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effectiveness of the vaccine of vi-antigen of salmonella typhosa in children and adolescents. 19751943
characteristics of lipopolysaccharides of salmonella typhi isolated from carriers and patients suffering from typhoid fever.lipopolysaccharides (lps) of salmonella typhi strains, isolated from carriers and patients suffering from typhoid fever, were characterised according to their biochemical properties, morphological structure and degree of aggregation of complexes. all preparations of lps, regardless of their origin, were morphologically heterogeneous. free electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis demonstrated that lps preparations were composed of components possessing different mobilities in electric fields. lp ...19762523
kinetics of haemopoietic recovery in endotoxin-treated mice.kinetics of mouse spleen colony forming units were studied after intra-peritoneal injection of 1 mug/blody weight bacterial endotoxin s. typhosa. when these mice were used as unirradiated and sublethally irradiated donors, it was possible to study the effect of the endotoxin injection upon the cells. use of the treated mice as irradiated recipients of normal cells gave information about the host effect. in treated unirradiated mice, the total nucleated cell and the cfu counts were disturbed, and ...19764225
effect of glass on ph-dependent stability of typhoid vaccine.vaccines made from the ty-2 strain of salmonella typhosa were tested periodically for stability of ph and of potency. the acetone-treated cultures prepared in buffered saline solutions retained potency beyond 30 months of storage at 0 to 5 c. similar vaccines in unbuffered saline solutions lost potency coincident with increase of alkalinity. vaccines packaged in united states pharmacopeia borosilicate glass vials retained potency and ph stability, whereas those in type iii united states pharmaco ...19769421
study of the amount of antibody-forming and rosette-forming cells in different states of natural immunity in mice. 197613562
emergency prophylaxis of typhoid using the vi-antigen of typhoid bacteria. 197613578
detection of salmonella antigens in the neutralization reaction (anr). 197717975
mild alkaline hydrolysis of lipopolysaccharide endotoxin enhances its mitogencity for murine b cells.mild alkaline hydrolysis was found to enhance the mitogenicity of lipopolysaccharide endotoxin for murine b lymphocytes. alkaline treated lipopolysaccharide also retained its property as a polyclonal activator. whereas this treatment reduced the lethality of endotoxin for mice, its toxicity for lymphocytes cultured in the absence of fetal calf serum was increased. lipid analysis indicated that there were no significant changes in the fatty acids of lipid a, but particle size was significantly re ...197718405
method of culturing typhoid microorganisms with automatic regulation of glucose feed.a system of oxygen-glucose inverse relationship is not acceptable for cultivation of typhoid bacilli with a high reproductive rate and glucose utilization. the elaborated method of automatic glucose supply during typhoid bacilli cultivation permits to lead the process under the optimal conditions by ph and the residual glucose concentration.197827049
the effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria. xii. the release of lipopolysaccharide (lps) from salmonella typhi by leukocyte extracts, lysozyme, inflammatory exudates and by serum and synovial fluid and the modulation by anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes of lps release and the sensitization of erythrocytes. 197828292
bacteriolytic enzymes of vi phage iii lysate. 197831873
immunogenicity of gonococcal gc2 polysaccharide: comparative studies with pneumococcal type iii polysaccharide and salmonella typhosa vi antigen.a plaque assay technique was used to assess the immunogenicity of a gonococcal cell wall polysaccharide (gc2 antigen) in balb/c mice. the gc2 antigen was shown to be immunogenic, and the kinetics of the response differed from that of a pneumococcal polysaccharide (sss-iii) and a polysaccharide antigen of salmonella typhosa (vi antigen). in addition, using antithymocyte sera, the t-lymphocyte dependency of these antigens was investigated. the immune response to the gc2 antigen was demonstrated to ...197832136
[phenomenon of parental resistance and its genetic regulation].lymphocytes of mice f1 (cba x m523) and f1 (a x m523) transplanted to 1000 r irradiated cba or a mice responded to the test antigens--srbc or s. typhi vi-antigen--by formation of 100--1000 times less antibody forming cells than in syngeneic recipients. an intermediate result is achieved when the lymphoid cells are transplanted to the irradiated m523 mice. lymphocytes of mice f1 (a x cba), f1 (cba x c57bl/6), or f1 (a x a.ca) developed a similar immune response in the irradiated syngeneic mice an ...197934452
[compared survival of "escherichia coli" and "salmonella typhi-murium" in cold water (author's transl)].the survival rates of escherichia coli and salmonella typhi-murium in water are studied at 4, 10 and 20 degrees c and ph 6 and 8, either separately or in mixed culture at four different ratios. s. typhi-murium's survival rate is enhanced at ph 6 and low water temperature. the value of traditional microbiological indicators in assessed in cold water conditions.197943688
emergence of antibiotic resistance in hospitals, 1935-1975.a limited review of the changes in susceptibility of common bacterial pathogens to available antibacterial agents is presented. significant developments in recent years include the following: (1) the emergence of streptococcus pneumoniae with decreased resistance to penicillin and of some strains resistant to several antibiotics; (2) a decline in prevalence of multi-drug-resistant staphylococcus aureus after 1960 following their increasing prevalence in the preceding years (these changes were me ...197945521
quantification of mouse macrophage chemotaxis in vitro: role of c5 for the production of chemotactic activity.delineation of the mechanisms of macrophage accumulation at local tissue sites will further our understanding of immunologically mediated host resistance to infectious and neoplastic diseases. since mice are frequently used for the study of immune function, we developed a method for the quantification of mouse macrophage chemotaxis in vitro. by this method it was found that the fifth component of complement is necessary for the production of chemotactic activity in mouse serum by inflammatory ag ...197546841
relative efficacy of blood, urine, rectal swab, bone-marrow, and rose-spot cultures for recovery of salmonella typhi in typhoid fever.the recovery of salmonella typhi from blood, rectal swab, urine, bone-marrow, and rose spots was compared in 62 patients with typhoid fever, most of whom had received some antibiotic therapy before presentation. s. typhi was isolated from culture of bone-marrow in 56 patients (90%); in contrast, s. typhi was recovered from blood in only 25 (40%), from stool in 23 (37%), and urine in 4 (7%). s. typhi was isolated from 24 (63%) of 38 patients who had rose-spot cultures. if culture sites had been l ...197548834
taxonomic distribution of the antigen eliciting bactericidal antibody for bordetella pertussis.strains of bordetella pertussis varied in their ability to elicit (in mice) an antibody bactericidal for an antiserum-sensitive strain of b. pertussis, although antibody was usually detectable after only one injection. high titres were produced by a course of seven injections with all strains of b. pertussis tested (six of phase i and three of phase iv) but not with three strains of other bordetella species nor with two unrelated organisms, a finding of possible taxonomic value. preliminary inve ...197549392
[bacterial cytostimulation by specific antibodies (author's transl)].antibodies bound to the surface of escherichia coli cells stimulate the rate of growth of these bacteria in proportion to their quantity. this "cytostimulation" of the bacteria is confirmed by (1) the increase in optical density, (2) colony counts and (3) increase in the beta-galactosidase activity of a constitutive strain. this action can be amplified by overlaying the antibodies bound to the bacteria, with anti-antibodies. the cytostimulation is accompanied by an increase of the ratio in phosp ...197550758
letter: effects of inhaled fumes on immunological response of rabbits. 197551005
comparative trial of amoxycillin and chloramphenicol in treatment of typhoid fever in adults.a randomised clinical trial in 124 adult patients with typhoid fever, proved by blood culture, showed that amoxycillin in a dosage of 1 g. six-hourly for fourteen days is an alternative to chloramphenicol, which has hitherto been regarded as the drug of choice.197551141
letter: antibiotic-resistant typhoid in indonesia. 197551212
vi antigen from salmonella typhosa and immunity against typhoid fever. 11. safety and antigenicity in humans.safety and antigenicity of a purified preparation of salmonella typhosa vi antigen was evaluated in human volunteers. dosages of vi antigen at 25, 50, and 100 mug were less toxic than u.s. standard typhoid vaccine (lot 6a) containing 5 x 10(8) bacteria per dosage. vi antigen in comparison with the standard typhoid vaccine induced higher hemagglutinating antibody but lower bactericidal antibody responses.197554336
[study of the antigenic structure of salmonella by means of immunoelectrophoresis].the method of immunoelectrophoretic analysis was applied to the study of the antigenic structure of 180 freshly-isolated and laboratory cultures of salmonellae belonging to 29 serological types. a complicated set of specific and common antigens of bacteria was revealed in direct and cross experiments with the use of homologous and heterogenous antisera; immunophoregrams were drawn for each of the serological type under study. general regularities in immunophoretic, diffuse and serological charac ...197555020
[bile agglutination reaction (bar) as a method of diagnosis of carrier state of salmonella typhi and paratyphi a and b]. 197557274
[analysis of o specific sites present on boivin's antigen and on the degraded polysaccharide of salmonella typhi]. 197659698
[live enteric typhoid vaccine consisting of a vi-negative double-dependent mutant of s. typhi and a vi-positive strain of citrobacter].the authors present experimental data on the study of the living enteral vaccine against the typhoid infection from the vi-negative strain of salmonella with a double-dependence by streptomycin and purine, and from the vi-positive strain -- citrobacter 5396/38. the method of immunoelectrophoretic analysis showed an indenticity of the o- and h-antigens of the doubledependent mutant with the o- and h-antigens of the typhoid strains of bacteria (ty2-4446 and 5501). a sufficiently marked immunologic ...197660853
comparative efficacy of chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and co-trimoxazole in the treatment of typhoid fever.two clinical trials were conducted to compare the efficacy of 3 antimicrobial agents often recommended for the treatment of typhoid fever. chloramphenicol was more effective than parenteral ampicillin or oral co-trimoxazole (trimethaprim/sulphamethoxazole) in reducing the duration of fever. oral chloramphenicol was more effective than parenteral chloramphenicol probably because oral doses resulted in higher blood concentrations of the drug. however, parenteral chloramphenicol was given during th ...197662992
the unfortunate role of precedent in bacteriology. ii. unrelated serological specificities of the polysaccharides from s. typhi and s. gallinarum sharing factors 9.12.tube and agar-gel precipitations of antigens isolated from s. typhi and s. gallinarum against homologous and heterologous rabbit antisera showed that the polysaccharides of these salmonellae, sharing factors 9.12 do not cross-react. thus, the serological analyses prove that sugars can not be related to factors in the kauffmann-white scheme. the cross-reacting antigens from these salmonellae of serogroup d are the free proteins and the proteinic moieties of their somatic antigens.197663196
induction of an igm anti-(bovine)-igg response in mice by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. 197663917
[reaction of antibody neutralization as a method of detection of antigens of the pathogen of typhoid fever in water]. 197666414
effectiveness of parenteral and oral typhoid vaccination in mice challenged with a salmonella typhi-salmonella typhimurium hybrid.live salmonella typhi administered intraperitoneally, acetone-killed s. typhi administered intraperitoneally, and live s. typhi given orally, with their effectiveness decreasing in that order, protected swiss white mice against death from challenge with a virulent salmonella typhimurium hybrid expressing s. typhi antigens.197767085
transmission of salmonella typhi by fiberoptic endoscopy. 197769210
the serological specificities of salmonella typhi antigens.sera prepared with two different strains of salmonella typhi were analysed against all the soluble antigens isolated from s. typhi 0901, s. typhi ty2 and s. typhi vi. agar-gel diffusion against individual sera showed that, in all the sera, antibodies were induced against somatic antigens and free proteins. absorptions of the sera with polysaccharides, split from the somatic antigens, removed the antibodies induced against the polysaccharide and its proteinic carrier in most of the somatic antige ...197669247
[use of casein hydrolysate with decreased degree of proteolysis for preparation of nutrient media]. 197769762
[study of the factors affecting salmonella typhi swarming]. 197875299
acid hydrolases in monocytes from patients with inflammatory bowel disease, chronic liver disease, and rheumatoid arthritis.a sensitive technique was used to estimate two acid hydrolases--n-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (n.a.g.) and beta-glucuronidase (b.g.)--produced by peripheral-blood monocytes. enzyme levels were measured after in-vitro incubation of monocytes with or without stimulation by zymosan and endotoxin. compared with controls, enzyme production and release in inflammatory bowel disease, chronic liver disease, and rheumatoid arthritis were markedly raised. it is suggested that various stimuli, including im ...197877370
impairment of the immune response to vaccination after acute malaria.children with acute malaria were vaccinated with salmonella typhi and meningococcal vaccines at varying times after the onset of their illness. the immune response to both vaccines was depressed when they were given on the day of presentation at hospital. immune responsiveness to s. typhi vaccine was rapidly regained after treatment, but a month after the attack the immune response to meningococcal vaccine was still impaired.197878096
automation of salmonella typhi phage typing.two steps in the procedure for bacteriophage typing of salmonella typhi have been automated. the culture inoculum was applied by flooding the surface of phage agar in a 150x20 mm petri dish and removing the excess liquid with a safety pipettor. this step replaced the older method of manually preparing up to 100 individual areas for inoculation. the number of bacteria per unit area was the same with both methods, so the automated method involved no change in the technique. the second automated st ...197578153
frapper fort ou frapper doucement: a gram-negative dilemma.although antibiotics can clear gram-negative organisms from the circulation in a short time, large numbers of patients continue to die from gram-negative shock. research carried out more than 25 years ago indicates that the replacement of the current antibiotic approach of "frappez fort et vite" by one of "frappez doucement" may reduce the incidence and mortality of gram-negative shock.197882154
studies on the immunosuppressive effect of organochlorine and organophosphoric pesticides in subacute experiments.subacute experiments were carried out on rabbits by daily oral administration of lindane, malathion and dichlorophos. a dose-dependent significant decrease in salmonella typhi induced immune response was found in sera of animals treated with these pesticides compared to untreated controls. inihbition of cholinesterase activity confirmed the immunological findings.197882575
association between hepatobiliary cancer and typhoid carrier state.a case-control study of deceased typhoid carriers registered by the new york city health department between 1922 and 1975 was carried out to test for an association between the typhoid-carrier state and death due to hepatobiliary cancer. 471 carriers were matched with 942 controls for sex, age at death, year of death, borough in which the carrier died, and where they were born. the results show that chronic typhoid carriers die of hepatobiliary cancer six times more often than the matched contro ...197986039
identification of gallbladder typhoid carriers by a string device.the efficiency of a gelatin capsule containing a nylon string for collection of duodenal specimens was investigated in carriers of salmonella typhosa (typhi). cultures of duodenal specimens obtained by means of the string capsule were compared with cultures of duodenal specimens obtained by a conventional duodenal tube and with stool cultures duodenal contents obtained with either the string or tube were more often positive for s. typhosa than were stool cultures. the string, which is as efficie ...197986040
[effect of human antigens on the biological properties of the causative agents of typhoid fever and paratyphoid b]. 197991281
[erythrocyte diagnostica made from salmonellal phagolysates].for the first time o antigens obtained from phagolysates were proved to be suitable for use as material for the production of highly specific erythrocyte diagnostic preparations. o antigens obtained from salmonella by two methods, i.e. phage disintegration and grasset's method, were subjected to comparative chemical analysis and found to have no essential difference. nevertheless, the sensitizing potency of o antigens obtained from phagolysates were experimentally shown to be 3 times greater tha ...197991283
effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria. xv. inhibition by antibiotics, metabolic inhibitors, and ultraviolet irradiation of the release by leukocyte extracts, trypsin, and lysozyme of lipopolysaccharide from gram-negative bacteria.leukocyte extracts, trypsin, and lysozyme are all capable of releasing the bulk of the lps from s. typhi, s. typhimurium, and e. coli. bacteria which have been killed by heat, ultraviolet irradiation, or by a variety of metabolic inhibitors and antibiotics which affect protein, dna, rna, and cell wall synthesis no longer yield soluble lps following treatment with the releasing agents. on the other hand, bacteria which are resistant to certain of the antibiotics yield nearly the full amount of so ...197992459
impaired host resistance to endotoxin and malaria in polychlorinated biphenyl- and hexachlorobenzene-treated mice.the in vivo effect of polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) and hexachlorobenzene (hcb) on murine endotoxin sensitivity and resistance to malaria (plasmodium berghei nyu-2) infection was studied. the dietary administration of 167 ppm (167 microgram/g) of pcb 1242 or hcb for 3 weeks resulted in an enhanced sensitivity to gram-negative endotoxin (salmonella typhosa), which was further increased in animals maintained on the diets for 6 weeks. by 6 weeks, a 5.2- or 32-fold increase in endotoxin sensitivity ...197897225
dry-heat destruction of lipopolysaccharide: dry-heat destruction kinetics.dry-heat destruction kinetics of lipopolysaccharides from escherichia coli, serratia marcescens, and salmonella typhosa at 170 to 250 degrees c are described. the destruction rate seems to follow the second order and can be linearized by the equation, log y = a + b . -10cx. because c is the slope, 1/c = d3. both a and b are constant at a given temperature and are linear functions of temperature. the d(3)170, d(3)190, d(3)210, d(3)230, and d(3)250 values for e. coli lipopolysaccharide are 251, 99 ...1978103502
immunity to antigenically related salmonellae: effects of humoral factors on the bactericidal activity of normal and immune peritoneal exudate cells.immunity against salmonella enteritidis and listeria monocytogenes was studied by measuring in vitro the bactericidal activity of peritoneal exudate cells (pec) of control (normal pec) and s. typhi ty2-immune (immune pec) mice. specific immune serum, anti-s. tyhphi ty2, heat inactivated at 56 degrees c for 30 min, significantly inhibited the growth of s. enteritidis only with immune pec. these opsonic factors had no effect upon the activity of normal pec. that such inhibition could not be demons ...1978103836
postnatal development of resistance against infection in an experimental model.the postnatal development of resistance against infection was monitored by the treatment of juvenile mice with a virulent strain of listeria monocytogenes. it could be shown that until day 10 after birth, young mice succumbed to an infection with even minimal doses of bacteria. between day 15 and 30, the resistance against infection gradually increases until the rather constant level of grown-up animals is reached (fig. 1). juvenile mice that survive the primary infection are able to build up a ...1978107682
experimental syphilis in the rabbit: passive transfer of immunity with immunoglobulin g from immune serum.a preparation of immunoglobulin g isolated from a pool of immune sera derived from rabbits with long-term syphilis was shown to possess a high degree of purity as judged by immunodiffusion and protein electrophoresis. the antitreponemal power of the preparation of immunoglobulin g and that of the immune serum pool from which it was derived were found to be equivalent in both the skin protection and the systemic protection test. the observation that neither normal serum nor a pool of serum derive ...1979120386
development of specific cellular immunoreactivity in typhoid fever.development of cellular immunoreactivity to salmonella typhi and salmonella paratyphi-a was studied by the leukocyte migration inhibition test in 9 patients with typhoid fever and in 2 patients with paratyphoid fever. cellular reactivity could be demonstrated from the first days of the disease in all the subjects. the most pronounced migration inhibition was observed during the febrile period. it is suggested that specific cellular reactivity may play a pathogenetic role in typhoid fever.1979121028
typhoid cardiac involvement.three cases of typhoid cardiac complications are reported. salmonella typhi was the aetiological agent in all three; the discovery of 3 patients over a period of 18 months merits special interest, especially since typhoid fever is endemic in the area concerned. the significance of the complication reported here is further enhanced by absence of similar specific cases in the english literature dealing with cardiac salmonellosis. one of the cases described in this article, the only fatality of the ...1975123083
comparison of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and amoxicillin in therapy of chloramphenicol-resistant and chloramphenicol-sensitive typhoid fever.the efficacy of orally administered trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was compared with that of oral amoxicillin in therapy of typhoid fever due to both epidemic chloramphenicol-resistant and endemic chloramphenicol-sensitive salmonella typhi. both drug regimens were effective and of comparable value in treatment of chloramphenicol-resistant infections, as measured by duration of fever (124 hr and 115 hr, respectively) and duration of bacteremia (1.0 and 0.4 days, respectively). trimethoprim-sulfame ...1975127815
a transmissible plasmid determining lactose fermentation and multiple antibiotic resistance in a strain of klebsiella pneumoniae.in a wild strain of klebsiella pneumoniae the plasmid that determined lactose fermentation also determined resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, tetracyclines, streptomycin, spectinomycin, and sulphonamides. the plasmid transferred at a very low rate to escherichia coli k12 and salmonella typhi. by implanting other transfer factors in the strain the rate of transfer and the recipient range were increased. plasmid transfer from the modified strain to salm. typhimurium and salm. gallinarum wa ...1976134162
[distribution of lysotypes of salmonella typhi, s. paratyphi b and s. typhimurium in north-rhine westphalia during 1966 to 1975 (author's transl)]. 1978151829
[detection of salmonella typhi carriers in mexico]. 1979154338
the effects of sodium metaperiodate on t and b lymphocytes. 1975163144
the effects of humoral, cellular and non-specific immunity on intracerebral bordetella pertussis infections in mice.when mice were injected intracerebrally with doses of bordetella pertussis vaccine greater than 5 imd 50 and challenged intracerebrally 14 days later with virulent b. pertussis there was an immediate reduction in the numbers of organisms. an analysis of this in vivo bactericidal effect has shown that large doses of an unrelated vaccine, salmonella typhosa, equivalent in cell mass to about 50 imd 50 of b. pertussis vaccine can achieve this effect, so for such doses the effect must be partly non-s ...1975163275
immunologic effects of neonatal infection with mouse thymic virus.mouse thymic virus is a herpesvirus that causes extensive thymic necrosis when given to newborn mice. during the time of acute infection spleen cells have markedly diminished reactivity to t cell phytomitogens and to allogeneic cells and are incapable of effecting a primary in vitro response to a "t-dependent" antigen; responses to b cell mitogens and to a t-independent antigen are unimpaired. spleens from acutely infected mice have low theta antigen normal numbers of immunoglobulin-bearing cell ...1975168265
[salmonellosis: retrospective study of 136 cases hospitalized at the c.h.u. of tours].136 cases of salmonellosis were seen in the tours hospital center from 1965 to 1971. salmonella typhi produced 32 cases of typhoid fever and 2 focal infections: a bacterial pleural effusion and an osteoarthritis. salmonella para b induced 16 cases of typhoid fever. all these 50 patients were given chloramphenicol that was effective in vitro and in vivo as well. they usually exhibited very few and mild signs or symptoms but long lasting fever. complications were very rare. there was no death. par ...1975169589
endotoxic lipopolysaccharides stimulate steroidogenesis and adenylate cyclase in adrenal tumor cells.lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) from escherichia coli, serratia marcesens and salmonella typhosa stimulated steroid production in y-1 adrenal tumor cells in culture with a latent period of 3-4 h. lipid a, derived from escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, also stimulated steroidogenesis. lipopolysaccharides and lipid a also stimulate adenylate cyclase activity and cause rounding of the cells. in contrast, lipopolysaccharides do not stimulate steroidogenesis in receptor-deficient adrenal tumor ce ...1975172155
[resistance to association of antibiotics (polymyxin and penicillin) in relation to cell concentration of two bacterial species in the same inoculum. complementary inoculum effect].dense suspensions of sa. typhi (polys penr) and of st. aureus (polyr pens) proliferate on gelose medium added with the two antibiotics only if the inoculum is mixed. the growth is probably due to the partial neutralization of the antibiotics following the formation of complexes between these antibiotics and some constituents of the two strains.1975172250
transformation of escherichia coli by chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid from salmonella typhi.the genetic transformation of escherichia coli k-12 with chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid purified from salmonella typhi is described.1976173714
orphan airlift. enteric pathogens isolated from vietnamese children immigrating to the united states.isolation studies for bacterial and parasitic agents were carried out on stool specimens from vietnamese infants at the time of their mass airlift to the united states. one or more bacterial pathogens were found in 49% of the 367 stool specimens cultured. the isolates included enteropathogenic escherichia coli (161), shigella (16), salmonella (15), but no salmonella typhi or vibrio cholerae. parasites identified in 88 stool specimens included giardia lamblia (10), ascaris lumbricoides (7), and e ...1976176481
adenyl cyclase activity of mouse liver membranes after incubation with endotoxin and epinephrine.adenyl cyclase activity in isolated mouse liver cell membranes was stimulated two-fold by endotoxin. furthermore, endotoxin inhibited epinephrine induction of adenyl cyclase activity, apparently through interruption of the phospholipid moiety of the enzyme complex.1976178522
[health aspects of the study of bdellovibrio bacteriovorus as a natural factor in the self-purification of reservoirs]. 1975179245
further studies on the relative antiviral efficacies of interferons induced by poly i:c and mengo virus.mouse serum interferons induced by polyi:c, vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv), reovirus, and mengo virus were assayed in monolayers of mouse l-929 cells by the plaque-reduction method using both vsv and mengo as challenge viruses. titers obtained with mengo virus as challenge were all lower than with vsv. with the interferons induced by vsv, reovirus, and ployi:c, the reductions were of the order of two- to three-fold. with mengo virus-induced interferon the reduction was much greater (about 17-f ...1976179687
does cyclic amp have a role in the pathogenesis of fever in the rabbit? 1976180436
[comparative characteristics of antigenic peculiarities and several other properties of stable long-term cultures of salmonella l-forms].enzymatic properties, sensitivity to antibiotics and peculiarities of the antigenic structure of stable l-forms of s. paratyphi b (l-115), s. typhimurium (l-71a-16) and s. typhi (l-5761) were studied. in difference from the initial strains, the l-form under study possessed a high penicillin and ampicillin sensitivity, and also a marked sensitivity to polymyxin and detergents; this characterized them as l-forms of protoplastic type. all the l-variants differed considerably by the enzymatic proper ...1976183429
the adjuvant effect of microbial products on the immune response. 1976185941
bacteriology of the human biliary tract and the duodenum.using the modern anaerobic transport media and meticulous culture techniques, 74 patients undergoing biliary tract surgery were studied. the biliary system was found to be sterile in 58 patients (78%). fifteen patients had 35 isolates of aerobic and facultative bacteria. the most common ones were klebsiella, enterococcus, and escherichia coli. the only anaerobe isolated was clostridium perfringens. eight of 17 patients (47%) with acute cholecystitis and five of 49 patients (10%) with chronic cho ...1977195558
angiotensin-converting enzyme in macrophages and freund's adjuvant granuloma.low angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) activity was found in rat and mouse peritoneal macrophages, in rat and rabbit pulmonary alveolar macrophages, in cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated i.p. for four days by thioglycollate, and in rabbit pulmonary alveolar macrophages stimulated in culture by 0.1 to 100 microgram/ml salmonella typhosa endotoxin for four days. rat subcutaneous freund's adjuvant granulomas induced with mycobacterium butyricum or m. tuberculosis h37 ra contianed low ...1978205523
the adrenal response to exogenous adrenocorticotrophin in patients with infections due to neisseria meningitidis.the adrenal response to a soluble form of beta1-24-corticotropin (tetracosactrin [acth]: 250 microgram administered intramuscularly) was studied in 28 patients with meningitis due to neisseria meningitidis (21 with petechiae and seven without) and in six patients with salmonella typhi bacteremia. six normal subjects also were tested for adrenal responsiveness at four different times of the day (8 a.m., 12 noon, 4 p.m., and 10 p.m.) and served as controls. the results showed that, whatever the ti ...1978212489
[microbial emission, immission and changes in the germ count in the cooling water during operation of wet cooling towers ii. communication: measuring methods, emission values and changes in the germ count in the cooling system (author's transl)].the second in the series "microbial emission, immission and changes in the germ count in the cooling water of wet cooling towers" describes measuring methods and results of the measurements for determining the emission values and the changes in the germ count in the cooling system. the content of colony-forming units (kbe) in the cooling water varied widely, depending on the germ content of the surface water and the preparation of the cooling water (filtration, chemical conditioning). in summer ...1979228514
volume, adherence properties, membrane antigens and mitogen responsiveness of rabbit lymphoid cell subpopulations.subpopulations of rabbit spleen cells which respond to t and b mitogens, respectively, can be distinguished by sedimentation velocity in the earth's gravitational field. t cell subpopulations which differed in their responsiveness to con a and to pha could be identified by differences in adherence properties and by their sensitivity to complement mediated cell kill with rtla-antiserum.1975234909
[resistance to antibiotics, furan drugs and sulfathiazole of s. typhi and s. paratyphi b strains isolated from patients and carriers in the years 1957-1973]. 1975235056
[response of salmonella typhi and s. paratyphi b strains from the years 1968/70 and 1974 to antibiotics]. 1975235717
natural antibodies in healthy adults.the serum of 100 adults living in budapest was examined for isohaemagglutinin titre with haemaglutination, for staphylococcal-antitoxin titre with haemolysis inhibition and for bacterial antibody titre against 17 different groups of bacteria with passive haemagglutination. antibody levels in males, except for certain bacterial antibodies, were somewhat lower than in females. the antibody titres, especially in men, decreased gradually from 20 to 50 years of age and were usually lower in rh negati ...1975235827
typhoid and paratyphoid fevers--report on incidences in 1973 and results of classification of isolated organisms]. 1975237968
a new selective medium for the isolation of salmonellae other than salmonella typhi.a medium consisting of a macconkey's base with added magnesium, calcium, cobalt, zinc, thiosulphate, novobiocin, iron dextran, tween 80 and edta has been found highly selective for salmonellaparatyphi b and most of the food poisoning salmonellae that commonly occur in britain. nearly all the normal faecal flora is inhibited.1975238037
a comparative evaluation of the treatment of typhoid fevers with co-trimoxazole and chloramphenicol in egypt.seventy-two patients with bacteriologically proven enteric fever were treated with either co-trimoxazole (41 cases) or chloramphenicol (31 cases). c0-trimoxazole was found to be superior to chloramphenicol in relieving the toxaemia. the average number of days required for patients to become afebrile was 5-5 days in the co-trimoxazole group and 4-5 days in the chloramphenicol group. the cure rate was 97 per cent in each of the treatment groups. there occurred two relapses in the co-trimoxazole gr ...1975238046
inhibition of pathogenic enteric bacteria by hyperbaric oxygen: enhanced antibacterial activity in the absence of carbon dioxide.the antibacterial effects of 24-h exposures to high-pressure oxygen in relation to environmental co(2) were studied at 3 atm absolute (ata) and at 1 ata. eight gram-negative, aerobic and facultatively aerobic, pathogenic enteric bacteria (salmonella typhosa, salmonella paratyphi, salmonella schottmuelleri, shigella dysenteriae, shigella flexneri, proteus vulgaris, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and escherichia coli) were exposed as shallow-broth cultures and agar surface cultures. although broths suppl ...1975238466
difference in b cell mitogen responsiveness between closely related strains of mice.spleen cells from c3h/hej mice respond very poorly to the mitogenic action of endotoxin (lps) in vitro whereas cells from a very closely related strain, c3h/hen respond very well. an analysis of the genetic similarity of these two strains was performed. there is no significant mlr measurable between cells of these strains under a variety of culture conditions. they do not manifest a significant graft-vs-host response nor do they reject reciprocal skin grafts. because of this genetic similarity, ...1975239063
[development of new types of chemical vaccine for prevention of intestinal infections and problems of their qualitative evaluation. iii. comparative study of immunologic characteristics of experimental antigenic preparations].as a result of comparative study of the immunological properties and antigenic activity of thyphoid, paratyphoid a and b and sonne and flexner dysentery antigenic preparations obtained by various methods there was revealed a decreased toxicity of the experimental preparations of the tashkent and leningrad institute of vaccines and sera (in comparison with the tryptic antigens) and a considerable advantages of the experimental thyphoid and paratyphoid antigenic preparations by their capacity to i ...1975239506
hr 756, a highly active cephalosporin: comparison with cefazolin and carbenicillin.hr 756, a new parenteral cephalosporin, was compared with cefazolin and carbenicillin for activity against a total of 264 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa, escherichia coli, klebsiella spp., proteus mirabilis, proteus spp. (indole positive), enterobacter spp., salmonella typhi, serratia marcescens, providencia stuartii, and staphylococcus aureus. in every comparison, except that with the last organism, hr 756 was clearly more active than cefazolin and carbenicillin. all three compounds had simi ...1978253572
typhoid fever 1979--a new perspective on an old disease. 1979258244
biologic properties of lyophilized live typhoid vaccine strains. 1979262514
[methods for the detection of salmonella in water adapted to the particular case of salmonella typhi]. 1978262972
[problems of variability of mueller-hinton medium for sensitivity testing. some parameters and an attempt to standardize sensitivity of salmonella typhi].the incidence of some so-called "mueller-hinton medium" for sensitivity testing on the growth of bacteria (especially s. typhi) and on the drug activity are evaluated here. the role of the quality and amount of ingredients : peptone, agar and starch are emphasized. an improved medium is proposed : tryptophane is added to compensate the casein hydrolysate deficiency for s. typhi growth.1978262973
[evolution of the repartition of enteropathogenic enterobacteria serotypes isolated in algeria from 1974 to 1977].the authors survey the enteropathogenic enterobacteria studied from 1974 to 1977 and draw the following conclusions : s. typhi is still the predominant serotype. among salmonella, other than s. typhi and s. paratyphi, s. wien remains the most frequently reported serotype while progressively decreasing from 1974 to 1976 and is supplanted by s. infantis in 1977. among the 847 strains of shigella examined, a high frequency of shigella flexneri is noted with shigella sonnei following by a wide margi ...1978262974
salmonella serotypes, salmonella typhi phage types, and anti-microbial resistance at the university hospital of the west indies, jamaica.bacteriologically proved cases of salmonellosis presenting at the university hospital have increased nearly threefold since 1957. the most striking change has been a considerable increase in the incidence of salmonella heidelberg and salmonella derby in the last 5 years, probably resulting from hospital acquired infection. about 80 cases of typhoid fever are reported each year in jamaica. there has been little change in the prevalence of different phage types of salmonella typhi since 1961. para ...1977267669
landry-guillain-barré-strohl syndrome in typhoid fever.a case is described of a 15-year-old girl who developed landry-guillain-barré-strohl syndrome (lgbss) on the ninth day of typhoid fever. in the absence of other known cause or association of lgbss salmonella typhi is believed to be aetiologically related. the patient recovered uneventfully from her neurological illness in about ten weeks from onset of symptoms.1977269693
[susceptibility of salmonella typhi to cloramphenicol and other antibiotics. 1st chilean multiresistent strains]. 1977279064
related r plasmids in salmonella typhi strains isolated in mexico city from clinical samples. 1977283474
[transfer resistance factor to antibiotics in enterobacteriaceae with special reference to salmonella typhi]. 1977284546
antibiotic resistance and phage-types of salmonella typhi strains isolated in mexico city. 1978286394
genetic stability and transfer inhibition of bacterial plasmids in strains of salmonella typhi. 1978292100
typhoid fever resistant to furazolidone, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole. 1979256555
[biological activity of bordetella and salmonella endotoxins]. 1979228129
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