[host weeds of rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis (sasaki) (hemiptera: aphididae) in areas of irrigated rice].rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis (sasaki) is an insect of world-wide distribution that damages irrigated rice. from september, 2004 to february, 2005, nymphs and adults of this aphid were collected in several host weeds of rice farms in alegrete, quaraí and uruguaiana, located in western of state of rio grande do sul, and restinga seca, in central region of this state, brazil. the insect was found in the root of andropogon bicornis (west indian foxtail), echinochloa colona (jungle rice), oryza sati ...200717710332
the species composition of thrips (insecta: thysanoptera) inhabiting mango orchards in pulau pinang, malaysia.a field study was conducted at two localities on pulau pinang, malaysia, during two consecutive mango flowering seasons in 2009 to identify variations in the species composition of thrips infesting treated and untreated mango (mangifera indica l.) orchards. the co2 immobilisation technique and the cutting method were used to recover different thrips species from mango panicles and weed host plants, respectively. the mango panicles and various weed species within the treated orchard were found to ...201224575225
morphology and ultrastructure of the gravity-sensitive leaf sheath base of the grass echinochloa colonum l.when a flowering stalk of echinochloa colonum is held horizontally, growth is initiated in the lower side of each leaf sheath base, restoring the inflorescence to an upright position. changes in the gravity vector are perceived by specialised statolithcontaining tissue which is associated with each of the symmetrically-arranged vascular bundles within the leaf sheath bases. the morphological and ultrastructural features of these gravity-sensitive regions have been examined by light and electron ...197924317864
development and mapping of simple sequence repeat markers for pearl millet from data mining of expressed sequence tags.pearl millet [pennisetum glaucum (l.) r. br.] is a staple food and fodder crop of marginal agricultural lands of sub-saharan africa and the indian subcontinent. it is also a summer forage crop in the southern usa, australia and latin america, and is the preferred mulch in brazilian no-till soybean production systems. use of molecular marker technology for pearl millet genetic improvement has been limited. progress is hampered by insufficient numbers of pcr-compatible co-dominant markers that can ...200819038016
comparative binding and disintegrating property of echinochloa colona starch (difra starch) against maize, sorghum, and cassava starch.starch obtained from different botanical sources exhibit different characteristics due to variation in amylase-amylopectin ratio, which results in different binder substrate interactions.201424552302
concerted action of target-site mutations and high epsps activity in glyphosate-resistant junglerice (echinochloa colona) from california.echinochloa colona is an annual weed affecting field crops and orchards in california. an e. colona population carrying a mutation in the epsps gene endowing resistance to glyphosate, the most widely used non-selective herbicide, was recently identified in the northern sacramento valley of california. plants from this population, from a suspected glyphosate-resistant (gr) population, and from one susceptible (s) population collected in the northern sacramento valley of california, were used to g ...201525115401
host preference and suitability of grasses for oebalus pugnax.the rice stink bug, oebalus pugnax (fabricius) (hemiptera: pentatomidae: carpocorini), though graminaceous, discriminates among its numerous host grass species. this could represent a feeding preference, it could be related to host suitability for growth and development. to clarify the role of host grass discrimination, two laboratory studies were conducted: (1) free-choice tests to evaluate preferences of o. pugnax among 11 wild host grass species found in three rice-producing counties of the c ...201425635144
glyphosate resistance in echinochloa colona: phenotypic characterisation and quantification of selection intensity.a population of echinochloa colona infesting agricultural fields in the northern region of western australia evolved glyphosate resistance after 10 years of glyphosate selection. this study identified two phenotypic (susceptible s versus resistant r) lines from within a segregating glyphosate-resistant population. estimation of survival, growth and reproductive rates of the phenotypes in response to glyphosate selection helped to characterise the level of resistance, fitness and the selection in ...201625779335
target-site epsps pro-106 mutations: sufficient to endow glyphosate resistance in polyploid echinochloa colona?this study confirms and characterises glyphosate resistance in two polyploid echinochloa colona populations from north-eastern australia.201625969123
temperature influences the level of glyphosate resistance in barnyardgrass (echinochloa colona).echinochloa colona is an important summer-growing weed species in cropping regions of northern australia that has evolved resistance to glyphosate owing to intensive use of this herbicide in summer fallow.201626202902
transcriptomic changes in echinochloa colona in response to treatment with the herbicide imazamox.presented here is the first echinochloa colona leaf transcriptome. analysis of gene expression before and after herbicide treatment reveals that e. colona mounts a stress response upon exposure to herbicide. herbicides are the most frequently used means of controlling weeds. for many herbicides, the target site is known; however, it is considerably less clear how plant gene expression changes in response to herbicide exposure. in this study, changes in gene expression in response to herbicide ex ...201829022094
plant regeneration from tissue cultures initiated from immature inflorescences of a grass,echinochloa colonum (l.) link.organised structures develop on a white and compact callus initiated from small segments of immature inflorescences ofechinochloa colonum cultured on murashige and skoog's (ms) medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d) and 10% coconut milk. these develop into plantlets upon subculture onto ms medium containing 0 or 0.2 mg/l 2,4-d. twelve out of 17 plantlets regenerated grew well on transfer to soil and eleven plants produced seeds.198524253738
transport, compartmentation, and metabolism of homoserine in higher plant cells. carbon-13- and phosphorus-31-nuclear magnetic resonance studies carbon-13- and phosphorus-31-nuclear magnetic resonance studiesthe transport, compartmentation, and metabolism of homoserine was characterized in two strains of meristematic higher plant cells, the dicotyledonous sycamore (acer pseudoplatanus) and the monocotyledonous weed echinochloa colonum. homoserine is an intermediate in the synthesis of the aspartate-derived amino acids methionine, threonine (thr), and isoleucine. using 13c-nuclear magnetic resonance, we showed that homoserine actively entered the cells via a high-affinity proton-symport carrier (km a ...19989490758
effects of chromium and nickel on germination and growth in tolerant and non-tolerant populations of echinochloa colona (l.) link.the tolerance of populations of a grass, echinochloa colona, growing abundantly on chromite minewaste dumps, was tested in two separate experiments. seed-based experiments indicate that the populations growing naturally on uncontaminated sites, germinated better in nutrient solutions without metal than those collected from minewaste dumps. metal tolerance indices were greater in the plant populations derived from metal contaminated sites and better growth of these plants was noted on mine spoil ...200010718579
heterodera graminophila n. sp. (nematoda heteroderae) from grass with a key to closely related species.heterodera graminophila n. sp., a member of the h. goettingiana group, is described and illustrated from roots of barnyard grass, echinochloa colonum (l.) link, in baton rouge, la. this new abullate species, having second-stage larvae with only three lines in the lateral field, is most closely related to h. cyperi golden, rau &cobb, 1962, and h. graminis stynes, 1971, but differs particularly in having a small, inconspicuous anus without a circum-anal pattern and located about 20% of the cyst le ...197219319258
the effect of salinity on chlorophyll, proline and mineral nutrients in common weeds of coastal rice fields in malaysia.six weed species (leptochola chinensis, echinochloa crus-galli, echinochloa colona, jussiaea linifolia, oryza sativa (weedy rice) and cyperus iria) were tested for their salt tolerant traits in terms of chlorophyll, proline and mineral nutrients accumulation against different salinity levels (0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 ds m(-1)). chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll content, proline and mineral nutrients accumulation were determined. salt stress showed prominent effect on all the parameters i ...201425204059
differences in responses to flooding by germinating seeds of two contrasting rice cultivars and two species of economically important grass weeds.crop productivity is largely affected by abiotic factors such as flooding and by biotic factors such as weeds. although flooding after direct seeding of rice helps suppress weeds, it also can adversely affects germination and growth of rice, resulting in poor crop establishment. barnyard grasses (echinochloa spp.) are among the most widespread weeds affecting rice, especially under direct seeding. the present work aimed to establish effective management options to control these weeds. we assesse ...201425336336
nimbolide b and nimbic acid b, phytotoxic substances in neem leaves with allelopathic activity.neem (azadirachta indica) has been widely used as a traditional medicine and several bioactive compounds have been isolated from this species, but to date no potent allelopathic active substance has been reported. therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic property and phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity in neem. an aqueous methanol extract of neem leaves inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress, lettuce, alfalfa, timothy, crabgrass, ryegrass, barnyard grass and jungl ...201424865604
reproduction of meloidogyne marylandi and m. incognita on several poaceae.the susceptibility of 22 plant species to meloidogyne marylandi and m. incognita was examined in three greenhouse experiments. inoculum of m. marylandi was eggs from cultures maintained on zoysia matrella "cavalier" or cynodon dactylon x c. trasvaalensis "tifdwarf". inoculum of m. incognita was eggs from cultures maintained on solanum lycopersicum 'rutgers'. in each host test the inoculum density was 2,000 nematode eggs/pot. none of the three dicot species tested (gossypium hirsutum, arachis hyp ...200922661770
evaluations of allelopathic effect of echinochloa colona weed on rice (oryza sativa l. 'vandana').echinochloa colona (l.) link is a very problematic weed in up land and medium land rice causing significant reduction in yield. in the present investigation, laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the nature of interaction e. colona on germination and growth of the up land rice cultivar 'vandana'. the effects of decomposing and decomposed aqueous leachates (1-10% w/v) obtained from the dried biomass of 20, 30, 40 and 60 days old ecolona plants were studied on rice using petr ...201223734454
phylogenetic placement of a novel tenuivirus from the grass urochloa plantaginea.evidence is presented that a tenuivirus recovered from the grass urochloa plantaginea is probably a novel tenuivirus species, to be called urochloa hoja blanca virus (uhbv). it is related to both echinochloa hoja blanca virus (ehbv) and rice hoja blanca virus (rhbv), and these three form a group distinct from maize stripe virus (mstv) and rice stripe virus (rstv). phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data for rna-3 and rna-4 of these viruses supports the hypothesis that ehbv and uhbv may have e ...200111450951
rapid, small scale purification of rice hoja blanca and echinochloa hoja blanca tenuivirus ribonucleoprotein.highly purified tenuivirus ribonucleoprotein was obtained from small amounts of leaf tissue by sedimenting the ribonucleoprotein particles from debris-free plant extract into a 30% sucrose cushion, in 1.5-ml microfuge tubes. using this protocol, significant size differences were discovered in the double-stranded forms of the viral genomic rnas of rice hoja blanca tenuivirus and a tenuivirus isolated from echinochloa colonum, a common weed of rice cultivation.19968690758
effect of heating and fortification with lysine on protein quality of minor millets.the effect of heating and fortification with lysine on the protein quality of five minor millets namely italian millet (s. italica), french millet (panicum miliaceum), barnyard millet (echinochloa colona), kodo millet (paspalum scrobiculatum) and little millet (panicum miliare) was carried out. the n content of the millets ranged from 1.69 to 2.76 per cent. proximate composition and dietary fibre was estimated. a reduction of 19-25 in td and increase of 4-18 in bv was observed on auto-claving an ...19892517144
simulating the evolution of glyphosate resistance in grains farming in northern australia.the evolution of resistance to herbicides is a substantial problem in contemporary agriculture. solutions to this problem generally consist of the use of practices to control the resistant population once it evolves, and/or to institute preventative measures before populations become resistant. herbicide resistance evolves in populations over years or decades, so predicting the effectiveness of preventative strategies in particular relies on computational modelling approaches. while models of he ...200919567415
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