severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in chinese horseshoe bats.although the finding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov) in caged palm civets from live animal markets in china has provided evidence for interspecies transmission in the genesis of the sars epidemic, subsequent studies suggested that the civet may have served only as an amplification host for sars-cov. in a surveillance study for cov in noncaged animals from the wild areas of the hong kong special administration region, we identified a cov closely related to sars-cov (ba ...200516169905
karyotypic evolution and phylogenetic relationships in the order chiroptera as revealed by g-banding comparison and chromosome painting.bats are a unique but enigmatic group of mammals and have a world-wide distribution. the phylogenetic relationships of extant bats are far from being resolved. here, we investigated the karyotypic relationships of representative species from four families of the order chiroptera by comparative chromosome painting and banding. a complete set of painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of myotis myotis (family vespertilionidae) were hybridized onto metaphases of cynopterus sphinx (2n = ...200717310301
intraspecies diversity of sars-like coronaviruses in rhinolophus sinicus and its implications for the origin of sars coronaviruses in humans.the chinese rufous horseshoe bat (rhinolophus sinicus) has been suggested to carry the direct ancestor of severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) coronavirus (scov), and the diversity of sars-like covs (slcov) within this rhinolophus species is therefore worth investigating. here, we demonstrate the remarkable diversity of slcovs in r. sinicus and identify a strain with the same pattern of phylogenetic incongruence (i.e. an indication of recombination) as reported previously in another slcov st ...201020016037
angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2) proteins of different bat species confer variable susceptibility to sars-cov entry.the discovery of sars-like coronavirus in bats suggests that bats could be the natural reservoir of sars-cov. however, previous studies indicated the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2) protein, a known sars-cov receptor, from a horseshoe bat was unable to act as a functional receptor for sars-cov. here, we extended our previous study to ace2 molecules from seven additional bat species and tested their interactions with human sars-cov spike protein using both hiv-based pseudotype and live sar ...201020567988
cloning, expression, and antiviral activity of interferon β from the chinese microbat, myotis davidii.bats are natural reservoir hosts for many viruses that produce no clinical symptoms in bats. therefore, bats may have evolved effective mechanisms to control viral replication. however, little information is available on bat immune responses to viral infection. type i interferon (ifn) plays a key role in controlling viral infections. in this study, we report the cloning, expression, and biological activity of interferon β (ifnβ) from the chinese microbat species, myotis davidii. we demonstrated ...201526645237
molecular characterization of rig-i, stat-1 and ifn-beta in the horseshoe bat.wild chinese horseshoe bats have been proven to be natural reservoirs of sars-like coronaviruses. however, the molecular characterization of key proteins in bats still needs to be explored further. in this study, we used cloning and bioinformatics to analyze the sequence of rig-i, stat-1 and ifn-β in the immortalized cell lines from rhinolophus affinis and rhinolophus sinicus. then, we treated different bat cells, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mef) and splenocytes with polyinosinic-polycytidylic ...201525680291
molecular characterization of cryptosporidium in bats from yunnan province, southwestern china.the present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and genotypes of cryptosporidium in bats. a total of 247 bats, belonging to rhinolophus sinicus , rousettus leschenaultia, aselliscus stoliczkanus , and hipposideros fulvus , were collected in yunnan province, southwestern china, and the intestinal tissues were examined for cryptosporidium infection by pcr amplification of the small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna). the overall infection rate was 7.7% (95% ci, 4.5 to 11.0%), with r. s ...201323886252
detection and genome characterization of four novel bat hepadnaviruses and a hepevirus in recent years, novel hepadnaviruses, hepeviruses, hepatoviruses, and hepaciviruses have been discovered in various species of bat around the world, indicating that bats may act as natural reservoirs for these hepatitis viruses. in order to further assess the distribution of hepatitis viruses in bat populations in china, we tested the presence of these hepatitis viruses in our archived bat liver samples that originated from several bat species and various geographical regions in china.201728222808
first report of potorolepis spassky, 1994 (eucestoda: hymenolepididae) from china, with description of a new species in bats (chiroptera: rhinolophidae).potorolepis gulyaevi sp. n. (cestoda: hymenolepididae) is described from the chinese horseshoe bat, rhinolophus sinicus andersen (chiroptera: rhinolophidae), from southern china. the new species differs from known species of the genus by the shape, number and size of rostellar hooks, the relative position and length of the cirrus-sac and the morphology of gravid uterus. this is the first report of a member of the genus from non-marsupial mammals and the first record of a potorolepis spassky, 199 ...201223327008
coexistence of multiple coronaviruses in several bat colonies in an abandoned mineshaft.since the 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) outbreak prompted a search for the natural reservoir of the sars coronavirus, numerous alpha- and betacoronaviruses have been discovered in bats around the world. bats are likely the natural reservoir of alpha- and betacoronaviruses, and due to the rich diversity and global distribution of bats, the number of bat coronaviruses will likely increase. we conducted a surveillance of coronaviruses in bats in an abandoned mineshaft in mojian ...201626920708
orf8-related genetic evidence for chinese horseshoe bats as the source of human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.several lineage b betacoronaviruses termed severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars)-like covs (sl-covs) were identified from rhinolophus bats in china. these viruses are characterized by a set of unique accessory open reading frames (orfs) that are located between the m and n genes. among unique accessory orfs, orf8 is most hypervariable. in this study, the orf8s of all sl-covs were classified into 3 types, and, for the first time, it was found that very few sl-covs from rhinolophus sinicus have ...201626433221
severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) coronavirus orf8 protein is acquired from sars-related coronavirus from greater horseshoe bats through recombination.despite the identification of horseshoe bats as the reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars)-related coronaviruses (sarsr-covs), the origin of sars-cov orf8, which contains the 29-nucleotide signature deletion among human strains, remains obscure. although two sars-related rhinolophus sinicus bat covs (sarsr-rs-batcovs) previously detected in chinese horseshoe bats (rhinolophus sinicus) in yunnan, rsshc014 and rs3367, possessed 95% genome identities to human and civet sarsr-covs, th ...201526269185
the genomes of two bat species with long constant frequency echolocation calls.bats can perceive the world by using a wide range of sensory systems, and some of the systems have become highly specialized, such as auditory sensory perception. among bat species, the old world leaf-nosed bats and horseshoe bats (rhinolophoid bats) possess the most sophisticated echolocation systems. here, we reported the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembles of two rhinolophoid bats-the great leaf-nosed bat (hipposideros armiger) and the chinese rufous horseshoe bat (rhinolophus sinic ...201727803123
identification and interspecies transmission of a novel bocaparvovirus among different bat species in china.we report the discovery of a novel bocaparvovirus, bat bocaparvovirus (btbov), in one spleen, four respiratory and 61 alimentary samples from bats of six different species belonging to three families, hipposideridae, rhinolophidae and vespertilionidae. btbov showed a higher detection rate in alimentary samples of rhinolophus sinicus (5.7 %) than those of other bat species (0.43-1.59 %), supporting r. sinicus as the primary reservoir and virus spillover to accidental bat species. btbov peaked dur ...201627902362
phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. here, we describe four novel hantavi ...201323408889
novel bat adenoviruses with an extremely large e3 gene.bats carry diverse rna viruses, some of which are responsible for human diseases. compared to bat-borne rna viruses, relatively little information is known regarding bat-borne dna viruses. in this study, we isolated and characterized three novel bat adenoviruses (btadv wiv9-11) from rhinolophus sinicus. their genomes, which are highly similar to each other but distinct from those of previously sequenced adenoviruses (advs), are 37 545, 37 566 and 38 073 bp in size, respectively. an unusually lar ...201627032099
characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the rhinolophus sinicus sinicus (chiroptera: rhinolophidae) from central china.we present a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of rhinolophus sinicus sinicus from central china and provide its annotation, as well as showed the phylogenetic relationship and mitogenomic variation with other published mitochondrial genomes of congeneric bat species. our results revealed a relatively high mitogenomic variation between two r. s. sinucus from central and east china, which is similar to interspecific divergence level.201626057010
the complete mitochondrial genome of a chinese rufous horseshoe bat subspecies, rhinolophus sinicus sinicus (chiroptera: rhinolophidae).there are two subspecies of rhinolophus sinicus currently recognized in china. in this study, using next generation sequencing approaches, the complete mitochondrial genome of one subspecies r. s. sinicus was obtained. the total length of the genome sequence is 16,898 bp. the arrangement and contents of r. s. sinicus mitochondrial genes exhibit high similarity with other bats of family rhinolophida. phylogenetic reconstructions support the sister relationship of the two subspecies and confirm th ...201625740216
heteroplasmy and ancient translocation of mitochondrial dna to the nucleus in the chinese horseshoe bat (rhinolophus sinicus) complex.the utility and reliability of mitochondrial dna sequences in phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies may be compromised by widespread and undetected nuclear mitochondrial copies (numts) as well as heteroplasmy within individuals. both numts and heteroplasmy are likely to be common across diverse taxa yet few studies have characterised their frequencies and variation at the intra-specific level. here we report the presence of both numts and heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial control region of th ...201424842827
lineage divergence and historical gene flow in the chinese horseshoe bat (rhinolophus sinicus).closely related taxa living in sympatry provide good opportunities to investigate the origin of barriers to gene flow as well as the extent of reproductive isolation. the only two recognized subspecies of the chinese rufous horseshoe bat rhinolophus sinicus are characterized by unusual relative distributions in which r. s. septentrionalis is restricted to a small area within the much wider range of its sister taxon r. s. sinicus. to determine the history of lineage divergence and gene flow betwe ...201323451086
development and characterization of novel microsatellite markers from the chinese rufous horseshoe bat (rhinolophus sinicus) with cross-species amplification in closely related taxa.we isolated nine polymorphic microsatellite markers from the chinese rufous horseshoe bat (rhinolophus sinicus) using an enriched library method. we assessed genetic polymorphism at these loci in 42 individuals from a single population. we recorded high genetic diversity with four to 17 alleles per locus, and estimated expected and observed heterozygosity values ranging from 0.492 to 0.910 and from 0.462 to 0.881, respectively. no locus departed from hardy-weinberg equilibrium following bonferro ...200921564597
complete genome sequence of bat coronavirus hku2 from chinese horseshoe bats revealed a much smaller spike gene with a different evolutionary lineage from the rest of the genome.apart from bat-sars-cov, we have identified a novel group 1 coronavirus, bat-cov hku2, in rhinolophus sinicus (chinese horseshoe bats). since it has been suggested that the receptor-binding motif (rbm) of sars-cov may have been acquired from a group 1 coronavirus, we conducted a surveillance study and identified bat-sars-cov and bat-cov hku2 in 8.7% and 7.5% respectively of r. sinicus in hong kong and guangdong. complete genome sequencing of four strains of bat-cov hku2 revealed the smallest cor ...200717617433
bats host diverse parvoviruses as possible origin of mammalian dependoparvoviruses and source for bat-swine interspecies transmission.compared to the enormous species diversity of bats, relatively few parvoviruses have been reported. we detected diverse and potentially novel parvoviruses from bats in hong kong and mainland china. parvoviruses belonging to amdoparvovirus, bocaparvovirus and dependoparvovirus were detected in alimentary, liver and spleen samples from 16 different chiropteran species of five families by pcr. phylogenetic analysis of partial helicase sequences showed that they potentially belonged to 25 bocaparvov ...201729106348
sars-like coronavirus wiv1-cov does not replicate in egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus).severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars)-like wiv1-coronavirus (cov) was first isolated from rhinolophus sinicus bats and can use the human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ace2) receptor. in the current study, we investigate the ability of wiv1-cov to infect rousettus aegyptiacus bats. no clinical signs were observed throughout the experiment. furthermore, only four oropharyngeal swabs and two respiratory tissues, isolated on day 3 post inoculation, were found positive for viral rna. two out of ...201830572566
sequencing the genome of indian flying fox, natural reservoir of nipah virus, using hybrid assembly and conservative secondary scaffolding.indian fruit bats, flying fox pteropus medius was identified as an asymptomatic natural host of recently emerged nipah virus, which is known to induce a severe infectious disease in humans. the absence of p. medius genome sequence presents an important obstacle for further studies of virus-host interactions and better understanding of mechanisms of zoonotic viral emergence. generation of the high-quality genome sequence is often linked to a considerable effort associated to elevated costs. altho ...202032849415
evolutionary arms race between virus and host drives genetic diversity in bat severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus spike genes.the chinese horseshoe bat (rhinolophus sinicus), reservoir host of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov), carries many bat sars-related covs (sarsr-covs) with high genetic diversity, particularly in the spike gene. despite these variations, some bat sarsr-covs can utilize the orthologs of the human sars-cov receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2), for entry. it is speculated that the interaction between bat ace2 and sarsr-cov spike proteins drives diversity. here, we ...202032699095
infection of bat and human intestinal organoids by sars-cov-2.a novel coronavirus-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2)-emerged in humans in wuhan, china, in december 2019 and has since disseminated globally1,2. as of april 16, 2020, the confirmed case count of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) had surpassed 2 million. based on full-genome sequence analysis, sars-cov-2 shows high homology to sars-related coronaviruses identified in horseshoe bats1,2. here we show the establishment and characterization of expandable intestinal organ ...202032405028
assessment of databases to determine the validity of β- and γ-carbonic anhydrase sequences from vertebrates.the inaccuracy of dna sequence data is becoming a serious problem, as the amount of molecular data is multiplying rapidly and expectations are high for big data to revolutionize life sciences and health care. in this study, we investigated the accuracy of dna sequence data from commonly used databases using carbonic anhydrase (ca) gene sequences as generic targets. cas are ancient metalloenzymes that are present in all unicellular and multicellular living organisms. among the eight distinct fami ...202032393172
evolution of genomes, host shifts and the geographic spread of sars-cov and related coronaviruses.severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) is a novel human illness caused by a previously unrecognized coronavirus (cov) termed sars-cov. there are conflicting reports on the animal reservoir of sars-cov. many of the groups that argue carnivores are the original reservoir of sars-cov use a phylogeny to support their argument. however, the phylogenies in these studies often lack outgroup and rooting criteria necessary to determine the origins of sars-cov. recently, sars-cov has been isolated from ...200832313363
genetic evolution analysis of 2019 novel coronavirus and coronavirus from other species.the corona virus disease 2019 (covid-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) is a public health emergency of international concern. however, so far, there are still controversies about the source of the virus and its intermediate host. here, we found the novel coronavirus was closely related to coronaviruses derived from five wild animals, including paguma larvata, paradoxurus hermaphroditus, civet, aselliscus stoliczkanus and rhinolophus sinicus, and was in th ...202032169673
structural and functional analysis of the d614g sars-cov-2 spike protein variant.the sars-cov-2 spike (s) protein variant d614g supplanted the ancestral virus worldwide, reaching near fixation in a matter of months. here we show that d614g was more infectious than the ancestral form on human lung cells, colon cells, and on cells rendered permissive by ectopic expression of human ace2 or of ace2 orthologs from various mammals, including chinese rufous horseshoe bat and malayan pangolin. d614g did not alter s protein synthesis, processing, or incorporation into sars-cov-2 part ...202032991842
molecular epidemiology, evolution and phylogeny of sars coronavirus.shortly after its emergence in southern china in 2002/2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov) was confirmed to be the cause of sars. subsequently, sars-related covs (sarsr-covs) were found in palm civets from live animal markets in guangdong and in various horseshoe bat species, which were believed to be the ultimate reservoir of sarsr-cov. till november 2018, 339 sarsr-cov genomes have been sequenced, including 274 from human, 18 from civets and 47 from bats [mostly from ...201930844511
great himalayan leaf-nosed bats produce different territorial calls to respond to sympatric species and non-living objects.territorial signals are important for reducing the cost of territory defense. normally, male animals will produce keep-out signals to repel intruders from entering their territory. however, there is currently no evidence that bats can adjust their territorial calls to respond differently to sympatric species or non-living objects. in this study, we simulated the process of territory defense in male great himalayan leaf-nosed bats (hipposideros armiger) toward two sympatric species (hipposideros ...202033158294
comparative tropism, replication kinetics, and cell damage profiling of sars-cov-2 and sars-cov with implications for clinical manifestations, transmissibility, and laboratory studies of covid-19: an observational study.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) was reported from china in january, 2020. sars-cov-2 is efficiently transmitted from person to person and, in 2 months, has caused more than 82 000 laboratory-confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) and 2800 deaths in 46 countries. the total number of cases and deaths has surpassed that of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (sars-cov). although both covid-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars ...202032835326
differential tropism of sars-cov and sars-cov-2 in bat cells.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 did not replicate efficiently in 13 bat cell lines, whereas severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replicated efficiently in kidney cells of its ancestral host, the rhinolophus sinicus bat, suggesting different evolutionary origins. structural modeling showed that rbd/rsace2 binding may contribute to the differential cellular tropism.202032730733
distribution and genetic diversity of adeno-associated viruses in bats from coastal areas of southeast china.bats are associated with several important zoonotic viruses from different families. one example includes adeno-associated viruses (aavs), that are extensively detected in several animals, especially primates. to understand aavs distribution and genetic diversity in the coastal areas of southeast china, a total of 415 intestine samples were mostly collected from two provinces of southeast china, i.e., zhejiang and fujian province. intestine samples from five bat species were collected for aavs d ...202032111911
resolving evolutionary relationships among six closely related taxa of the horseshoe bats (rhinolophus) with targeted resequencing data.recently diverged taxa are often characterised by high rates of introgressive hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting, both of which can complicate phylogenetic reconstructions of species histories. here we use a sequence capture approach to obtain genome-wide data to resolve the evolutionary relationships, and infer the extent and timescale of hybridization and introgression events, among six recently diverged taxa of the horseshoe bat species complexes rhinolophus sinicus and r. thomasi. ...201931276779
novel bat alphacoronaviruses in southern china support chinese horseshoe bats as an important reservoir for potential novel coronaviruses.while bats are increasingly recognized as a source of coronavirus epidemics, the diversity and emergence potential of bat coronaviruses remains to be fully understood. among 1779 bat samples collected in china, diverse coronaviruses were detected in 32 samples from five different bat species by rt-pcr. two novel alphacoronaviruses, rhinolophus sinicus bat coronavirus hku32 (rs-batcov hku32) and tylonycteris robustula bat coronavirus hku33 (tr-batcov hku33), were discovered from chinese horseshoe ...201931067830
replication of mers and sars coronaviruses in bat cells offers insights to their ancestral origins.previous findings of middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov)-related viruses in bats, and the ability of tylonycteris-batcov hku4 spike protein to utilize mers-cov receptor, human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 hdpp4, suggest a bat ancestral origin of mers-cov. we developed 12 primary bat cell lines from seven bat species, including tylonycteris pachypus, pipistrellus abramus and rhinolophus sinicus (hosts of tylonycteris-batcov hku4, pipistrellus-batcov hku5, and sars-related-cov respec ...201830531999
habitat selection and prediction of the spatial distribution of the chinese horseshoe bat (r. sinicus) in the wuling mountains.habitat selection by the chinese horseshoe bat (rhinolophus sinicus) in the wuling mountains was studied in this paper. global positioning system (gps), remote sensing (rs) and geographic information system (gis) technologies were used to obtain ground survey data and analyse the habitat factors driving the distribution of r. sinicus. based on these basic data, a binary logistic regression method was used to establish habitat selection models of r. sinicus. then, the corrected akaike information ...201830519741
gut microbial diversity in two insectivorous bats: insights into the effect of different sampling sources.the gut microbiota is now known as a key factor in mammalian physiology and health. our understanding of the gut microbial communities and their effects on ecology and evolution of their hosts is extremely limited in bats which represent the second largest mammalian order. in the current study, gut microbiota of three sampling sources (small intestine, large intestine, and feces) were characterized in two sympatric and insectivorous bats (rhinolophus sinicus and myotis altarium) by high-throughp ...201929971963
evaluating angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-mediated sars-cov-2 entry across species.the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) pandemic represents a global threat, and the interaction between the virus and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2), the primary entry receptor for sars-cov-2, is a key determinant of the range of hosts that can be infected by the virus. however, the mechanisms underpinning ace2-mediated viral entry across species remains unclear. using infection assay, we evaluated sars-cov-2 entry mediated by ace2 of 11 different animal species ...202133610551
analysis of codon usage of horseshoe bat hepatitis b virus and its the present analysis, codon usage strategies and base distribution of horseshoe bat hepatitis b virus (hbhbv) were analyzed and compared with its host rhinolophus sinicus, as no work was yet reported. the magnitude of synonymous codon usage bias (cub) in the virus and its host was low with higher proportion of the base c. notably, 21 more frequently used codons, 19 less frequently used codons and 3 underrepresented codons (tcg, acg and gcg) were found to be similar in both virus and its host ...202134171764
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