by food limitation. by and large, african p ...201627434061
right heart failure in an african penguin ( spheniscus demersus ).a 19-year-old male african penguin ( spheniscus demersus ) was presented with coelomic distention after a 6-week history of lethargy and decreased appetite. results of radiographs showed loss of coelomic detail, and ultrasound and computed tomography results revealed coelomic fluid and dilated hepatic veins. echocardiography revealed moderate right atrial enlargement. findings were consistent with right-sided cardiac disease. treatment with furosemide initially reduced ascites, but the clinical ...201627736223
artificial eggs: measuring heart rate and effects of disturbance in nesting penguins.a technique for the noninvasive measurement of heart rate in incubating penguins is described and evaluated. the technique uses an artificial egg fitted with an infrared sensor. placing the egg in the nest causes minimal disturbance to the resident penguin; this penguin is then paint-marked so that subsequent measurements may be taken from the unmarked, naive partner once it assumes incubation. heart rate changes are useful indicators of nesting penguins' reactions to events in their environment ...19968873285
body temperatures of free-living african penguins (spheniscus demersus) and bank cormorants (phalacrocorax neglectus).two free-living seabirds (the african penguin spheniscus demersus and the bank cormorant phalacrocorax neglectus) were equipped with stomach temperature-loggers to study body temperature changes during foraging. body temperature in these endotherms was environmentally and activity-dependent and varied in the case of the cormorant by over 5 degrees c. considerations of heat flux show that such flexibility confers considerable energetic advantages: by allowing body temperature to drop when the hea ...19968896365
diversity in the toll-like receptor genes of the african penguin (spheniscus demersus).the african penguin, spheniscus demersus, is listed as endangered by the iucn red list of threatened species due to the drastic reduction in population numbers over the last 20 years. to date, the only studies on immunogenetic variation in penguins have been conducted on the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) genes. it was shown in humans that up to half of the genetic variability in immune responses to pathogens are located in non-mhc genes. toll-like receptors (tlrs) are now increasingly b ...201627760133
the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the african penguin (spheniscus demersus).the complete mitochondrial genome of the african penguin (spheniscus demersus) was sequenced. the molecule was sequenced via next generation sequencing and primer walking. the size of the genome is 17,346 bp in length. comparison with the mitochondrial dna of two other penguin genomes that have so far been reported was conducted namely; little blue penguin (eudyptula minor) and the rockhopper penguin (eudyptes chrysocome). this analysis made it possible to identify common penguin mitochondrial d ...201424157264
morphologic and molecular study of hemoparasites in wild corvids and evidence of sequence identity with plasmodium dna detected in captive black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus).a morphologic and molecular epidemiologic investigation was conducted on a captive african black-footed penguin (spheniscus demersus) colony with a history of plasmodium infections at la palmyre zoo (france). each penguin received 12.5 mg of pyrimethamine twice a week as a prophylaxis every year from april to november. although plasmodium parasites were not detected in blood smears and tissues collected from the penguins, various blood parasites were recorded in blood smears from wild eurasian m ...201425314825
mercury and chlorinated pesticides on the highest level of the food web as exemplified by herring from the southern baltic and african penguins from the zoo.aquatic birds are often used as a health indicator of the marine ecosystem. african penguins living in the zoo make good research material as they form a link between the marine and the terrestrial ecosystem in terms of xenobiotic circulation. tests were performed on whole herring-the food of the penguins-as well as on bird muscle, liver, brain, eggs, feathers and guano in order to determine total mercury, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, isodrin, endosulfan isomers, endosulfan sulfate, methoxychlor, d ...201323687395
flame retardants at the top of a simulated baltic marine food web--a case study concerning african penguins from the gdansk zoo.the present study estimated hexabromocyclododecane (hbcd) as a sum of three main isomers (α, β, and γ) and tetrabromobisphenol a (tbbpa) in african penguins (spheniscus demersus) from gdansk zoo and in their sole food, baltic herring (clupea harengus), from gdansk bay. the average concentration of hbcd in whole herring was 22.0 ± 9.9 ng/g lw, whereas tbbpa was approximately 10-fold lower (2.3 ± 1.3 ng/g lw). brominated flame retardants (bfrs) were also found in muscle and liver of herring. the e ...201525224990
a comparison of auditory brainstem responses across diving bird species.there is little biological data available for diving birds because many live in hard-to-study, remote habitats. only one species of diving bird, the black-footed penguin (spheniscus demersus), has been studied in respect to auditory capabilities (wever et al., proc natl acad sci usa 63:676-680, 1969). we, therefore, measured in-air auditory threshold in ten species of diving birds, using the auditory brainstem response (abr). the average audiogram obtained for each species followed the u-shape t ...201526156644
assessment of microsatellite and snp markers for parentage assignment in ex situ african penguin (spheniscus demersus) populations.captive management of ex situ populations of endangered species is traditionally based on pedigree information derived from studbook data. however, molecular methods could provide a powerful set of complementary tools to verify studbook records and also contribute to improving the understanding of the genetic status of captive populations. here, we compare the utility of single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) and microsatellites (ms) and two analytical methods for assigning parentage in ten fami ...201526819703
non-invasive monitoring of adrenocortical activity in captive african penguin (spheniscus demersus) by measuring faecal glucocorticoid metabolites.measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fgms) has become a useful and widely-accepted method for the non-invasive evaluation of stress in vertebrates. in this study we assessed the adrenocortical activity of five captive african penguins (spheniscus demersus) by means of fgm evaluation following a biological stressor, i.e. capture and immobilization. in addition, we detected individual differences in secretion of fgms during a stage of the normal biological cycle of penguins, namely th ...201526141147
establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult african penguins (spheniscus demersus).there are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of african penguins (spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult african penguins. samples were collected from the breeding range of the african penguin in south africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. the haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit ...201526016391
valvular dysplasia and congestive heart failure in a juvenile african penguin (spheniscus demersus).abstract: an aquarium-housed, 6-mo-old african penguin (spheniscus demersus) presented with acute respiratory distress. auscultation revealed a grade ii-iii systolic murmur in the absence of adventitial sounds, and an enlarged heart without pulmonary edema was seen radiographically. echocardiographic evaluation revealed atrioventricular (av) valvular dysplasia and ventricular enlargement. the penguin was treated with enalapril, furosemide, and pimobendan but died within 3 wk of detection of the ...201425632699
establishment of baseline haematology and biochemistry parameters in wild adult african penguins (<i>spheniscus demersus</i>).there are few publications on the clinical haematology and biochemistry of african penguins (spheniscus demersus) and these are based on captive populations. baseline haematology and serum biochemistry parameters were analysed from 108 blood samples from wild, adult african penguins. samples were collected from the breeding range of the african penguin in south africa and the results were compared between breeding region and sex. the haematological parameters that were measured were: haematocrit ...201528235291
effect of weather conditions and presence of visitors on adrenocortical activity in captive african penguins (spheniscus demersus).a number of potential stressors are present in captive environments and it is critically important to identify them in order to improve health and welfare in ex situ animal populations. in this study, we investigated the adrenocortical activity of a colony of african penguins hosted in an immersive zoo in italy, with respect to the presence of visitors and local microclimatic conditions, using the non-invasive method of assessing faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fgms). the penguins' exhibit is ...201726673870
vocal individuality cues in the african penguin (spheniscus demersus): a source-filter theory approach.the african penguin is a nesting seabird endemic to southern africa. in penguins of the genus spheniscus vocalisations are important for social recognition. however, it is not clear which acoustic features of calls can encode individual identity information. we recorded contact calls and ecstatic display songs of 12 adult birds from a captive colony. for each vocalisation, we measured 31 spectral and temporal acoustic parameters related to both source and filter components of calls. for each par ...201526602001
sex- and age-related variation in metal content of penguin feathers.the presence of xenobiotics, such as metals, in ecosystems is concerning due to their durability and they pose a threat to the health and life of organisms. moreover, mercury can biomagnify in many marine food chains and, therefore, organisms at higher trophic levels can be adversely impacted. although feathers have been used extensively as a bio-monitoring tool, only a few studies have addressed the effect of both age and sex on metal accumulation. in this study, the concentrations of trace ele ...201626597735
herpesvirus-like respiratory infection in african penguins spheniscus demersus admitted to a rehabilitation centre.rehabilitation is an important strategy for the conservation of the endangered african penguin spheniscus demersus, and disease has been raised as a concern in the management of the species, both in the wild and in rehabilitation centres. we report 8 cases of herpesvirus-like respiratory infection in african penguin chicks undergoing rehabilitation between 2010 and 2013 at a facility in cape town, south africa. infection was confirmed through the identification of viral inclusions in the trachea ...201526480918
bottom-up effects of a no-take zone on endangered penguin demographics.marine no-take zones can have positive impacts for target species and are increasingly important management tools. however, whether they indirectly benefit higher order predators remains unclear. the endangered african penguin (spheniscus demersus) depends on commercially exploited forage fish. we examined how chick survival responded to an experimental 3-year fishery closure around robben island, south africa, controlling for variation in prey biomass and fishery catches. chick survival increas ...201526156127
schistosomes in south african penguins.during the years 2009-2012, faeces of african penguins (spheniscus demersus l.) from south african rehabilitation centres were examined for helminths. in total, 46 out 555 samples (8.29 %), mostly belonging to adult birds, were found to contain oval schistosome eggs with a spine on one pole. their dimensions were 153.21 ± 9.07 × 87.14 ± 8.67 μm. selected dna fragments (18s, 28s and its rdna) were sequenced and compared to other schistosome isolates deposited in genbank. the shape of the eggs sug ...201525339513
hearing in the blackfooted penguin, spheniscus demersus, as represented by the cochlear potentials.a study of the hearing of the penguin spheniscus demersus, in terms of the cochlear potentials, showed sensitivity over a range at least of 100 to 15,000 hz, with the best sensitivity in the region of 600 to 4000 hz. the form of the sensitivity function is consistent with the vocalizations of these animals. in general, this species of penguin shows good agreement with other birds in both the form and range of auditory sensitivity.19695259756
hand-rearing, release and survival of african penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents.the african penguin spheniscus demersus has an 'endangered' conservation status and a decreasing population. following abandonment, 841 african penguin chicks in 2006 and 481 in 2007 were admitted to sanccob (southern african foundation for the conservation of coastal birds) for hand-rearing from colonies in the western cape, south africa, after large numbers of breeding adults commenced moult with chicks still in the nest. of those admitted, 91% and 73% respectively were released into the wild. ...201425337698
the vocal repertoire of the african penguin (spheniscus demersus): structure and function of calls.the african penguin (spheniscus demersus) is a highly social and vocal seabird. however, currently available descriptions of the vocal repertoire of african penguin are mostly limited to basic descriptions of calls. here we provide, for the first time, a detailed description of the vocal behaviour of this species by collecting audio and video recordings from a large captive colony. we combine visual examinations of spectrograms with spectral and temporal acoustic analyses to determine vocal cate ...201425076136
a novel alphaherpesvirus associated with fatal diseases in banded penguins.a novel avian alphaherpesvirus, preliminarily designated sphenicid alphaherpesvirus 1 (spahv-1), has been independently isolated from juvenile humboldt and african penguins (spheniscus humboldti and spheniscus demersus) kept in german zoos suffering from diphtheroid oropharyngitis/laryngotracheitis and necrotizing enteritis (collectively designated as penguin-diphtheria-like disease). high-throughput sequencing was used to determine the complete genome sequences of the first two spahv-1 isolates ...201728036249
metapopulation tracking juvenile penguins reveals an ecosystem-wide ecological trap.climate change and fisheries are transforming the oceans, but we lack a complete understanding of their ecological impact [1-3]. environmental degradation can cause maladaptive habitat selection, inducing ecological traps with profound consequences for biodiversity [4-6]. however, whether ecological traps operate in marine systems is unclear [7]. large marine vertebrates may be vulnerable to ecological traps [6], but their broad-scale movements and complex life histories obscure the population-l ...201728190725
african penguins follow the gaze direction of conspecifics.gaze following is widespread among animals. however, the corresponding ultimate functions may vary substantially. thus, it is important to study previously understudied (or less studied) species to develop a better understanding of the ecological contexts that foster certain cognitive traits. penguins (family spheniscidae), despite their wide interspecies ecological variation, have previously not been considered for cross-species comparisons. penguin behaviour and communication have been investi ...201728626619
pharmacokinetics of orally administered voriconazole in african penguins (spheniscus demersus) after single and multiple doses.aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in african penguins ( spheniscus demersus ) under managed care, and treatment failures with itraconazole due to drug resistance are increasingly common, leading to recent use of voriconazole. empirical dosing with voriconazole based on other avian studies has resulted in adverse clinical drug effects in penguins. the objective of this study was to determine oral voriconazole pharmacokinetics (pk) in african penguins (n = 18). single and once d ...201728749255
cloacolithiasis and intestinal lymphosarcoma in an african black-footed penguin (spheniscus demersus).a 13-yr-old male african black-footed penguin (spheniscus demersus) presented thrice over 7 mo with gastrointestinal obstruction secondary to cloacolithiasis. clinical signs consistently resolved with cloacolith removal and supportive care. however, 10 mo after initial presentation, it presented with similar signs, plus significant weight loss. no cloacolith was found, and it subsequently died. significant gross findings included bilateral cecal masses, colonic perforation, and marked secondary ...201425000718
pharmacokinetics of tramadol and its primary metabolite o-desmethyltramadol in african penguins (spheniscus demersus).analgesia is an important part of veterinary medicine, but until recently there have been limited studies on analgesic drugs in avian species. tramadol represents an orally administered opioid drug that has shown analgesic potential in numerous species, including mammals, birds, and reptiles. the objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of tramadol and its primary metabolite, o-desmethyltramadol (m1), after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride (hcl) in afr ...201424712167
the collection and database of birds of angola hosted at iict (instituto de investigação científica tropical), lisboa, portugal.the bird collection of the instituto de investigação cientítica tropical (lisbon, portugal) holds 5598 preserved specimens (skins), mainly from angola, mozambique, guinea-bissau, são tomé and principe, and cape verde. the subset collection from angola includes 1560 specimens, which were taxonomically revised and georeferenced for the publication of this data paper. the collection contains a total of 522 taxa, including 161 species and 361 subspecies. two species are classified by the iucn red li ...201424693221
molt-associated changes in hematologic and plasma biochemical values and stress hormone levels in african penguins (spheniscus demersus).handling, including blood collection, has often been discouraged in molting penguins because it is considered an additional stress imposed on birds already experiencing major physiologic stress associated with molting. to evaluate the degree of physiologic stress posed by molting, we compared the hematologic and plasma biochemical values and hormone levels of molting and nonmolting african penguins, spheniscus demersus. five male and 5 female penguins randomly chosen were given complete physical ...201324640930
two distinct mtdna lineages among captive african penguins in japan.the african penguin (spheniscus demersus) is one of the world's most endangered seabirds. in japan, although the number of african penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. to reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive african penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) from a sample of 236 african penguins. analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 bp of cytochr ...201424317269
cyathostoma (cyathostoma) phenisci baudet, 1937 (nematoda: syngamidae), a parasite of respiratory tract of african penguin spheniscus demersus: morphological and molecular characterisation with some ecological and veterinary we provide a morphological and molecular analysis of the taxonomic status of cyathostoma (cyathostoma) phenisci baudet, 1937, a rare nematode parasite of african penguin spheniscus demersus. taxonomical evaluation is supplemented wi th ecological and epidemiological analysis of the nematode's occurrence in the african penguin's population. tracheae and air sacs of 13 among the 94 necropsied birds (overall prevalence 13.8%) contained a total of 33 nematode specimens (20 females, 13 males). t ...201323684707
pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after single dose oral and intravenous administration in the african penguin (spheniscus demersus).the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of enrofloxacin administered orally, both pilled and in fish, and i.v. to african penguins (spheniscus demersus) at 15 mg/kg were determined. plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin were measured via high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. an i.v. administration of enrofloxacin resulted in an extrapolated mean plasma concentration of 7.86 microg/ml at time zero. plasma volume of distribution for i.v. adminis ...201222779234
multiple cenozoic invasions of africa by penguins (aves, sphenisciformes).africa hosts a single breeding species of penguin today, yet the fossil record indicates that a diverse array of now-extinct taxa once inhabited southern african coastlines. here, we show that the african penguin fauna had a complex history involving multiple dispersals and extinctions. phylogenetic analyses and biogeographic reconstructions incorporating new fossil material indicate that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the four early pliocene african penguin species do not represent an endemi ...201221900330
evaluation of potential variables contributing to the development and duration of plantar lesions in a population of aquarium-maintained african penguins (spheniscus demersus).bumblefoot (pododermatitis), often described as the most significant environmental disease of captive penguins, is commonly due to excessive pressure or trauma on the plantar surface of the avian foot, resulting in inflammation or necrosis and causing severe swelling, abrasions, or cracks in the skin. although not formally evaluated in penguins, contributing factors for bumblefoot are thought to be similar to those initiating the condition in raptors and poultry. these factors include substrate, ...201221557300
effects of compounding on pharmacokinetics of itraconazole in black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus).itraconazole is used to treat and prevent aspergillosis in captive penguin colonies. although commercial formulations of itraconazole are available, compounding is sometimes performed to decrease cost or to provide a different concentration of the drug. using a two-way crossover design, the pharmacokinetics of both a commercially available oral itraconazole solution and a compounded oral itraconazole solution were compared in six black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus). each itraconazole for ...201020945648
postprandial biochemistry changes in penguins (spheniscus demersus) including a clinical setting, it is important to differentiate abnormal values that may be a normal change resulting from feeding and those that may be disease related. such postprandial changes have been identified in mammalian and avian species. in the current study, pre- and postvalues for several routine biochemical analytes from penguins (spheniscus demersus) were examined. significant increases were found in uric acid, triglycerides, and bile acids (p < 0.001). uric acid levels increased more tha ...201020597226
pharmacokinetics of orally administered terbinafine in african penguins (spheniscus demersus) for potential treatment of aspergillosis.the objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of orally administered terbinafine hydrochloride based on 3, 7, and 15 mg/kg single- as well as multiple-dosage trials in order to calculate dosing requirements for potential treatment of aspergillosis in african penguins (spheniscus demersus). ten adult african penguins were used in each of these trials, with a 2-wk washout period between trials. mean plasma concentrations of terbinafine peaked in approximately 4 hrs at ...201020597218
penguins are attracted to dimethyl sulphide at sea.breeding spheniscus penguins are central place foragers that feed primarily on schooling pelagic fish. they are visual hunters, but it is unclear how they locate prey patches on a coarse scale. many petrels and storm petrels (procellariiformes), the penguins' closest relatives, use olfactory cues to locate prey concentrations at sea, but this has not been demonstrated for penguins. procellariiforms are attracted to a variety of olfactory cues, including dimethyl sulphide (dms), an organosulphur ...201121753043
diagnosis and attempted surgical repair of hemivertebrae in an african penguin (spheniscus demersus).spinal injuries and congenital or developmental spinal deformities have rarely been reported in pet birds, and treatment for these conditions is even less often described. in poultry, spinal and leg deformities have been well documented, but treatment of the individual is not considered, because affected individuals are typically culled. a 10-week-old male african black-footed penguin (spheniscus demersus) from the penguin exhibit at the maryland zoo in baltimore was evaluated for ataxia, weakne ...200819216262
intralesional cisplatin chemotherapy and topical cryotherapy for the control of choanal squamous cell carcinoma in an african penguin (spheniscus demersus).a 3.5-yr-old, 2.5-kg female african penguin (spheniscus demersus) was diagnosed with a choanal squamous cell carcinoma on the basis of biopsy after a history of choanal ulceration and anorexia with weight loss. therapeutic modalities included the use of intralesional cisplatin followed by localized, topical cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. the penguin remained free of clinical disease for a period of 9 mo, at which time a second cryotreatment was performed. the patient has remained free of all ...200617315441
functional anatomy of the penguin flipper.this study investigates the functional anatomy of the flipper of the jackass penguin (speniscus demersus). the flippers of birds (n = 15) were dissected and described. several adaptations from the typical avian wing were noted and reasons were proposed for these. the conclusion is that the osteological and myological adaptations of the flipper are designed to enable the penguin to progress very effectively through water, while the vascular adaptations provide a highly efficient mechanism for the ...19921404220
sharing food in the stomachs of seabirds between adults and chicks--a case for delayed gastric emptying.1. retention times of food in stomachs of breeding and non-breeding african pengiuns (spheniscus demersus) were examined. 2. rates of gastric emptying in non-breeding birds were linearly related to the mass of food in the stomach. 3. breeding birds returned to the nest with more food in their stomachs when chicks were larger. the rate of regurgitation of food was linearly related to chick mass. 4. retention times of food in the stomachs of breeding penguins can only be explain by cognisance of o ...19892574097
plasma vitamins a and e, total lipid and cholesterol concentrations in captive jackass penguins (spheniscus demersus).the concentrations of vitamins a and e in the plasma of captive jackass penguins was studied in birds fed defined quantities of the vitamins. for a year, each of the 17 adult birds in the colony received a daily diet of 340 g of sprats and a vitamin supplement tablet, together providing 2.04 mg per day retinol equivalent and 185 mg per day alpha-tocopherol equivalent. the concentrations of plasma retinol and alpha-tocopherol and the alpha-tocopherol/total lipid ratio compared well with those rec ...20133222912
intralesional methylprednisolone injection as an adjunct treatment for peri-cloacal pyogranuloma in an african penguin (spheniscus demersus).an african penguin (spheniscus demersus) presented with a large peri-cloacal mass. the mass was diagnosed as a pyogranuloma histologically, with multifocal to coalescing inflammatory responses in the subcutis and keratinized simple stratified squamous epithelium overlying the surface. the patient was prescribed 125 mg/kg oral clavulanic acid/amoxycillin twice a day and 20 mg/kg oral terbinafine once a day for 14 days, but there was no change in the size of the mass 4 days after therapy, so a dec ...201931645510
avian influenza h5n8 outbreak in african penguins (spheniscus demersus), namibia, january 2019, high mortalities were reported among african penguins (spheniscus demersus) in a breeding colony on halifax island, namibia, africa. analysis of samples by reverse transcription quantitative pcr indicated the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) subtype h5n8. sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes confirmed the presence of the virus in the birds and its high similarity to hpai subtype h5n8 identified in south africa in 2017. there have bee ...202031483707
evaluating the behavior and temperament of african penguins in a non-contact animal encounter program.animal ambassador programs are increasingly prevalent in zoos, yet few studies have investigated their impact on animal welfare. we assessed the effects of an ambassador program on the behavior of a colony (n = 15) of zoo-housed african penguins (spheniscus demersus) and evaluated whether individual characteristics were predictive of participation. behavioral data were collected for 16 weeks and included 43 "penguin encounters", during which zoo visitors entered a designated portion of the pengu ...201931174380
a global overview of exposure levels and biological effects of trace elements in penguins.trace elements are chemical contaminants that can be present almost anywhere on the planet. the study of trace elements in biotic matrices is a topic of great relevance for the implications that it can have on wildlife and human health. penguins are very useful, since they live exclusively in the southern hemisphere and represent about 90% of the biomass of birds of the southern ocean. the levels of trace elements (dry weight) in different biotic matrices of penguins were reviewed here. maps of ...201829079931
parasite diversity associated with african penguins (spheniscus demersus) and the effect of host and environmental factors.the african penguin (spheniscus demersus) is a critically endangered species endemic to southern africa. limited information is available on the parasite diversity associated with the species in natural settings. this study explores the diversity and incidence of parasites associated with african penguins and their nests, and records the effect of host and environmental factors on parasite infestation. ecto-, haemo- and helminth parasites were recorded from 210 adult birds, 583 chicks and 628 ne ...201930724152
nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and fibrous osteodystrophy in a captive african penguin (spheniscus demersus) similar to osteomalacia in poultry.a nine-year-old female black-footed african penguin ( spheniscus demersus ) was presented for necropsy after a history of reproductive abnormalities, paresis of limbs, weakness and sudden death. post-mortem examination revealed soft keel, collapsed rib cage with beading of the ribs and bilateral parathyroid enlargement. classical histological lesions of fibrous osteodystrophy with osteomalacia were observed in the ribs, vertebrae and to a lesser extent femur and tibiotarsus associated with hyper ...202033064806
nest-type associated microclimatic conditions as potential drivers of ectoparasite infestations in african penguin nests.nest design and characteristics can influence the microclimatic conditions in the nest. nest-dwelling ectoparasites are sensitive to temperature and moisture and as such the conditions in the nest can influence parasite infestations. the endangered african penguin (spheniscus demersus) breeds in different nest types and as yet little is known with regard to the microclimate and parasite infestation within these nests. this study characterized the microclimatic conditions in natural open, natural ...202032996052
mosquito identification and haemosporidian parasites detection in the enclosure of the african penguins (spheniscus demersus) at the sanbi zoological garden.the national zoological gardens (nzg) is a facility of the south african national biodiversity institute (sanbi) and the largest zoo in southern africa. among the 9000 captive animals kept by the nzg, is the endangered african penguin (spheniscus demersus). there have been several post-mortem reports on deaths of penguins in the nzg due to haemosporidian infections, however, the haemosporidian lineages involved and possible insect vector are unknown. haemosporidians are apicomplexan parasites th ...202032983863
the conservation status and population decline of the african penguin deconstructed in space and time.understanding changes in abundance is crucial for conservation, but population growth rates often vary over space and time. we use 40 years of count data (1979-2019) and bayesian state-space models to assess the african penguin spheniscus demersus population under iucn red list criterion a. we deconstruct the overall decline in time and space to identify where urgent conservation action is needed. the global african penguin population met the threshold for endangered with a high probability (97% ...202032788996
application of 3-hydroxybutyrate measurement and plasma protein electrophoresis in the diagnosis of aspergillosis in african penguins ( spheniscus demersus).new alternative laboratory means are needed to improve the options for antemortem diagnosis of avian aspergillosis. in this study, 3-hydroxybutyrate was measured in plasma samples collected from a cohort of african penguins ( spheniscus demersus) maintained under human care. results were interpreted in combination with those of protein electrophoresis and compared with anti- aspergillus antibody and galactomannan antigen detection. overall, 3-hydroxybutyrate levels were found significantly incre ...201830212328
outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in african penguins spheniscus demersus.cryptosporidium spp. are parasitic intracellular protozoa that infect the digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts of vertebrates. the disease affects many different avian species across all continents, and >25 species and genotypes of cryptosporidium have been documented infecting birds. we report on an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in african penguin spheniscus demersus chicks admitted to a rehabilitation center in south africa from february 2012 to october 2013. eighteen cases were confirme ...202032759472
multi-predator assemblages, dive type, bathymetry and sex influence foraging success and efficiency in african penguins.marine predators adapt their hunting techniques to locate and capture prey in response to their surrounding environment. however, little is known about how certain strategies influence foraging success and efficiency. due to the miniaturisation of animal tracking technologies, a single individual can be equipped with multiple data loggers to obtain multi-scale tracking information. with the addition of animal-borne video data loggers, it is possible to provide context-specific information for mo ...202032655991
the radiographic and endoscopic anatomy and digestive mechanisms of captive african penguins (spheniscus demersus).the anatomy of the avian gastrointestinal (gi) tract is uniquely suited to each species' dietary requirements. african penguins (spheniscus demersus) are charismatic and popular exhibit animals. as their prevalence grows, there is a need to understand their unique digestive tract to diagnose abnormalities. reference material specific to the digestive tract of piscivores is scant, and knowledge of the gi tract of a healthy penguin is based on information from other birds. the purpose of this stud ...202032549567
preliminary pilot study of itraconazole after a single oral dose of a veterinary formulation solution in african penguins (spheniscus demersus).aspergillosis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in captive penguins. itraconazole, an antifungal drug, is commonly used to treat aspergillosis infections in avian species; however, commercially available human formulations are costly, and studies have shown the effectiveness of compounded formulations to be unreliable. the us food and drug administration (fda) recently approved a veterinary formulation of itraconazole, itrafungol, for use in cats. this study provides preliminary resul ...202032237682
schistosomes and microfilarial parasites in magellanic penguins.the magellanic penguin (spheniscus magellanicus) is native to argentina, chile and the falkland/malvinas islands and is a regular winter migrant in uruguayan and brazilian coastal waters. the species is known to be susceptible to a variety of gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes, trematodes and acanthocephalans, as well as renal trematodes and pulmonary nematodes. schistosomes (platyhelminthes, trematoda, schistosomatidae) and microfilariae (nematoda, secernentea, onchocercidae) were histologica ...201829424659
avoidance of seismic survey activities by penguins.seismic surveys in search for oil or gas under the seabed, produce the most intense man-made ocean noise with known impacts on invertebrates, fish and marine mammals. no evidence to date exists, however, about potential impacts on seabirds. penguins may be expected to be particularly affected by loud underwater sounds, due to their largely aquatic existence. this study investigated the behavioural response of breeding endangered african penguins spheniscus demersus to seismic surveys within 100  ...201729176687
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