detection of acute bee paralysis virus and black queen cell virus from honeybees by reverse transcriptase pcr.a reverse transcriptase pcr (rt-pcr) assay was developed for the detection of acute bee paralysis virus (abpv) and black queen cell virus (bqcv), two honeybee viruses. complete genome sequences were used to design unique pcr primers within a 1-kb region from the 3' end of both genomes to amplify a fragment of 900 bp from abpv and 700 bp from bqcv. the combined guanidinium thiocyanate and silica membrane method was used to extract total rna from samples of healthy and laboratory-infected bee pupa ...200111319129
virus infections in brazilian honey bees.this work describes the first molecular-genetic evidence for viruses in brazilian honey bee samples. three different bee viruses, acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), black queen cell virus (bqcv), and deformed wing virus (dwv) were identified during a screening of rnas from 1920 individual adult bees collected in a region of southeastern brazil that has recently shown unusual bee declines. abpv was detected in 27.1% of colony samples, while bqcv and dwv were found in 37% and 20.3%, respectively. t ...200818471826
characterization of structural proteins of solenopsis invicta virus 1.purification of solenopsis invicta virus 1 (sinv-1) from its host, s. invicta, and subsequent examination by electron microscopy revealed a homogeneous fraction of spherical particles with a diameter of 30-35 nm. quantitative pcr with sinv-1-specific oligonucleotide primers verified that this fraction contained high copy numbers of the sinv-1 genome. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the sinv-1 purified fraction revealed three major and one minor protein bands. the pro ...200818514347
survey of six bee viruses using rt-pcr in northern thailand.six honey bee viruses were surveyed using rt-pcr in northern thailand where about 80% of thai apiaries are located. tested samples were found to be positive for deformed wing virus (dwv), acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), sacbrood virus (sbv) and kashmir bee virus (kbv). in the collected samples, neither chronic bee paralysis virus nor black queen cell virus nucleic acids could be detected. it was found that dwv was the most widespread and abpv was the second most prevalent. kashmir bee virus wa ...200919105966
metagenomic analysis of rna viruses in a fresh water lake.freshwater lakes and ponds present an ecological interface between humans and a variety of host organisms. they are a habitat for the larval stage of many insects and may serve as a medium for intraspecies and interspecies transmission of viruses such as avian influenza a virus. furthermore, freshwater bodies are already known repositories for disease-causing viruses such as norwalk virus, coxsackievirus, echovirus, and adenovirus. while rna virus populations have been studied in marine environm ...200919787045
bioinformatic evidence for a stem-loop structure 5'-adjacent to the igr-ires and for an overlapping gene in the bee paralysis dicistroviruses.the family dicistroviridae (order picornavirales) includes species that infect insects and other arthropods. these viruses have a linear positive-sense ssrna genome of approximately 8-10 kb, which contains two long orfs. the 5' orf encodes the nonstructural polyprotein while the 3' orf encodes the structural polyprotein. the dicistroviruses are noteworthy for the intergenic internal ribosome entry site (igr-ires) that mediates efficient translation initation on the 3' orf without the requirement ...200919895695
deformed wing virus implicated in overwintering honeybee colony losses.the worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. recently in the united states, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. common characteristics that m ...200919783750
a potentially novel overlapping gene in the genomes of israeli acute paralysis virus and its relatives.the israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv) is a honeybee-infecting virus that was found to be associated with colony collapse disorder. the iapv genome contains two genes encoding a structural and a nonstructural polyprotein. we applied a recently developed method for the estimation of selection in overlapping genes to detect purifying selection and, hence, functionality. we provide evolutionary evidence for the existence of a functional overlapping gene, which is translated in the +1 reading fram ...200919761605
changes in transcript abundance relating to colony collapse disorder in honey bees (apis mellifera).colony collapse disorder (ccd) is a mysterious disappearance of honey bees that has beset beekeepers in the united states since late 2006. pathogens and other environmental stresses, including pesticides, have been linked to ccd, but a causal relationship has not yet been demonstrated. because the gut acts as a primary interface between the honey bee and its environment as a site of entry for pathogens and toxins, we used whole-genome microarrays to compare gene expression between guts of bees f ...200919706391
molecular analysis of capsid protein of homalodisca coagulata virus-1, a new leafhopper-infecting virus from the glassy-winged sharpshooter, homalodisca coagulata.a new virus that infects and causes increased mortality in leafhoppers was isolated from the glassy-winged sharpshooter, homalodisca coagulata (say) (hemiptera: cicadellidae). the virus, named homalodisca coagulata virus -1, hocv-1, was associated with increased mortality of cultured 5(th) instar h. coagulata. to identify the presence of h. coagulata viral pathogens, cdna expression libraries were made from adult and nymphs. analysis using reverse transcriptase pcr demonstrated that the virus wa ...200619537993
iapv, a bee-affecting virus associated with colony collapse disorder can be silenced by dsrna ingestion.colony collapse disorder (ccd) has been associated with israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv). ccd poses a serious threat to apiculture and agriculture as a whole, due to the consequent inability to provide the necessary amount of bees for pollination of critical crops. here we report on rnai-silencing of iapv infection by feeding bees with double-stranded rna, as an efficient and feasible way of controlling this viral disease. the association of ccd with iapv is discussed, as well as the potenti ...200919196347
first detection of israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv) in france, a dicistrovirus affecting honeybees (apis mellifera).bee samples were collected in french apiaries that displayed severe losses and mortality during the winter (from november 2007 to march 2008). they were screened for the presence of israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv) by using rt-pcr. five out of 35 surveyed apiaries, located in two different geographical areas, were found positive. this represents the first reported detection of iapv in france. the specificity of the pcr products was checked by sequencing. the phylogenetic analysis showed that ...200818703069
genetic analysis of israel acute paralysis virus: distinct clusters are circulating in the united states.israel acute paralysis virus (iapv) is associated with colony collapse disorder of honey bees. nonetheless, its role in the pathogenesis of the disorder and its geographic distribution are unclear. here, we report phylogenetic analysis of iapv obtained from bees in the united states, canada, australia, and israel and the establishment of diagnostic real-time pcr assays for iapv detection. our data indicate the existence of at least three distinct iapv lineages, two of them circulating in the uni ...200818434396
occurrence and genetic analysis of picorna-like viruses infecting worker bees of apis mellifera l. populations in devon, south west england.viruses of the european honeybee, apis mellifera l. are known to reside at low levels in colonies, typically showing no apparent signs of infection. using reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr), 23 apiaries in devon were screened for the presence of 6 honeybee viruses, with positive colonies being analysed for viral genetic diversity. ninety-seven percent of the colonies were positive for deformed wing virus (dwv), 29% were positive for acute bee paralysis virus (abpv) and 1.4% were positive for bot ...200818359042
the use of rna-dependent rna polymerase for the taxonomic assignment of picorna-like viruses (order picornavirales) infecting apis mellifera l. populations.single-stranded rna viruses, infectious to the european honeybee, apis mellifera l. are known to reside at low levels in colonies, with typically no apparent signs of infection observed in the honeybees. reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr) of regions of the rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) is often used to diagnose their presence in apiaries and also to classify the type of virus detected.200818211671
isolation and characterization of israeli acute paralysis virus, a dicistrovirus affecting honeybees in israel: evidence for diversity due to intra- and inter-species recombination.we report the isolation, purification, genome-sequencing and characterization of a picorna-like virus from dead bees in israel. sequence analysis indicated that iapv (israeli acute paralysis virus) is a distinct dicistrovirus. it is most homologous to kashmir bee virus and acute bee paralysis virus. the virus carries a 9487 nt rna genome in positive orientation, with two open reading frames separated by an intergenic region, and its coat comprises four major proteins, the sizes of which suggest ...200718024913
development of a multiplex rt-pcr for the simultaneous detection of three viruses of the honeybee (apis mellifera l.): acute bee paralysis virus, black queen cell virus and sacbrood virus.a single-step multiple-target (multiplex) reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr) was developed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of three economically important viruses of the honeybee apis mellifera l.: acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), black queen cell virus (bqcv) and sacbrood virus (sbv). three compatible sets of primers, specific for each virus, were designed in conserved regions of the viral genomes for use in a one-step (single tube) rt-pcr assay. the individual rt-pcr assays ...200717207498
Dead or alive: Deformed Wing Virus and Varroa destructor reduce the life span of winter honeybees.Elevated winter losses of managed honey bee colonies are a major concern, but the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. Among the suspects are the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, the microsporidian Nosema ceranae and associated viruses. Here, we hypothesize that pathogens reduce the life expectancy of winter bees, thereby constituting a proximate mechanism for colony losses. A monitoring of colonies was performed over six months in Switzerland from summer 2007 to winter 2007/2008. Indivi ...201122179240
honeybee viruses in uruguay.mortality of honeybees is a serious problem that beekeepers have to face periodically in uruguay and worldwide. the presence of rna viruses, in addition to other pathogens may be one of its possible causes. in this work, we detected chronic bee paralysis virus, acute bee paralysis virus, black queen cell virus, sacbrood virus and deformed wing virus in samples of uruguayan honeybees with or without varroa destructor and nosema apis. the detection of viruses in different provinces, simultaneous c ...200616843485
occurrence of six honeybee viruses in diseased austrian apiaries.the occurrence, prevalence, and distribution patterns of acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), black queen cell virus (bqcv), chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv), deformed wing virus (dwv), kashmir bee virus (kbv), and sacbrood virus (sbv) were investigated in 90 austrian honeybee colonies suffering from symptoms of depopulation, sudden collapse, paralysis, or dark coloring by employing reverse transcription-pcr. infestation with parasites was also recorded. the samples originated from all parts of a ...200616597939
infection of honey bees with acute bee paralysis virus does not trigger humoral or cellular immune responses.we have studied the responses of honey bees at different life stages (apis mellifera) to controlled infection with acute bee paralysis virus and have identified the haemolymph of infected larvae and adult worker bees as the compartment where massive propagation of abpv occurs. insects respond with a broad spectrum of induced innate immune reactions to bacterial infections, whereas defence mechanisms based on rna interference play a major role in antiviral immunity. in this study, we have determi ...201222258854
prevalence of nosema and virus in honey bee (apis mellifera l.) colonies on flowering period of acacia in korea.honey production from approximately 1.6 million colonies owned by about 199,000 korean beekeepers was almost 23,000 metric tons in 2009. nosema causes significant losses in honey production and the virus decreases population size. we initiated a survey of honey bee colonies on the blooming period of acacia to determine the prevalence of nosema and virus in 2011. most korean beekeepers have moved from the south to north of korea to get acacia nectar for 2 mon. this provided a valuable opportunity ...201122783125
differential expression pattern of vago in bumblebee (bombus terrestris), induced by virulent and avirulent virus infections.viruses are one of the main drivers of the decline of domesticated and wild bees but the mechanisms of antiviral immunity in pollinators are poorly understood. recent work has suggested that next to the small interfering rna (sirna) pathway other immune-related pathways play a role in the defense of the bee hosts against viral infection. in addition, vago plays a role in the cross-talk between the innate immune pathways in culex mosquito cells. here we describe the vago orthologue in bumblebees ...201627680717
prevalence and transmission of honeybee viruses.transmission mechanisms of six honeybee viruses, including acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), black queen cell virus (bqcv), chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv), deformed wing virus (dwv), kashmir bee virus (kbv), and sacbrood bee virus (sbv), in honey bee colonies were investigated by reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr) methods. the virus status of individual queens was evaluated by examining the presence of viruses in the queens' feces and tissues, including hemolymph, gut, ovaries, spermatheca, ...200616391097
parallel epigenomic and transcriptomic responses to viral infection in honey bees (apis mellifera).populations of honey bees are declining throughout the world, with us beekeepers losing 30% of their colonies each winter. though multiple factors are driving these colony losses, it is increasingly clear that viruses play a major role. however, information about the molecular mechanisms mediating antiviral immunity in honey bees is surprisingly limited. here, we examined the transcriptional and epigenetic (dna methylation) responses to viral infection in honey bee workers. one-day old worker ho ...201525811620
israeli acute paralysis virus infection leads to an enhanced rna interference response and not its suppression in the bumblebee bombus terrestris.rna interference (rnai) is the primary antiviral defense system in insects and its importance for pollinator health is indisputable. in this work, we examined the effect of israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv) infection on the rnai process in the bumblebee, bombus terrestris, and whether the presence of possible functional viral suppressors could alter the potency of the host's immune response. for this, a two-fold approach was used. through a functional rnai assay, we observed an enhancement of ...201627999371
detection of multiple viruses in queens of the honey bee apis mellifera l.individual honey bee apis mellifera l. queens were examined for the presence of six honey bee viruses including acute bee paralysis virus, chronic bee paralysis virus, black queen cell virus, deformed wing virus, kashmir bee virus, and sacbrood virus. all viruses, except abpv, were detected in the samples. among queens examined for virus infections, 93% had multiple virus infections. the detection of viruses in queens raises the possibility of a vertical transmission pathway wherein infected que ...200516214161
detection of chronic bee paralysis virus and acute bee paralysis virus in uruguayan honeybees.chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) causes a disease characterized by trembling, flightless, and crawling bees, while acute bee paralysis virus (abpv) is commonly detected in apparently healthy colonies, usually associated to varroa destructor. both viruses had been detected in most regions of the world, except in south america. in this work, we detected cbpv and abpv in samples of uruguayan honeybees by rt-pcr. the detection of both viruses in different provinces and the fact that most of the an ...200516169006
solenopsis invicta virus-1a (sinv-1a): distinct species or genotype of sinv-1?we have cloned and sequenced a 2845 bp cdna representing the 3'-end of either a new picorna-like virus species or genotype of solenopsis invicta virus-1 (sinv-1). analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed 1 large open reading frame. the amino acid sequence of the translated open reading frame was most identical to structural proteins of sinv-1 (97%), followed by the kashmir bee virus (kbv, 30%), and acute bee paralysis virus (abpv, 29%). a pcr-based survey for sinv-1 and the new species or ge ...200515955342
prevalence and seasonal variations of six bee viruses in apis mellifera l. and varroa destructor mite populations in france.a survey of six bee viruses on a large geographic scale was undertaken by using seemingly healthy bee colonies and the pcr technique. samples of adult bees and pupae were collected from 36 apiaries in the spring, summer, and autumn during 2002. varroa destructor samples were collected at the end of summer following acaricide treatment. in adult bees, during the year deformed wing virus (dwv) was found at least once in 97% of the apiaries, sacbrood virus (sbv) was found in 86% of the apiaries, ch ...200415574916
a picorna-like virus from the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta: initial discovery, genome sequence, and characterization.we report the first discovery and genome sequence of a virus infecting the red imported fire ant, solenopsis invicta. the 8026 nucleotide, polyadenylated, rna genome encoded two large open reading frames (orf1 and orf2), flanked and separated by 27, 223, and 171 nucleotide untranslated regions, respectively. the predicted amino acid sequence of the 5' proximal orf1 (nucleotides 28 to 4218) exhibited significant identity and possessed consensus sequences characteristic of the helicase, cysteine p ...200415380366
complete nucleotide sequence of kashmir bee virus and comparison with acute bee paralysis virus.the complete nucleotide sequence of a novel virus is presented here together with serological evidence that it belongs to kashmir bee virus (kbv). analysis reveals that kbv is a cricket paralysis-like virus (family dicistroviridae: genus cripavirus), with a non-structural polyprotein open reading frame in the 5' portion of the genome separated by an intergenic region from a structural polyprotein open reading frame in the 3' part of the genome. the genome also has a polyadenylated tail at the 3' ...200415269367
structural variant of the intergenic internal ribosome entry site elements in dicistroviruses and computational search for their counterparts.the intergenic region (igr) located upstream of the capsid protein gene in dicistroviruses contains an internal ribosome entry site (ires). translation initiation mediated by the ires does not require initiator methionine trna. comparison of the igrs among dicistroviruses suggested that taura syndrome virus (tsv) and acute bee paralysis virus have an extra side stem loop in the predicted ires. we examined whether the side stem is responsible for translation activity mediated by the igr using con ...200415100433
genetic evidence for coinfection of honey bees by acute bee paralysis and kashmir bee viruses.nucleotide sequence analyses were used to identify acute bee paralysis virus (abpv) and kashmir bee virus (kbv) isolated from a single honey bee colony. most of the bees in this colony carried kbv. some individual bees also carried abpv, a coexistence not yet seen between these two viruses. implications of coinfection on viral efficacy are discussed, along with a restriction enzyme assay that can be used to discriminate between these two widespread viruses.200112009798
analysis of the complete genome sequence of acute bee paralysis virus shows that it belongs to the novel group of insect-infecting rna viruses.the complete genome sequence of acute bee paralysis virus (abpv) was determined. the 9470 nucleotide, polyadenylated rna genome encoded two open reading frames (orf1 and orf2), which were separated by 184 nucleotides. the deduced amino acid sequence of the 5' orf1 (nucleotides 605 to 6325) showed significant similarity to the rna-dependent rna polymerase, helicase, and protease domains of viruses from the picornavirus, comovirus, calicivirus, and sequivirus families, as well as to a novel group ...200011080493
occurrence of acute paralysis virus of the honey bee (apis mellifera) in a hungarian apiary infested with the parasitic mite varroa jacobsoni.viruses of the honey bee have been known for a long time; however, recently the attention of scientists and apiculturalists has turned towards the relationship between these viruses and the parasitic mite varroa jacobsoni. although clinical symptoms indicated the presence of some of the viruses of bees in hungary, none have previously been isolated or identified. during july unusual adult bee and brood mortality was observed in some colonies of an apiary in budapest known to be infested with var ...199910497825
the acute bee paralysis virus-kashmir bee virus-israeli acute paralysis virus complex.acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), kashmir bee virus (kbv) and israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the family dicistroviridae. these viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced or encountered naturally. these viruses are frequently implicated in honey ...201019909972
medium for development of bee cell cultures (apis mellifera: hymenoptera: apidae).a media for the production of cell cultures from hymenopteran species such as honey bee, apis mellifera l. (hymenoptera: apidae) was developed. multiple bee cell cultures were produced when using bee larvae and pupae as starting material and modified hert-hunter 70 media. cell culture systems for bees solves an impasse that has hindered efforts to isolate and screen pathogens which may be influencing or causing colony collapse disorder of bees. multiple life stages of maturing larvae to early pu ...201020033792
first molecular detection of a viral pathogen in ugandan honey bees.ugandan honey bees (apis mellifera l.) produce honey, and are key pollinators within commercial crops and natural ecosystems. real-time rt-pcr was used to screen immature and adult bees collected from 63 beekeeping sites across uganda for seven viral pathogens. no samples tested positive for chronic bee paralysis virus, sacbrood virus, deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, apis iridescent virus or israeli acute paralysis virus. however, black queen cell virus (bqcv) was found in 35.6% ...201020219470
emerging and re-emerging viruses of the honey bee (apis mellifera l.).until the late 1980s, specific viral infections of the honey bee were generally considered harmless in all countries. then, with the worldwide introduction of the ectoparasite mite varroa destructor, beekeepers encountered increasing difficulties in maintaining their colonies. epidemiological surveys and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that the newly acquired virulence of several viruses belonging to the family dicistroviridae (acute bee paralysis virus, kashmir bee virus and israeli ac ...201020423694
analysis of the rdrp, intergenic and structural polyprotein regions, and the complete genome sequence of kashmir bee virus from infected honeybees (apis mellifera) in korea.kashmir bee virus (kbv) is one of the most common viral infections in honeybees. in this study, a phylogenetic analysis was performed using nine partial nucleotide sequences of rdrp and the structural polyprotein regions of south korean kbv genotypes, as well as nine previously reported kbv genotypes from various countries and two closely related genotypes of israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv) and acute bee paralysis virus (abpv). the korean kbv genotypes were highly conserved with 94-99 % sha ...201424824301
multiplex rt-pcr with broad-range primers and an exogenous internal amplification control for the detection of honeybee viruses in bumblebees.bumblebees are commercially reared and transported worldwide mainly for pollination of greenhouse tomatoes. three honeybee viruses have been reported in bumblebees: acute bee paralysis virus, kashmir bee virus and deformed wing virus. we developed a multiplex rt-pcr with primers designed on highly conserved regions of the rna-dependent rna polymerase in order to detect a maximum range of viral variants. rearing facilities and governmental organizations can now thoroughly screen bumblebee colonie ...201020600092
sudden deaths and colony population decline in greek honey bee colonies.during june and july of 2009, sudden deaths, tremulous movements and population declines of adult honey bees were reported by the beekeepers in the region of peloponnesus (mt. mainalo), greece. a preliminary study was carried out to investigate these unexplained phenomena in this region. in total, 37 bee samples, two brood frames containing honey bee brood of various ages, eight sugar samples and four sugar patties were collected from the affected colonies. the samples were tested for a range of ...201020804765
varroa destructor is an effective vector of israeli acute paralysis virus in the honeybee, apis mellifera.the israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv) is a significant marker of honeybee colony collapse disorder (ccd). in the present work, we provide the first evidence that varroa destructor is iapv replication-competent and capable of vectoring iapv in honeybees. the honeybees became infected with iapv after exposure to varroa mites that carried the virus. the copy number of iapv in bees was positively correlated with the density of varroa mites and time period of exposure to varroa mites. further, we ...201020926637
large-scale field application of rnai technology reducing israeli acute paralysis virus disease in honey bees (apis mellifera, hymenoptera: apidae).the importance of honey bees to the world economy far surpasses their contribution in terms of honey production; they are responsible for up to 30% of the world's food production through pollination of crops. since fall 2006, honey bees in the u.s. have faced a serious population decline, due in part to a phenomenon called colony collapse disorder (ccd), which is a disease syndrome that is likely caused by several factors. data from an initial study in which investigators compared pathogens in h ...201021203478
rna viruses in hymenopteran pollinators: evidence of inter-taxa virus transmission via pollen and potential impact on non-apis hymenopteran species.although overall pollinator populations have declined over the last couple of decades, the honey bee (apis mellifera) malady, colony collapse disorder (ccd), has caused major concern in the agricultural community. among honey bee pathogens, rna viruses are emerging as a serious threat and are suspected as major contributors to ccd. recent detection of these viral species in bumble bees suggests a possible wider environmental spread of these viruses with potential broader impact. it is therefore ...201021203504
detection of honey bee (apis mellifera) viruses with an oligonucleotide recent years, declines in honey bee (apis mellifera l.) colonies have been observed to varying degrees worldwide with the worst losses in the usa being termed colony collapse disorder (ccd). pathogen load and the prevalence of honey bee viruses have been implicated in these losses and many diseased hives have multiple viruses present. we have designed and tested an oligonucleotide microarray which enables the simultaneous detection of nine honey bee viruses: acute bee paralysis virus, black q ...201121419132
first report of israeli acute paralysis virus in asymptomatic hives of argentina.honey bee mortality has recently been associated with israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv), a proposed etiological agent for a new syndrome known as colony collapse disorder. bees infected with this virus show shivering wings, progress into paralysis, and finally die outside the hive. during the last years, honey bee mortality became a serious problem for argentinean beekeepers. we herein report the preliminary results of a survey carried out to detect iapv in samples taken from several argentin ...201121731968
infestation of japanese native honey bees by tracheal mite and virus from non-native european honey bees in japan.invasion of alien species has been shown to cause detrimental effects on habitats of native species. insect pollinators represent such examples; the introduction of commercial bumble bee species for crop pollination has resulted in competition for an ecological niche with native species, genetic disturbance caused by mating with native species, and pathogen spillover to native species. the european honey bee, apis mellifera, was first introduced into japan for apiculture in 1877, and queen bees ...201121960435
Occurrence and prevalence of seven bee viruses in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana apiaries in China.Populations of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana in China were surveyed for seven bee viruses: acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and Isreal acute paralysis virus (IAPV). No KBV was detected from any samples of the two species. In A. mellifera, DWV was the most prevalent virus, but in A. cerana, SBV was the dominant. Simultaneous multiple infections of viruses ...201222062807
the effect of oral administration of dsrna on viral replication and mortality in bombus terrestris.israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv), a single-stranded rna virus, has a worldwide distribution and affects honeybees as well as other important pollinators. iapv infection in honeybees has been successfully repressed by exploiting the rna interference (rnai) pathway of the insect's innate immune response with virus-specific double stranded rna (dsrna). here we investigated the effect of iapv infection in the bumblebee bombus terrestris and its tissue tropism. b. terrestris is a common pollinato ...201526110584
effects of wintering environment and parasite-pathogen interactions on honey bee colony loss in north temperate regions.extreme winter losses of honey bee colonies are a major threat to beekeeping but the combinations of factors underlying colony loss remain debatable. we monitored colonies in two environments (colonies wintered indoors or outdoors) and characterized the effects of two parasitic mites, seven viruses, and nosema on honey bee colony mortality and population loss over winter. samples were collected from two locations within hives in fall, mid-winter and spring of 2009/2010. although fall parasite an ...201627448049
two novel viruses associated with the apis mellifera pathogenic mite varroa destructor.varroa destructor infestation of apis mellifera colonies carries and/or promotes replication of honey bee viruses like the deformed wing virus, the varroa destructor virus-1, the acute bee paralysis virus, the israeli acute bee paralysis virus and the kashmir bee virus that have been well described and characterized; but viruses exclusively associated with varroa were not found. to look for viruses that may associate with- or infect v. destructor we performed deep sequencing (rna-seq) of rna ext ...201627883042
ictv virus taxonomy profile: dicistroviridae.dicistroviridae is a family of small non-enveloped viruses with monopartite, linear, positive-sense rna genomes of approximately 8-10 kb. viruses of all classified species infect arthropod hosts, with some having devastating economic consequences, such as acute bee paralysis virus in domesticated honeybees and taura syndrome virus in shrimp farming. conversely, the host specificity and other desirable traits exhibited by several members of this group make them potential natural enemies for inten ...201728366189
cryo-electron microscopy study of the genome release of the dicistrovirus israeli acute bee paralysis virus.viruses of the family dicistroviridae can cause substantial economic damage by infecting agriculturally important insects. israeli acute bee paralysis virus (iapv) causes honeybee colony collapse disorder in the united states. high-resolution molecular details of the genome delivery mechanism of dicistroviruses are unknown. here we present a cryo-electron microscopy analysis of iapv virions induced to release their genomes in vitro we determined structures of full iapv virions primed to release ...201727928006
virion structure of israeli acute bee paralysis virus.the pollination services provided by the western honeybee (apis mellifera) are critical for agricultural production and the diversity of wild flowering plants. however, honeybees suffer from environmental pollution, habitat loss, and pathogens, including viruses that can cause fatal diseases. israeli acute bee paralysis virus (iapv), from the family dicistroviridae, has been shown to cause colony collapse disorder in the united states. here, we present the iapv virion structure determined to a r ...201627384649
the honey bee pathosphere of mongolia: european viruses in central asia.parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed european honey bee subspecies, apis mellifera. apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. this imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. here, we co ...201626959221
occurrence of deformed wing virus, chronic bee paralysis virus and mtdna variants in haplotype k of varroa destructor mites in syrian apiaries.a small-scale survey was conducted on 64 beehives located in four governorates of syria in order to assess for the first time the presence of honeybee-infecting viruses and of varroa destructor mites in the country. rt-pcr assays conducted on 192 honeybees (apis mellifera l.) using virus-specific primers showed that deformed wing virus (dwv) was present in 49 (25.5%) of the tested samples and chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) in 2 (1.04%), whereas acute bee paralysis virus, sacbrood virus, blac ...201626914360
vertical transmission of honey bee viruses in a belgian queen breeding program.the member states of european union are encouraged to improve the general conditions for the production and marketing of apicultural products. in belgium, programmes on the restocking of honey bee hives have run for many years. overall, the success ratio of this queen breeding programme has been only around 50%. to tackle this low efficacy, we organized sanitary controls of the breeding queens in 2012 and 2014.201525889959
lower virus infections in varroa destructor-infested and uninfested brood and adult honey bees (apis mellifera) of a low mite population growth colony compared to a high mite population growth colony.a comparison was made of the prevalence and relative quantification of deformed wing virus (dwv), israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv), black queen cell virus (bqcv), kashmir bee virus (kbv), acute bee paralysis virus (abpv) and sac brood virus (sbv) in brood and adult honey bees (apis mellifera) from colonies selected for high (hmp) and low (lmp) varroa destructor mite population growth. two viruses, abpv and sbv, were never detected. for adults without mite infestation, dwv, iapv, bqcv and kbv ...201525723540
effect of oral infection with kashmir bee virus and israeli acute paralysis virus on bumblebee (bombus terrestris) reproductive success.israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv) together with acute bee paralysis virus (abpv) and kashmir bee virus (kbv) constitute a complex of closely related dicistroviruses. they are infamous for their high mortality after injection in honeybees. these viruses have also been reported in non-apis hymenopteran pollinators such as bumblebees, which got infected with iapv when placed in the same greenhouse with iapv infected honeybee hives. here we orally infected bombus terrestris workers with different ...201425004171
genetic diversity of acute bee paralysis virus in slovenian honeybee samples.the genetic diversity of acute bee paralysis virus (abpv) in honeybees was studied in slovenia. a total of 248 honeybee samples obtained from 134 different apiaries in slovenia were tested for the presence of abpv by rt-pcr. specific 398-base pair (bp) products were generated with primers amplifying the orf2 region and 452-base pair (bp) products with primers amplifying the orf1 region of the viral genome. to characterise the overall nucleotide diversity among the abpv sequences, phylogenetic tr ...201323661392
molecular and phylogenetic characterization of honey bee viruses, nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and parasitic mites in china.china has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies, which produce the highest quantity of honey and royal jelly in the world; however, the presence of honey bee pathogens and parasites has never been rigorously identified in chinese apiaries. we thus conducted a molecular survey of honey bee rna viruses, nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and tracheal mites associated with nonnative apis mellifera ligustica and native apis cerana cerana colonies in china. we found the presence of ...201323467539
patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens.the well-being of a colony and replenishment of the workers depends on a healthy queen. diseases in queens are seldom reported, and our knowledge on viral infection in queens is limited. in this study, 86 honey bee queens were collected from beekeepers in denmark. all queens were tested separately by two real-time pcrs: one for the presence of deformed wing virus (dwv), and one that would detect sequences of acute bee-paralysis virus, kashmir bee virus and israeli acute paralysis virus (aki comp ...201323223622
development of a real-time rt-pcr assay with taqman probe for specific detection of acute bee paralysis virus.real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time pcr) is an accurate, rapid and reliable method that can be used for the detection and also for the quantitation of specific dna molecules. it can be non-specific, with intercalating dyes (sybr green i dye) able to bind to any dsdna, or specific with a probe (taqman), whereby the probe is designed to bind within the amplified pcr fragment. a new real-time reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (real time rt-pcr) assay with taqman probe f ...201222609890
prevalence and distribution of six bee viruses in korean apis cerana populations.the prevalence and distribution of six bee viruses was investigated in 527 apis cerana samples which were collected from five provinces in south korea. the most prevalent virus, black queen cell virus (bqcv), was present in 75.11% of 446 adult bee samples, followed by sacbrood virus (sbv) in 30.71%. deformed wing virus (dwv), kashmir bee virus (kbv), and chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) were present at lower levels of 8.07%, 1.56%, and 0.44%, respectively. the most prevalent virus in 81 larvae ...201222273697
inactivation of a non-enveloped rna virus by artificial ribonucleases: honey bees and acute bee paralysis virus as a new experimental model for in vivo antiviral activity assessment.rna-containing viruses represent a global threat to the health and wellbeing of humans and animals. hence, the discovery of new approaches for the design of novel vaccines and antiviral compounds attains high attention. here we describe the potential of artificial ribonucleases (arnases), low molecular weight compounds capable to cleave phosphodiester bonds in rna under mild conditions, to act as antiviral compounds via destroying the genome of non-enveloped rna viruses, and the potential of uti ...201121722669
one-step real-time quantitative pcr assays for the detection and field study of sacbrood honeybee and acute bee paralysis viruses.two one-step real-time rt-pcr assays, based on sybr green (sg) chemistry, were developed or adapted respectively, for the detection, differentiation, and quantitation of two important honeybee viruses: sacbrood virus (sbv) and acute bee paralysis virus (abpv). both reactions were optimized to yield the highest sensitivity and specificity. the genome equivalent copies (gec) detection limit per reaction was 389.3 for the abpv rt-pcr. the gec detection limit per reaction was 298.9 for the sbv rt-pc ...200919559729
phylogenetic analysis of acute bee paralysis virus strains.reverse transcription-pcr assays have been established for a quick, sensitive, and specific diagnosis of acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), a common virus of the honeybee (apis mellifera), directly from clinical samples. a 3,071-nucleotide fragment of the abpv genome, which includes the entire capsid polyprotein gene, was amplified from austrian, german, polish, and hungarian abpv samples and sequenced, and the sequences were compared. the alignment of a smaller fragment with abpv sequences from ...200212450876
acute bee-paralysis virus in adult honey bees injected with sacbrood virus. 19676053149
israeli acute paralysis virus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and implications for honey bee health.israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv) is a widespread rna virus of honey bees that has been linked with colony losses. here we describe the transmission, prevalence, and genetic traits of this virus, along with host transcriptional responses to infections. further, we present rnai-based strategies for limiting an important mechanism used by iapv to subvert host defenses. our study shows that iapv is established as a persistent infection in honey bee populations, likely enabled by both horizontal ...201425079600
acute bee paralysis virus, a cytoplasmic insect virus. 19665943541
in vivo and in vitro infection dynamics of honey bee viruses.the honey bee (apis mellifera) is commonly infected by multiple viruses. we developed an experimental system for the study of such mixed viral infections in newly emerged honey bees and in the cell line ame-711, derived from honey bee embryos. when inoculating a mixture of iflavirids [sacbrood bee virus (sbv), deformed wing virus (dwv)] and dicistrovirids [israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv), black queen cell virus (bqcv)] in both live bee and cell culture assays, iapv replicated to higher leve ...201626923109
prevalence of honeybee viruses in different regions of china and argentina.honeybees are threatened by various pathogens and parasites. more than 18 viruses have been described in honeybees and many of them have been detected in china and argentina. in china, both apis cerana and apis mellifera are raised. in argentina, beekeepers raise different ecotypes of a. mellifera: european honeybees (in both temperate and subtropical regions) and africanised honeybees (in subtropical areas only). a thorough study was carried out in both china and argentina to analyse the curren ...201628332647
virus infections of honeybees apis mellifera.the health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as varroa destructor and nosema spp.) and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and well-being of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. to tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effectiv ...201527800411
a mathematical model of the honeybee-varroa destructor-acute bee paralysis virus system with seasonal effects.a mathematical model for the honeybee-varroa mite-abpv system is proposed in terms of four differential equations for the: infected and uninfected bees in the colony, number of mites overall, and of mites carrying the virus. to account for seasonal variability, all parameters are time periodic. we obtain linearized stability conditions for the disease-free periodic solutions. numerically, we illustrate that, for appropriate parameters, mites can establish themselves in colonies that are not trea ...201526382876
in-depth proteomic analysis of varroa destructor: detection of dwv-complex, abpv, vdmlv and honeybee proteins in the mite.we investigated pathogens in the parasitic honeybee mite varroa destructor using nanolc-ms/ms (tripletof) and 2d-e-ms/ms proteomics approaches supplemented with affinity-chromatography to concentrate trace target proteins. peptides were detected from the currently uncharacterized varroa destructor macula-like virus (vdmlv), the deformed wing virus (dwv)-complex and the acute bee paralysis virus (abpv). peptide alignments revealed detection of complete structural dwv-complex block vp2-vp1-vp3, vd ...201526358842
bee pathogens found in bombus atratus from colombia: a case study.bombus atratus bumblebees from colombia that were caught in the wild and from breeding programs were screened for a broad set of bee pathogens. we discovered for the first time lake sinai virus and confirmed the infection by other common viruses. the prevalence of apicystis bombi, crithidia bombi and nosema ceranae was remarkably high. according to other studies the former two could have been co-introduced in south america with exotic bumble bees as bombus terrestris or bombus ruderatus. given t ...201526031564
molecular identification of chronic bee paralysis virus infection in apis mellifera colonies in japan.chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv) infection causes chronic paralysis and loss of workers in honey bee colonies around the world. although cbpv shows a worldwide distribution, it had not been molecularly detected in japan. our investigation of apis mellifera and apis cerana japonica colonies with rt-pcr has revealed cbpv infection in a. mellifera but not a. c. japonica colonies in japan. the prevalence of cbpv is low compared with that of other viruses: deformed wing virus (dwv), black queen cel ...201222852042
low prevalence of honeybee viruses in spain during 2006 and 2007.rna viruses that affect honeybees have been involved in colony losses reported around the world. the aim of the present work was to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of honeybee viruses during 2006-2007 in spanish professional apiaries, and their association with colony losses. four hundred and fifty-six samples from apiaries located in different geographic regions of spain were analyzed. thirty-seven percent of the samples had viral presence. most (80%) had one virus and 20% two differen ...201222513127
neonicotinoid-coated zea mays seeds indirectly affect honeybee performance and pathogen susceptibility in field trials.thirty-two honeybee (apis mellifera) colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (zea mays spp) on honeybee health. honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near quebec city, canada. two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. hives were ex ...201525993642
prevalence of honey bee (apis mellifera) viruses in temperate and subtropical regions from argentina, bee virus studies are still incipient, and there are no studies regarding the climatic effect. the aim of this study was to assess and compare the presence of honeybee viruses in different climatic regions from argentina. a total of 385 colonies distributed in five argentinean eco-regions were examined to evaluate the percentage of infestation with varroa destructor and the presence of seven virus species (deformed wing virus, dwv; acute bee paralysis virus, abpv; chronic bee paral ...201728449942
characterization of viral sirna populations in honey bee colony collapse disorder.colony collapse disorder (ccd), a special case of collapse of honey bee colonies, has resulted in significant losses for beekeepers. ccd-colonies show abundance of pathogens which suggests that they have a weakened immune system. since honey bee viruses are major players in colony collapse and given the important role of viral rna interference (rnai) in combating viral infections we investigated if ccd-colonies elicit an rnai response. deep-sequencing analysis of samples from ccd-colonies from u ...201424725944
population-genomic variation within rna viruses of the western honey bee, apis mellifera, inferred from deep sequencing.deep sequencing of viruses isolated from infected hosts is an efficient way to measure population-genetic variation and can reveal patterns of dispersal and natural selection. in this study, we mined existing illumina sequence reads to investigate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) within two rna viruses of the western honey bee (apis mellifera), deformed wing virus (dwv) and israel acute paralysis virus (iapv). all viral rna was extracted from north american samples of honey bees or, in one ...201323497218
metagenomic detection of viral pathogens in spanish honeybees: co-infection by aphid lethal paralysis, israel acute paralysis and lake sinai viruses.the situation in europe concerning honeybees has in recent years become increasingly aggravated with steady decline in populations and/or catastrophic winter losses. this has largely been attributed to the occurrence of a variety of known and "unknown", emerging novel diseases. previous studies have demonstrated that colonies often can harbour more than one pathogen, making identification of etiological agents with classical methods difficult. by employing an unbiased metagenomic approach, which ...201323460860
israeli acute paralysis virus associated paralysis symptoms, viral tissue distribution and dicer-2 induction in bumblebee workers (bombus terrestris).although it is known that israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv) can cause bee mortality, the symptoms of paralysis and the distribution of the virus in different body tissues and their potential to respond with an increase of the sirna antiviral immune system have not been studied. in this project we worked with bombus terrestris, which is one of the most numerous bumblebee species in europe and an important pollinator for wild flowers and many crops in agriculture. besides the classic symptoms o ...201627230225
a mathematical model of forager loss in honeybee colonies infested with varroa destructor and the acute bee paralysis virus.we incorporate a mathematical model of varroa destructor and the acute bee paralysis virus with an existing model for a honeybee colony, in which the bee population is divided into hive bees and forager bees based on tasks performed in the colony. the model is a system of five ordinary differential equations with dependent variables: uninfected hive bees, uninfected forager bees, infected hive bees, virus-free mites and virus-carrying mites. the interplay between forager loss and disease infesta ...201728401377
in vivo study of dicer-2-mediated immune response of the small interfering rna pathway upon systemic infections of virulent and avirulent viruses in bombus terrestris.recent studies suggest a potent role of the small interfering rna (sirna) pathway in the control of bee viruses and its usefulness to tackle these viral diseases. however, the involvement of the sirna pathway in the defense against different bee viruses is still poorly understood. therefore, in this report, we comprehensively analyzed the response of the sirna pathway in bumblebees of bombus terrestris to systemic infections of the virulent israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv) and the avirulent ...201626711439
global shape mimicry of trna within a viral internal ribosome entry site mediates translational reading frame selection.the dicistrovirus intergenic region internal ribosome entry site (ires) adopts a triple-pseudoknotted rna structure and occupies the core ribosomal e, p, and a sites to directly recruit the ribosome and initiate translation at a non-aug codon. a subset of dicistrovirus iress directs translation in the 0 and +1 frames to produce the viral structural proteins and a +1 overlapping open reading frame called orfx, respectively. here we show that specific mutations of two unpaired adenosines located a ...201526554019
assembly of recombinant israeli acute paralysis virus capsids.the dicistrovirus israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv) has been implicated in the worldwide decline of honey bees. studies of iapv and many other bee viruses in pure culture are restricted by available isolates and permissive cell culture. here we show that coupling the iapv major structural precursor protein orf2 to its cognate 3c-like processing enzyme results in processing of the precursor to the individual structural proteins in a number of insect cell lines following expression by a recombi ...201425153716
gamma irradiation of pollen and eradication of israeli acute paralysis virus.honeybees and bumblebees are the most important pollinators of agricultural crops. for this purpose honeybees and bumblebees are reared and transported. a pathogen-free status of bees in general, is crucial. indeed anthropogenic transports of hosts carrying parasites could alter the natural host/pathogen association, inducing an extra pathogenic stress. therefore the creation of a pathogen-free rearing environment is needed. for bumblebees this is possible, as these species are reared in a close ...201425034227
dynamics of the presence of israeli acute paralysis virus in honey bee colonies with colony collapse disorder.the determinants of colony collapse disorder (ccd), a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. viruses including the israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv) were associated with ccd. we found an apiary with colonies showing typical ccd characteristics that bore high loads of iapv, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if iapv was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. we found that iapv was the dominant pathogen and it ...201424800677
pathogens as predictors of honey bee colony strength in england and wales.inspectors with the uk national bee unit were asked for 2007-2008 to target problem apiaries in england and wales for pathogen screening and colony strength measures. healthy colonies were included in the sampling to provide a continuum of health conditions. a total of 406 adult bee samples was screened and yielded 7 viral, 1 bacterial, and 2 microsporidial pathogens and 1 ectoparasite (acarapis woodi). in addition, 108 samples of brood were screened and yielded 4 honey bee viruses. virus preval ...201526186735
differential responses of africanized and european honey bees (apis mellifera) to viral replication following mechanical transmission or varroa destructor parasitism.for the first time, adults and brood of africanized and european honey bees (apis mellifera) were compared for relative virus levels over 48 h following varroa destructor parasitism or injection of v. destructor homogenate. rates of increase of deformed wing virus (dwv) for africanized versus european bees were temporarily lowered for 12h with parasitism and sustainably lowered over the entire experiment (48 h) with homogenate injection in adults. the rates were also temporarily lowered for 24h ...201525527405
honey bee apis mellifera parasites in the absence of nosema ceranae fungi and varroa destructor mites.few areas of the world have western honey bee (apis mellifera) colonies that are free of invasive parasites nosema ceranae (fungi) and varroa destructor (mites). particularly detrimental is v. destructor; in addition to feeding on host haemolymph, these mites are important vectors of several viruses that are further implicated as contributors to honey bee mortality around the world. thus, the biogeography and attendant consequences of viral communities in the absence of v. destructor are of sign ...201424955834
the ability to cause infection in a pathogenic fungus uncovers a new biological feature of honey bee viruses.we demonstrated that honey bee viruses including deformed wing virus (dwv), black queen cell virus (bqcv) and israeli acute paralysis virus (iapv) could infect and replicate in the fungal pathogen ascosphaera apis that causes honey bee chalkbrood disease, revealing a novel biological feature of honey bee viruses. the phylogenetic analysis show that viruses of fungal and honey bee origins form two clusters in the phylogenetic trees distinctly and that host range of honey bee viruses is dynamic. f ...201424825460
cross-species transmission of honey bee viruses in associated arthropods.there are a number of rna virus pathogens that represent a serious threat to the health of managed honey bees (apis mellifera). that some of these viruses are also found in the broader pollinator community suggests the wider environmental spread of these viruses, with the potential for a broader impact on ecosystems. studies on the ecology and evolution of these viruses in the arthropod community as a whole may therefore provide important insights into these potential impacts. we examined manage ...201323845302
seasonal prevalence of pathogens and parasites in the savannah honeybee (apis mellifera scutellata).the loss of apis mellifera l. colonies in recent years has, in many regions of the world, been alarmingly high. no single cause has been identified for these losses, but the interactions between several factors (mostly pathogens and parasites) have been held responsible. work in the americas on honeybees originating mainly from south africa indicates that africanised honeybees are less affected by the interplay of pathogens and parasites. however, little is known about the health status of south ...201323702244
risk factors for the presence of deformed wing virus and acute bee paralysis virus under temperate and subtropical climate in argentinian bee colonies.beekeepers all across the world are suffering important losses of their colonies, and the parasitic mites varroa destructor and nosema sp, as well as several bee viruses, are being pointed out as the possible causes of these losses, generally associated with environmental and management factors. the objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of seven virus species (deformed wing virus -dwv-, acute bee paralysis virus -abpv-, chronic bee paralysis virus -cbpv-, black queen cell v ...201728460743
the first comprehensive molecular detection of six honey bee viruses in iran in least 18 viruses have been reported in the honey bee (apis mellifera l.). however, severe diseases in honey bees are mainly caused by six viruses, and these are the most important in beekeeping. these viruses include: deformed wing virus (dwv), acute bee paralysis virus (abpv), chronic bee paralysis virus (cbpv), sacbrood virus (sbv), kashmir bee virus (kbv), and black queen cell virus (bqcv). in this study, we evaluated 89 iranian honey bee apiaries (during the period 2015-2016) suffering fr ...201728429131
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