evaluation of peracid activated organophosphates in studies of insecticide resistance conferred by insensitive acetylcholinesterases.peracid activated organophosphorus (op) insecticides were evaluated against electric eel and a range of insect acetylcholinesterases (ache). incubation of chlorpyrifos and sulprofos with meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mcpba) produced active metabolites capable of distinguishing between ache enzymes conferring op susceptibility and resistance in populations of the tobacco whitefly, bemisia tabaci gennadius, and the beet armyworm, spodoptera exigua hubner. these products were also active against e ...200212020023
co-development of encarsia formosa (hymenoptera: aphelinidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum (homoptera: aleyrodidae): a histological examination.using histological techniques, we have simultaneously examined the co-development of the aphelinid parasitoid encarsia formosa and its host the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum. previously we have determined that regardless of the whitefly instar parasitized, parasitoid larvae would not molt to their final instar until the whitefly reaches its maximum dimensions. in unparasitized t. vaporariorum, this point in development corresponds to the initiation of the adult molt. in part, th ...200212210957
pathogenicity of aschersonia spp. against whiteflies bemisia argentifolii and trialeurodes vaporariorum.entomopathogenic fungi of the genus aschersonia are specific for whitefly and scale insects. they can be used as biological control agents against silverleaf whitefly, bemisia argentifolii and greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum. forty-four isolates of aschersonia spp. were tested for their ability to sporulate and germinate on semi-artificial media and to infect insect hosts. seven isolates sporulated poorly (less than 1x10(7) conidia/dry weight) and 10 were not able to infect either ...200212417207
sequence analysis and genomic organization of aphid lethal paralysis virus: a new member of the family dicistroviridae.the complete nucleotide sequence of the genomic rna of an aphid-infecting virus, aphid lethal paralysis virus (alpv), has been determined. the genome is 9812 nt in length and contains two long open reading frames (orfs), which are separated by an intergenic region of 163 nt. the first orf (5' orf) is preceded by an untranslated leader sequence of 506 nt, while an untranslated region of 571 nt follows the second orf (3' orf). the deduced amino acid sequences of the 5' orf and 3' orf products resp ...200212466490
insecticidal properties of a chenopodium-based botanical.the emulsifiable concentrate uda-245 based on an essential oil extract from chenopodium ambrosioides variety near ambrosioides, a north american herbaceous plant, was compared with commercially available pesticides for their effectiveness to control green peach aphid, myzus persicae (sulzer) (homoptera: aphididae), western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (pergande) (thysanoptera: thripidae), and greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorium (westwood) (homoptera: aleyrodidae). side e ...200415384351
entomopathogenic fungi from 'el eden' ecological reserve, quintana roo, mexico.entomopathogenic fungi were isolated and identified from insects collected from the tropical forest and an agricultural area at el eden ecological reserve, quintana roo, mexico. these fungi were studied to determine their potential as biological control agents of greenhouse trialeurodes vaporariorum (homoptera: aleyrodidae), and to contribute to the knowledge of biodiversity of this area. no pest insects were observed in the tropical forest. in contrast, all insects collected in the agricultural ...200415487323
delphastus catalinae and coleomegilla maculata lengi (coleoptera: coccinellidae) as biological control agents of the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum (homoptera: aleyrodidae).predation efficacy and compatibility of the predatory lady beetles coleomegilla maculata lengi timberlake and delphastus catalinae (horn) against the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) were studied in laboratory on glabrous fuchsia (fuchsia hybrida voss cv lena corolla) and pubescent poinsettia plants (euphorbia pulcherrima willd ex klotzch cv dark red annette hegg). on glabrous plants (fuchsia), fourth-instar and adults of c maculata were the most efficient, both against ...200415532680
effects of uv-blocking films on the dispersal behavior of encarsia formosa (hymenoptera: aphelinidae).the parasitoid encarsia formosa gahan (hymenoptera: aphelinidae) has been used successfully for the control of trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) (homoptera: aleyrodidae). the development of uv-blocking plastic films has added a new component to future integrated pest management systems by disrupting insect pest infestation when uv light is excluded. because both t. vaporariorum and e. formosa are reported to have similar spectral efficiency, there was a need to identify the impact of uv-block ...200717370817
co-infection and localization of secondary symbionts in two whitefly species.whiteflies are cosmopolitan phloem-feeding pests that cause serious damage to many crops worldwide due to direct feeding and vectoring of many plant viruses. the sweetpotato whitefly bemisia tabaci (gennadius) and the greenhouse whitefly trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) are two of the most widespread and damaging whitefly species. to complete their unbalanced diet, whiteflies harbor the obligatory bacterium portiera aleyrodidarum. b. tabaci further harbors a diverse array of secondary symbio ...201020462452
biological control of greenhouse whitefly (trialeurodes vaporariorum) with fungal insecticides.the influence of the biological insecticide botanigard (beauveria bassiana) on different developmental stages of the greenhouse whitefly (trialeurodes vaporariorum) has been tested and compared with the influence of preferal (paecilomyces fumosoroseus), also a biological product. six experiments were set up to test the two products on eggs, which were four and seven days old, on larvae of the first, second/third and fourth stage and to test the effect on egg-deposition. these experiments were al ...200315149114
identification and sequence analysis of potato yellow vein virus capsid protein minor gene.potato yellow vein virus (pyvv) is a whitefly-transmitted (trialeurodes vaporariorum) closterovirus (wtc) with an as yet unidentified genome composition. pyvv dsrna preparations consist of three high molecular weight dsrna species (dsrnas 1, 2 and 3) 8.0, 5.5 and 4.0 kbp in size respectively, as well as two low molecular weight dsrna species of 2.0 and 1.8 kbp (denoted x and y). the pyvv capsid protein minor (cpm) gene was identified on the dsrna 3 species, and was subsequently cloned and sequen ...200212881642
growth and development of encarsia formosa (hymenoptera: aphelinidae) in the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum (homoptera: aleyrodidae): effect of host age.the tiny parasitoid wasp, encarsia formosa, has been used successfully to control greenhouse whiteflies (ghwfs) in greenhouses in many countries throughout the world. therefore, there has been considerable interest in developing methods for artificially rearing this wasp. however, little information is available concerning the regulation of its development including the host-parasitoid interactions that are required for the parasitoid to complete its life cycle. here we confirm that parasitoid d ...200211857673
diversity and localization of bacterial endosymbionts from whitefly species collected in brazil.whiteflies (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. all whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. in this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of sao paulo, bahia, minas gerais an ...201425259930
pyrosequencing the transcriptome of the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum reveals multiple transcripts encoding insecticide targets and detoxifying enzymes.the whitefly trialeurodes vaporariorum is an economically important crop pest in temperate regions that has developed resistance to most classes of insecticides. however, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance have not been characterised and, to date, progress has been hampered by a lack of nucleotide sequence data for this species. here, we use pyrosequencing on the roche 454-flx platform to produce a substantial and annotated est dataset. this 'unigene set' will form a critical referen ...201121261962
over-expression of a cytochrome p450 is associated with resistance to pyriproxyfen in the greenhouse whitefly trialeurodes vaporariorum.the juvenile hormone mimic, pyriproxyfen is a suppressor of insect embryogenesis and development, and is effective at controlling pests such as the greenhouse whitefly trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) which are resistant to other chemical classes of insecticides. although there are reports of insects evolving resistance to pyriproxyfen, the underlying resistance mechanism(s) are poorly understood.201222347432
encarsia species (hymenoptera: aphelinidae) of australia and the pacific islands attacking bemisia tabaci and trialeurodes vaporariorum (hemiptera: aleyrodidae)--a pictorial key and descriptions of four new species.after the recent introduction of the pest whitefly bemisia tabaci (gennadius) biotype b into australia, research was undertaken to study the parasitoids of the long established native b. tabaci and trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood). the genus encarsia contains species which are important biological control agents of whiteflies and hard scales. the taxonomy of the encarsia species attacking b. tabaci and t. vaporariorum in australia and the pacific islands is revised. dna sequencing of the 28s ...200111583600
Interspecific Interactions Between Bemisia tabaci Biotype B and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) are invasive whitefly species that often co-occur on greenhouse-grown vegetables in northern China. Although B. tabaci biotype B has been present in China for a relatively short period of time, it has become dominant over T. vaporariorum. We studied the interspecific competitive interactions between the two species in single or mixed cultures at 24 ± 1°C, 40 ± 5% RH, and L14:D10 h photoperiod. Female longevity on toma ...201122182623
biological agents for whitefly control in sardinian greenhouse evaluate the effectiveness of alternative options for biocontrol of whiteflies in greenhouse tomatoes, an experiment was carried out during the cropping season 2005-2006 in one of sardinia's major horticultural districts (s. margherita di pula, cagliari, italy). twelve long-cycle and 17 short-cycle tomato crops (8 autumn and 9 spring crops) were surveyed. all of them were treated for insect pest control at the beginning of the growing season, but in 19 out of 29 cases whitefly natural enemies ...200920222592
pathogenicity of two species of entomopathogenic nematodes against the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum (hemiptera: aleyrodidae), in laboratory and greenhouse experiments.the greenhouse whitefly trialeurodes vaporariorum (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) is a polyphagous pest in greenhouse crops. the efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematodes (epn), steinernema feltiae and heterorhabditis bacteriophora, as biological control agents against t. vaporariorum was evaluated using two model crops typical of vegetable greenhouse productions: cucumber and pepper. laboratory tests evaluated adults and second nymphal instars for pest susceptibility to different epn species at diffe ...201525861117
tomato chlorosis virus: a new whitefly-transmitted, phloem-limited, bipartite closterovirus of tomato.abstract tomato chlorosis virus (tocv) is the second whitefly-transmitted, phloem-limited, bipartite closterovirus described infecting tomato. tocv is distinct from tomato infectious chlorosis virus (ticv), based on lack of serological and nucleic acid cross-reactions and differences in vector specificity. ticv is transmitted only by the greenhouse whitefly (trialeurodes vaporariorum), whereas tocv is transmitted by the greenhouse whitefly, the banded-wing whitefly (t. abutilonea), and bemisia t ...199818944918
host-parasite interactions between whiteflies and their parasitoids.there is relatively little information available concerning the physiological and biochemical interactions between whiteflies and their parasitoids. in this report, we describe interactions between aphelinid parasitoids and their aleyrodid hosts that we have observed in four host-parasite systems: bemisia tabaci/encarsia formosa, trialeurodes vaporariorum/e. formosa, b. tabaci/eretmocerus mundus, and t. lauri/encarsia scapeata. in the absence of reported polydnavirus and teratocytes, these paras ...200516304614
analysis of the rna of potato yellow vein virus: evidence for a tripartite genome and conserved 3'-terminal structures among members of the genus crinivirus.double-stranded rna preparations produced from potato plants graft-inoculated with a peruvian isolate of potato yellow vein virus (pyvv; genus crinivirus, family closteroviridae) contain five rna species denoted rna 1, rna 2, rna 3, x and y of approximately 8, 5.3, 3.8, 2.0 and 1.8 kbp, respectively. the complete nucleotide sequences of pyvv rnas 1, 2 and 3 and northern hybridization analysis showed that pyvv rna 1 contained the replication module and an additional open reading frame (p7), while ...200415218192
biology and use of the whitefly parasitoid encarsia formosa.encarsia formosa is a parasitoid used worldwide for the biological control of whiteflies on vegetables and ornamental plants grown in greenhouses. because of outstanding success in controlling trialeurodes vaporariorum on tomatoes, the biology and behavior of this wasp have been intensively studied to identify attributes that contribute to successful biological control and how best to manipulate augmentative releases into greenhouses to suppress whitefly population growth. in this article, we re ...199815012401
[evaluation of interactive efficacy of two mycoinsecticides and low application rate imidacloprid in controlling greenhouse whitefly trialeurodes vaporariorum (homoptera: aleyrodidae)].the interactive effects of pure emulsifiable formulations (10(10) of beauveria bassiana and paecilomyces fumosoroseus conidia and 1% and 3% of imidacloprid 10% wp were tested for controlling greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum, on lettuce grown in four polyethylene film-covered greenhouses (5 m x 100 m) in kunming, yunnan. six fungal treatments, two imidacloprid ones, and one water-spray control were included in the experiment, with each being replicated in three plots ( ...200314997650
toxicity of plant essential oils to trialeurodes vaporariorum (homoptera: aleyrodidae).a total of 53 plant essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against eggs, nymphs, and adults of trialeurodes vaporariorum westwood, using an impregnated filter paper bioassays without allowing direct contact. responses varied according to oil type and dose, and developmental stage of the insect. bay, caraway seed, clove leaf, lemon eucalyptus, lime dis 5 f, pennyroyal, peppermint, rosewood, spearmint, and tea tree oils were highly effective against t. vaporariorum adults, ny ...200314650521
spinosad, a new tool for insect control in vegetables cultivated in greenhouses.spinosad is a biological insecticide derived as a fermentation product from the soil actinomycete saccharopolyspora spinosa. the compound was tested for its possible use in northwestern europe in vegetables cultivated in greenhouses. spinosad is an insect control agent that has activity against a wide range of insect pests including caterpillars, leafminers and thrips. because of its selectivity on a large number of beneficials used in greenhouses, spinosad is an interesting tool for insect cont ...200112425058
torradoviruses are transmitted in a semi-persistent and stylet-borne manner by three whitefly vectors.members of the genus torradovirus (family secoviridae, type species tomato torrado virus, totv) are spherical plant viruses transmitted by the whitefly species trialeurodes vaporariorum and bemisia tabaci. knowledge on the mode of vector transmission is lacking for torradoviruses. here, the mode of transmission was determined for tomato marchitez virus (tomarv). a minimal acquisition access period (aap) and inoculation access period (iap) of approximately 2h each was required for its transmissio ...201424342139
compatibility among entomopathogenic hyphocreales and two beneficial insects used to control trialeurodes vaporariorum (hemiptera: aleurodidae) in mediterranean greenhouses.the effect of the combined use of encarsia formosa or macrolophus caliginosus and one of three marketed mycoinsecticides, mycotal-« (leucanicillium muscarium-based), naturalis-lôäó (beauveria bassiana-based) and preferal-« (isaria fumosorosea-based), on the control of the whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum, was studied under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. the results of both types of tests, the bioassays and the greenhouse trials, for all combinations of e. formosa with each of the three ...201121679715
occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi from agricultural and natural ecosystems in saltillo, méxico, and their virulence towards thrips and whiteflies.abstract entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in saltillo, méxico using the insect bait method with tenebrio molitor (l.) (coleoptera: tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted beauveria bassiana (balsamo) vuillemin (hypocreales: cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted metarhizium anisopliae (metschnikoff) sorokin (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) and ...201121521145
incidence and characterisation of resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides and pymetrozine in the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum westwood (hemiptera: aleyrodidae).trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood), also known as the greenhouse whitefly, is a serious pest of protected vegetable and ornamental crops in most temperate regions of the world. neonicotinoid insecticides are used widely to control this species, although resistance has been reported and may be becoming widespread.201020799247
invasive mechanism and management strategy of bemisia tabaci (gennadius) biotype b: progress report of 973 program on invasive alien species in china.bemisia tabaci (gennadius) biotype b, called a "superbug", is one of the most harmful biotypes of this species complex worldwide. in this report, the invasive mechanism and management of b. tabaci biotype b, based on our 5-year studies, are presented. six b. tabaci biotypes, b, q, zhj1, zhj2, zhj3 and fj1, have been identified in china. biotype b dominates the other biotypes in many regions of the country. genetic diversity in biotype b might be induced by host plant, geographical conditions, an ...200919152088
complementary effect of phloxine b on the insecticidal efficacy of isaria fumosorosea sfp-198 wettable powder against greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum west.insecticidal activities of five photoactive dyes against greenhouse whitefly (gwf), trialeurodes vaporariorum west., in tomatoes were investigated to improve the control efficacy of an entomopathogenic fungal product, isaria fumosorosea sfp-198 wettable powder (wp). azorubine, eosin b, erythrosine, brilliant green and phloxine b were used in this work, accompanying pyriproxyfen emulsifiable concentrate (ec) as a commercial standard for comparison.201020718026
tracing the geminivirus-whitefly transmission pathway by polymerase chain reaction in whitefly extracts, saliva, hemolymph, and honeydew.abstract a membrane feeding system and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) were used to track squash leaf curl virus (slcv) dna in whole whitefly body extracts and in saliva, honeydew, and hemolymph of its whitefly vector, bemisia tabaci, and a whitefly nonvector, trialeurodes vaporariorum. slcv ingestion was monitored by pcr in whiteflies that were given acquisition access periods (aaps) ranging from 0.5 to 96 h on virus-infected plants. slcv detection by pcr in whole body extracts was considered r ...199918944765
"candidatus phlomobacter fragariae" is the prevalent agent of marginal chlorosis of strawberry in french production fields and is transmitted by the planthopper cixius wagneri (china).abstract marginal chlorosis has affected strawberry production in france for about 15 years. a phloem-restricted uncultured bacterium, "candidatus phlomobacter fragariae," is associated with the disease. a large-scale survey for marginal chlorosis in french strawberry production fields and nurseries by polymerase chain reaction amplification of "ca. p. fragariae" 16s rdna revealed that symptoms of marginal chlorosis were not always induced by "ca. p. fragariae" and that the stolbur phytoplasma c ...200318943049
interspecific host discrimination and within-host competition between encarsia formosa and e. pergandiella (hymenoptera: aphelinidae), two endoparasitoids of whiteflies (hemiptera: aleyrodidae).interspecific host discrimination and within-host competition between encarsia formosa gahan and encarsia pergandiella (howard), two endoparasitoids of whiteflies, were studied under laboratory conditions. interspecific host discrimination was studied at two time intervals (0 h and 72 h after the first species had oviposited). parasitized and unparasitized trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) hosts were accepted for oviposition at the same rate by the two parasitoid species. host type did not af ...200217598303
phytotoxicity of tolylfluanid in tomatoes.the use of euparen multi (tolylfluanid) for controlling botrytis cinerea in tomatoes has been decreased the last decade for several reasons. because of the lack of different fungicides with a good efficacy it is important that growers can use different fungicides to prevent development of resistance of botrytis cinerea against many fungicides. tolylfluanid has negative side effects on some insect populations that are used for biological control. it is known that euparen multi and euparen can hav ...200617390776
examination of the biological effects of high anionic peroxidase production in tobacco plants grown under field conditions. i. insect pest least 25 wild type and high peroxidase tobacco nicotiana tabacum l. plants were examined semiweekly over several weeks for pest insect distribution and damage in a 2 year field study. incidence and/or severity of naturally occurring caterpillar damage (dingy cutworm (feltia ducens walker), black cutworm (agrotis ipsilon (hufnagel), tobacco hornworm (manduca sexta l.), and false tobacco budworm (= corn earworm helicoverpa zea (boddie)) was significantly reduced at several sample dates for high ...200616604460
persistence of isaria fumosorosea (hypocreales: cordycipitaceae) sfp-198 conidia in corn oil-based suspension.long-term persistence of entomopathogenic fungi as biopesticides is a major requirement for successful industrialization. corn oil carrier was superior in maintaining germination rates of isaria fumosorosea sfp-198 conidia during exposure to 50°c for 2 h, when compared with other oils, such as soybean oil, cottonseed oil, paraffin oil, and methyl oleate. the corn oil-based conidial suspension (91.6% germination) was also better in this regard than conidial powder (28.4% germination) after 50°c f ...201120571913
age-specific interaction between the parasitoid, encarsia formosa and its host, the silverleaf whitefly, bemisia tabaci (strain b).the effect of hostage, the instar of bemisia tabaci (gennadius) parasitized, on the growth and development of encarsia formosa (gahan) was studied. e. formosa was able to parasitize and complete its life cycle no matter which instar of b. tabaci (strain b), [also identified as b. argentifolii (bellows and perring)], was provided for oviposition, but parasitoid development was significantly slower when 1st or 2nd instar b. tabaci rather than 3rd or 4th instars were parasitized. host age influence ...200315841244
study of the pest community of velvetleaf (abutilon theophrasti medic.).velvetleaf (abutilon theophrasti medicus 1787) is one of the most economically threatening weed plant in hungary. researching biological control against it, and identifying a possible and effective biocontrol agent is an important challenge, as chemical control is difficult and expensive, and there is an increasing claim to practice slight plant protection. entomological studies were made in several parts of the world, for evaluating the species, occuring in velvetleaf, but none of these kind of ...201122696962
volatiles from whitefly-infested plants elicit a host-locating response in the parasitoid, encarsia formosa.the blend of volatile compounds emitted by bean plants (phaseolus vulgaris) infested with greenhouse whitefly (trialeurodes vaporariorum) has been studied comparatively with undamaged plants and whiteflies themselves. collection of the volatiles and analysis by gas chromatography revealed more than 20 compounds produced by plants infested with whitefly. of these, 4 compounds, (z)-3-hexen-1-ol, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, 3-octanone, and one unidentified compound were emitted at higher levels ...200312921437
the evolution of genomic instability in the obligate endosymbionts of whiteflies.many insects depend on ancient associations with intracellular bacteria to perform essential metabolic functions. these endosymbionts exhibit striking examples of convergence in genome architecture, including a high degree of structural stability that is not typical of their free-living counterparts. however, the recently sequenced genome of the obligate whitefly endosymbiont portiera revealed features that distinguish it from other ancient insect associates, such as a low gene density and the p ...201323542079
apple scar skin viroid naked rna is actively transmitted by the whitefly trialeurodes vaporariorum.nucleic acid transfer between plants is a phenomenon which is likely to occur in many ways in nature. we report here the active transmission of apple scar skin viroid (assvd) naked ssrna species by the whitefly trialeurodes vaporariorum (tv). not only the viroid rna, its dna form was also identified from the insect. the viroid transfer efficiency was enhanced with the help of cucumis sativus phloem protein 2 (cspp2), a plant protein known to translocate viroid rnas. this pp2/assvd complex is sta ...201526327493
a technique for the prevention of greenhouse whitefly (trialeurodes vaporariorum) using the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana m130.the possibility of using hyphomycete fungi as suitable biocontrol agents against greenhouse whitefly has led to the isolation of various insect pathogenic fungi. among them is beauveria bassiana, one of the most studied entomopathogenic fungi. the objective of this study was to use b. bassiana m130 as an insecticidal agent against the greenhouse whitefly. m130 isolated from infected insects is known to be a biocontrol agent against greenhouse whitefly. phylogenetic classification of m130 was det ...201424002449
pepino mosaic virus and tomato torrado virus: two emerging viruses affecting tomato crops in the mediterranean basin.the molecular biology, epidemiology, and evolutionary dynamics of pepino mosaic virus (pepmv) are much better understood than those of tomato torrado virus (totv). the earliest descriptions of pepmv suggest a recent jump from nontomato species (e.g., pepino; solanum muricatum) to tomato (solanum lycopersicum). its stability in contaminated plant tissues, its transmission through seeds, and the global trade of tomato seeds and fruits may have facilitated the global spread of pepmv. stability and ...201222682177
permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 october 2012-30 november 2012.this article documents the addition of 153 microsatellite marker loci to the molecular ecology resources database. loci were developed for the following species: brassica oleracea, brycon amazonicus, dimorphandra wilsonii, eupallasella percnurus, helleborus foetidus, ipomoea purpurea, phrynops geoffroanus, prochilodus argenteus, pyura sp., sylvia atricapilla, teratosphaeria suttonii, trialeurodes vaporariorum and trypanosoma brucei. these loci were cross-tested on the following species: dimorpha ...201323356940
characterization of acetylcholinesterases, and their genes, from the hemipteran species myzus persicae (sulzer), aphis gossypii (glover), bemisia tabaci (gennadius) and trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood).gene sequences encoding putative acetylcholinesterases have been reported for four hemipteran insect species. although acetylcholinesterase insensitivity occurs in insecticide-resistant populations of each of these species, no mutations were detected in the gene sequences from the resistant insects. this, coupled with a series of experiments using novel reversible inhibitors to compare the biochemical characteristics of acetylcholinesterase from a range of insect species, showed that the cloned ...200314986922
efficacy and dose response of soil-applied neem formulations in substrates with different amounts of organic matter, in the control of whiteflies, aleyrodes proletella and trialeurodes vaporariorum (hemiptera: aleyrodidae).neem products have been used frequently as an alternative to synthetic pesticides, because of their insecticidal, insect antifeedant, and growth-regulating effects. moreover, new formulations are continually being developed and therefore, they have to be evaluated for their efficacy and persistence. in this regard, two soil-applied products-a liquid-based drenching solution neemazal-t and neemazal granules-were evaluated against two whitefly species, aleyrodes proletella l. and trialeurodes vapo ...201526470244
an oil-based formulation of isaria fumosorosea blastospores for management of greenhouse whitefly trialeurodes vaporariorum (homoptera: aleyrodidae).to date, emphasis has been placed on studying the virulence of isaria fumosorosea conidia rather than the virulence of their blastospores. in the present study, a comparison was made of the efficacy of blastospores of i. fumosorosea (sfp-198) versus conidia against greenhouse whitefly (gwf) trialeurodes vaporarioum nymphs and thermotolerance at 50 °c. to improve thermotolerance and potency, the blastospores were suspended in corn oil with a wetting and an insect-filming agent.201323536463
seasonal trends of whitefly populations in a mediterranean tomato growing area.the whiteflies bemisia tabaci and trialeurodes vaporariorum and their associated viruses constitute a major threat to tomato crops in the mediterranean region. continuous host availability and mild climate are thought to be among the factors contributing to the outbreaks of whitefly-related problems in this area. we carried out a year-long survey to investigate the relative contribution of different plants, agricultural and not, and indoor/outdoor crops as hosts of the two whiteflies and the tom ...200920222589
detection of a related difference in efficacy of azadirachtin treatments for the control of whiteflies on gerbera jamesonii by testing for interactions in generalised linear models.within a project cluster, systemical effects of two neem treatments (neem azal u and neem pellet) on the number of trialeurodes vaporariorum (westw.) in gerbera jamesonii flori line maxi were investigated. in order to minimise adverse ecological effects of a product, a new plant protection product can be declared as superior to a reference if it shows the same or a higher effect at a lower dosage.201019924680
the suitability of biotypes q and b of bemisia tabaci (gennadius) (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) at different nymphal instars as hosts for encarsia formosa gahan (hymenoptera: aphelinidae).encarsia formosa gahan (hymenoptera: aphelinidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. in most areas in china, the invasive and destructive whitefly bemisia tabaci (gennadius) (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) biotype q has replaced b. tabaci biotype b and has become dominant between the two. a better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of b. tabaci biotypes q and b as ...201627114862
normal adult survival but reduced bemisia tabaci oviposition rate on tomato lines carrying an introgression from s. plant resistance has been proposed as one of the most promising approaches in whitefly management. already in 1995 two quantitative trait loci (tv-1 and tv-2) originating from s. habrochaites cgn1.1561 were identified that reduced the oviposition rate of the greenhouse whitefly (trialeurodes vaporariorum). after this first study, several others identified qtls affecting whitefly biology as well. generally, the qtls affecting oviposition were highly correlated with a reduction in whitefly su ...201425539894
virulence testing and extracellular subtilisin-like (pr1) and trypsin-like (pr2) activity during propagule production of paecilomyces fumosoroseus isolates from whiteflies (homoptera: aleyrodidae).to properly characterize several isolates of paecilomyces fumosoroseus, a fungal entomopathogen of whiteflies (homoptera: aleyrodidae) and other insect pests for biocontrol purposes, virulence towards trialeurodes vaporariorum, and subtilisin-like (pr1) and trypsin-like (pr2) protease activity during propagule production were investigated in monospore cultures (mcs). the virulence of three mcs towards second instar whiteflies was measured and expressed as lethal median concentration (lc50). numb ...200717592897
effect of different photoperiods on the growth, infectivity and colonization of trinidadian strains of paecilomyces fumosoroseus on the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum, using a glass slide bioassay.growth, infectivity and colonization rates for blastospores and conidia of trinidadian strains t, t10, and t11 of paecilomyces fumosoroseus (wize) brown and smith were assessed for activity against late fourth-instar nymphs of trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) (homoptera:aleyrodidae) under two different photoperiods (24 and 16 hour photophase). a glass-slide bioassay and a fungal development index, modified for both blastospores and conidia, were used to compare the development rates of the f ...200415861253
colonization by phloem-feeding herbivore overrides effects of plant virus on amino acid composition in phloem of chili plants.the 'adaptive host manipulation' hypothesis predicts that parasites can enhance their transmission rates via manipulation of their host's phenotype. for example, many plant pathogens alter the nutritional quality of their host for herbivores that serve as their vectors. however, herbivores, including non-vectors, might cause additional alterations in the plant phenotype. here, we studied changes in the amino acid (aa) content in the phloem of chilli (capsicum annuum) plants infected with pepper ...201627558811
epidemiology and genetic diversity of criniviruses associated with tomato yellows disease in greece.tomato chlorosis virus (tocv) and tomato infectious chlorosis virus (ticv) are two whitefly transmitted viruses which are classified in the genus crinivirus of the family closteroviridae. both induce similar yellowing symptoms in tomato and are responsible for severe economic losses. tocv is transmitted by bemisia tabaci gennadious, trialeurodes vaporariorum westwood and trialeurodes abutilonea haldeman, whereas ticv is transmitted only by t. vaporariorum. an extensive study was conducted during ...201424370865
virion stability is important for the circulative transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl sardinia virus by bemisia tabaci, but virion access to salivary glands does not guarantee transmissibility.the capsid protein (cp) of the monopartite begomovirus tomato yellow leaf curl sardinia virus (tylcsv), family geminiviridae, is indispensable for plant infection and vector transmission. a region between amino acids 129 and 152 is critical for virion assembly and insect transmissibility. two previously described mutants, one with a double q129p q134h mutation (pnhd) and another with a further d152e change (pnhe), were found nontransmissible (nt). another nt mutant with a single n130d change (qd ...200919321611
tomato pathogenesis-related protein genes are expressed in response to trialeurodes vaporariorum and bemisia tabaci biotype b feeding.the temporal and spatial expression of tomato wound- and defense-response genes to bemisia tabaci biotype b (the silverleaf whitefly) and trialeurodes vaporariorum (the greenhouse whitefly) feeding were characterized. both species of whiteflies evoked similar changes in tomato gene expression. the levels of rnas for the methyl jasmonic acid (meja)- or ethylene-regulated genes that encode the basic β-1,3-glucanase (glub), basic chitinase (chi9), and pathogenesis-related protein-1 (pr-1) were moni ...201020927641
trapping whiteflies? a comparison of greenhouse whitefly (trialeurodes vaporariorum) responses to trap crops and yellow sticky traps.greenhouse whiteflies, trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood), are notorious pests that, through the reduction of crop yields and excretion of honeydew, cause significant economic losses for sweet pepper (capsicum annuum l.) growers. chemical and biological controls are the two most common forms of whitefly management in greenhouses. consequently, insecticide resistance and inadequate control have rejuvenated interest in alternative tactics. in the present study, whitefly responses to trap crops ( ...201121394873
plant-mediated interactions between whiteflies, herbivores, and natural enemies.whiteflies (homoptera: aleyrodidae) comprise tiny phloem-sucking insects. the sessile development of their immatures and their phloem-feeding habits (with minimal physical plant damage) often lead to plant-mediated interactions with other organisms. the main data come from the polyphagous pest species bemisia tabaci (gennadius) and trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood), which are intricately associated with their host plants. although these associations might not represent aleyrodids in general, ...200817877454
an evaluation of three predatory mite species for the control of greenhouse whitefly (trialeurodes vaporariorum).within integrated pest control programmes, the use of high mite inoculations to control hot spots of whitefly is desirable for many growers. in this experiment, two species of predatory mites established as commercial biological control agents, typhlodromips montdorensis and amblyseius swirskii (acari: phytoseiidae), were compared with another, more recently introduced species, amblydromalus limonicus, for their ability to control dense populations of greenhouse whitefly (trialeurodes vaporarior ...201424706366
effects of host plants on insecticide susceptibility and carboxylesterase activity in bemisia tabaci biotype b and greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum.bemisia tabaci (gennadius) biotype b and the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood), have become serious pests of cotton and vegetable crops in china since the early 1990s. in recent years, however, b. tabaci have broken out more frequently and widely than have t. vaporariorum. the b. tabaci biotype b has also developed higher resistance to several insecticides. here, the effects of four different host plants on the insecticide susceptibility of b. tabaci biotype b and t. vapo ...200717323411
ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones of whiteflies, important insect vectors for plant viruses.ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (jhs) regulate many physiological events throughout the insect life cycle, including molting, metamorphosis, ecdysis, diapause, reproduction, and behavior. fluctuation of whitefly ecdysteroid levels and the identity of the whitefly molting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone) have only been reported within the last few years. an ecdysteroid commitment peak that is associated with the reprogramming of tissues for a metamorphic molt in many holometabolous and some hemime ...200717258230
tropical whitefly ipm project.the tropical whitefly ipm project (twfp) is an initiative of the systemwide ipm programme of the consultative group on international agricultural research (cgiar), financed by the department for international development (dfid) of the united kingdom, the danish international development agency (danida), the united states department of agriculture (usda) and agency for international development (usaid), the australian centre for international agricultural research (aciar), and the new zealand age ...200717222696
critical feeding periods for last instar nymphal and pharate adults of the whiteflies, trialeurodes vaporariorum and bemisia tabaci.a critical feeding period is the time after which 50% of a given species of insect can be removed from its food source and complete development by undergoing adult eclosion. the critical feeding period was determined for the greenhouse white fly, trialeurodes vaporariorum, and the sweet potato whitefly, bemisia tabaci (biotype b) (homptera/hemiptera: aleyrodidae). fourth (last) instar and pharate adult whiteflies were removed from green bean leaves, staged, placed on filter paper in small petri ...200720302459
feeding preference of macrolophus caliginosus (heteroptera: miridae) on bemisia tabaci and trialeurodes vaporariorum (homoptera: aleyrodidae).a study of predation choices of macrolophus caliginosus wagner (heteroptera: miridae) late instars and adults, when offered various developmental stages (eggs and nymphs) of the recently established whitefly bemisia tabaci (gennadius) (homoptera: aleyrodidae), was made based on two preference indices. in addition, prey choices of late instars when presented with three ratios of trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) (homoptera: aleyrodidae) and b. tabaci at a similar developmental stage (eggs, you ...200616937666
within-plant distribution and sampling of single and mixed infestations of bemisia tabaci and trialeurodes vaporariorum (homoptera: aleyrodidae) in winter tomato several areas of spain, the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood), and the sweet potato whitefly, bemisia tabaci (gennadius), coexist in tomato, lycopersicon esculentum miller. for integrated pest management decision-making, it is important to know the abundance of each species, because they exhibit different abilities to transmit viruses, are susceptible to different biological control agents, and have different responses to insecticides. this study was conducted to provi ...200616686130
amblyseius swirskii: what made this predatory mite such a successful biocontrol agent?the predatory mite amblyseius swirskii quickly became one of the most successful biocontrol agents in protected cultivation after its introduction into the market in 2005 and is now released in more than 50 countries. there are several key factors contributing to this success: (1) it can control several major pests including the western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis, the whiteflies bemisia tabaci and trialeurodes vaporariorum and the broad mite, polyphagotarsonemus latus, simultaneou ...201525524511
effects of rearing host species on the host-feeding capacity and parasitism of the whitefly parasitoid encarsia formosa.parasitoids of the encarsia genus (hymenoptera: aphelinidae) are important biological control agents against whiteflies. some of the species in this genus not only parasitize their hosts, but also kill them through host feeding. the whitefly parasitoid, encarsia formosa gahan, was examined to determine whether the rearing host species affects its subsequent host-feeding capacity and parasitism. e. formosa wasps were reared on trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) and bemi ...201425368062
low levels of mitochondrial dna and symbiont diversity in the worldwide agricultural pest, the greenhouse whitefly trialeurodes vaporariorum (hemiptera: aleyrodidae).trialeurodes vaporariorum, the greenhouse whitefly, is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest. little is known about the genetic diversity of t. vaporariorum and the bacterial symbionts associated with this species. here, we undertook a large phylogeographic study by investigating both the mitochondrial (mt) diversity and the infection status of 38 t. vaporariorum collections from 18 countries around the world. genetic diversity of t. vaporariorum was studied by analyzing sequence data from the mt cyt ...201425297658
asymmetric consequences of host plant occupation on the competition between the whiteflies bemisia tabaci cryptic species meam1 and trialeurodes vaporariorum (hemiptera: aleyrodidae).the two common whitefly species, bemisia tabaci (gennadius) meam1 and trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood), often co-occur on their host plants. the effect of host plant occupation by one species on later-arriving conspecific individuals or on the other competing species was examined.201424343857
cross-resistance relationships of the sulfoximine insecticide sulfoxaflor with neonicotinoids and other insecticides in the whiteflies bemisia tabaci and trialeurodes vaporariorum.insecticides are important tools for managing damaging insect pests. compounds that are effective against pests such as the whiteflies bemisia tabaci and trialeurodes vaporariorum, which show resistance to a range of insecticidal modes of action (moa), have particular value as components of resistance management programmes. the sulfoximine insecticides are chemically unique as the first to incorporate a sulfoximine functional group. sulfoxaflor is the first sulfoximine compound under commercial ...201323203347
suitability changes with host leaf age for bemisia tabaci b biotype and trialeurodes vaporariorum.the suitability of tomato leaves of different ages for bemisia tabaci (gennadius) b biotype and trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) was characterized by development time, stage-specific survival, sex ratio, longevity, and fecundity. three categories of leaf ages were tested (young: expanding leaves <2 wk old; mature: fully expanded, 4-5-wk-old leaves; old: fully expanded, 6-7-wk-old leaves). there was no significant variation in the duration of development of the two species among the three cla ...201223068168
novaluron (rimon), a novel igr--mechanism, selectivity and importance in ipm programs.novaluron (rimon), a new igr, acts by both ingestion and contact. it is a powerful toxicant for controlling lepidopteran larvae resulting in lc-90 values of 0.42 and 0.30 mg a.i./liter for spodoptera littoralis and s. exigua, respectively. its residual activity under field conditions ranges between 10 and 30 days depending on environmental conditions. the compound is a powerful toxicant against developing stages of whiteflies, resulting in lc-90 values of 0.68 and 8.56 mg a.i./liter for bemisia ...200212696429
diversity and localization of bacterial symbionts in three whitefly species (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) from the east coast of the adriatic sea.several whitefly species (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) are cosmopolitan phloem-feeders that cause serious damage in numerous agricultural crops. all whitefly species harbor a primary bacterial symbiont and a diverse array of secondary symbionts which may influence several aspects of the insect's biology. we surveyed infections by secondary symbionts in bemisia tabaci (gennadius), trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) and siphoninus phillyreae (haliday) from areas in the east cost of the adriatic sea. ...201322698088
short-term and transgenerational effects of the neonicotinoid nitenpyram on susceptibility to insecticides in two whitefly species.the cosmopolitan silverleaf whitefly, bemisia tabaci which had coexisted with trialeurodes vaporariorum in northern china for many years, has become the dominant species in the last years. recent reports show that it is gradually displacing the other greenhouse whitefly species. neonicotinoid, which includes nitenpyram, is a major group of insecticides used against whiteflies in various crops. when exposed to low doses of insecticides, insects may develop resistance by adapting physiologically. ...201222661314
trophic relationships between predators, whiteflies and their parasitoids in tomato greenhouses: a molecular approach.the whiteflies bemisia tabaci gennadius and trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) are two of the main pests in tomato crops. their biological control in mediterranean ipm systems is based on the predators macrolophus pygmaeus (rambur) and nesidiocoris tenuis reuter (hemiptera: miridae), as well as on the parasitoids eretmocerus mundus (mercet) and encarsia pergandiella howard (hymenoptera: aphelinidae). these natural enemies may interact with each other and their joint us ...201222314013
host plant effects on alkaline phosphatase activity in the whiteflies, bemisia tabaci biotype b and trialeurodes vaporariorum.bemisia tabaci (gennadius) b-biotype and trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) often coexist on greenhouse-grown vegetable crops in northern china. the recent spread of b. tabaci b-biotype has largely replaced t. vaporariorum, and b-biotype now overlaps with t. vaporariorum where common hosts occur in most invaded areas. the impact of the b-biotype on the agro eco system appears to be widespread, and involves the ability to compete with and perhaps replace other phytophag ...201121521136
resistance of tomato genotypes to the greenhouse whitefly trialeurodes vaporariorum (west.) (hemiptera: aleyrodidae).the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum westwood, is the most common and abundant whitefly in argentine horticultural greenhouse crops, especially in tomato (solanum lycopersicum). resistance in some wild tomato relatives, such as s. peruvianum, s. habrochaites and s. pennellii to the greenhouse whitefly has been described. the mi gene confers effective resistance against several species of insects, among them the sweet potato whitefly, bemisia tabaci gennadius. resistance to t. vapor ...201021120390
double cuticle barrier in two global pests, the whitefly trialeurodes vaporariorum and the bedbug cimex lectularius.the integument protects the organism against penetration of xenobiotics and water that would potentially interfere with homeostasis. in insects that play key roles in a variety of agricultural and ecological habitats this inward barrier is barely investigated. in order to advance in this field, we studied integumental barrier (cuticle) permeability in the two global pests trialeurodes vaporariorum (greenhouse whitefly) and cimex lectularius (bedbug) applying a simple dye-penetration assay. in ag ...201728167802
nickel hyperaccumulation as an elemental defense of streptanthus polygaloides (brassicaceae): influence of herbivore feeding study of a single nickel (ni) hyperaccumulator species has investigated the impact of hyperaccumulation on herbivores representing a variety of feeding modes. streptanthus polygaloides plants were grown on high- or low-ni soils and a series of no-choice and choice feeding experiments was conducted using eight arthropod herbivores. herbivores used were two leaf-chewing folivores (the grasshopper melanoplus femurrubrum and the lepidopteran evergestis rimosalis), a dipteran rhizovore (the cabbag ...200516219073
outbreaks of trialeurodes vaporariorum (west.) (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) under field conditions in the state of são paulo, brazil.trialeurodes vaporariorum (west.) is a pest of greenhouse vegetables and ornamentals and infests crops in europe and in the american continent. in brazil, just a few cases are known on economic crops, being all restricted to greenhouse crops. in 2003, in itatiba and neighboring localities of state of são paulo, brazil, field infestations of t. vaporariorum were observed, mainly on tomato and green bean. so far, whitefly infestation in this area expanded to squash and kale also. field studies are ...200818368256
insecticide resistance in trialeurodes vaporariorum populations and novel diagnostics for kdr mutations.neonicotinoids, pyrethroids and ketoenols, are currently used for the control of trialeurodes vaporariorum (hemiptera: aleyrodidae). in this study, insecticide resistance status and mechanisms were investigated by classical bioassays and molecular techniques.201728734106
identification of the molting hormone of the sweet potato (bemisia tabaci) and greenhouse (trialeurodes vaporariorum) order to identify the whitefly molting hormone, whole body extracts of mature 4th instar and newly formed pharate adult bemisia tabaci (biotype b) and trialeurodes vaporariorum were prepared and subjected to reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (rphplc). ecdysteroid content of fractions was determined by enzymeimmunoassay (eia). the only detectable ecdysteroids that were present in significant amounts in whitefly extracts were ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone. the concentration ...200515686645
the nymphal-adult molt of the silverleaf whitefly (bemisia argentifolii): timing, regulation, and progress.the developmental progress of silverleaf whitefly (bemisia argentifolii) 3rd instars and 4th instar/pharate adults was monitored using a tracking system that had been designed to identify synchronous individuals in another species of whitefly, the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum. when reared on greenbean under conditions of ld 16:8 and a temperature of 26 +/- 2 degrees c, the body depth of 3rd instar slwfs increased from approximately 0.04 mm (stage 2) to 0.175-0.2 mm (stage 7-8) ...200212232874
biorational agents--mechanism and importance in ipm and irm programs for controlling agricultural pests.among the new approaches for controlling agricultural pests is the development of novel compounds affecting specific processes in insects such as chitin synthesis inhibitors, juvenile hormone mimics and ecdysone agonists. in addition, efforts have been made to develop compounds acting selectively on groups of insects by inhibiting or enhancing biochemical sites such as respiration (diafenthiuron), the nicotinyl acetylcholine receptors (imidacloprid and acetamiprid), the gaba receptors (avermecti ...200112425057
new developments in insecticide resistance in the glasshouse whitefly (trialeurodes vaporariorum) and the two-spotted spider mite (tetranychus urticae) in the uk.a recent survey of insecticide resistance in two of the most problematic pests in uk glasshouses revealed some new developments. at least some individuals in all uk samples of trialeurodes vaporariorum that were tested resisted the insect growth regulator (igr) buprofezin. the most strongly resistant strains were unaffected by the field application rate of this compound, and even samples from populations that had never been exposed to buprofezin contained individuals that survived the highest co ...200211852636
digestive, salivary, and reproductive organs of bemisia tabaci (gennadius) (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) b type.a microscopic analysis of the morphology and ultrastructure of the digestive, salivary, and reproductive systems of adult bemisia tabaci (gennadius) (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) b type was conducted using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. the internal anatomy of b. tabaci was found to be similar to that reported for trialeurodes vaporariorum. in a microscopic analysis of the salivary glands, we have shown that each primary salivary gland is composed of at least 13 cells varying ...200111268056
vitellin of the sweet potato whitefly, bemisia tabaci: biochemical characterization and titer changes in the adult.sds-page of the sweet potato whitefly (bemisia tabaci) egg extract showed one major band (approximately 190 kda) and two minor bands (approximately 75 kda and 67 kda). a distinct 190 kda band was also present in male extract. on sds gels the vitellin band of the greenhouse whitefly (trialeurodes vaporarium) was larger, about 220 kda. the native molecular mass of sweet potato whitefly vitellin was estimated to be 375 kda using 4-20% native porelimiting gel electrophoresis. its isoelectric point w ...19979041698
intraguild predation on the whitefly parasitoid eretmocerus eremicus by the generalist predator geocoris punctipes: a behavioral approach.intraguild predation (igp) takes place when natural enemies that use similar resources attack each other. the impact of igp on biological control can be significant if the survival of natural enemy species is disrupted. in the present study, we assessed whether geocoris punctipes (hemiptera: lygaeidae) engages in igp on eretmocerus eremicus (hymenoptera: aphelinidae) while developing on whitefly nymphs of trialeurodes vaporariorum (hemiptera: aleyrodidae). in choice and non-choice tests, we expo ...201324260452
beyond predation: the zoophytophagous predator macrolophus pygmaeus induces tomato resistance against spider mites.many predatory insects that prey on herbivores also feed on the plant, but it is unknown whether plants affect the performance of herbivores by responding to this phytophagy with defence induction. we investigate whether the prior presence of the omnivorous predator macrolophus pygmaeus (rambur) on tomato plants affects plant resistance against two different herbivore species. besides plant-mediated effects of m. pygmaeus on herbivore performance, we examined whether a plant defence trait that i ...201525974207
sugar derivatives containing oxiranes and alpha,beta-unsaturated gamma-lactones as potential environmentally friendly insecticides.a range of novel sugar derivatives containing oxiranes or alpha,beta-unsaturated gamma-lactones in their structure were evaluated as potential insecticides with the added possible benefit of being benign in the environment. a number of arthropod species were chosen to represent those in the terrestrial, aerial and aquatic environments, covering target adult insects such as musca domestica l (housefly) and trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) (glasshouse whitefly), which are public health and hor ...200515912559
tolerance to a whitefly-transmitted virus causing muskmelon yellows disease in spain.muskmelon yellowing disease was one of the most serious problems affecting muskmelon crops along the south-east coast of spain throughout the 1980s. the causal agent of this disease is a virus that we call muskmelon yellows virus (myv); myv is transmitted by the greenhouse whitefly trialeurodes vaporariorum westwood. it has proven impossible to find sources of resistance to myv within a wide collection of spanish muskmelon landraces and exotic varieties. however, 'nagata kin makuwa' and pi 16137 ...199224201359
functional response of eretmocerus delhiensis on trialeurodes vaporariorum by parasitism and host feeding.the parasitoid wasp, eretmocerus delhiensis (hymenoptera, aphelinidae) is a thelytokous and syn-ovigenic parasitoid. to evaluate e. delhiensis as a biocontrol agent in greenhouse, the killing efficiency of this parasitoid by parasitism and host-feeding, were studied. killing efficiency can be compared by estimation of functional response parameters. laboratory experiments were performed in controllable conditions to evaluate the functional response of e. delhiensis at eight densities (2, 4, 8, 1 ...201728423420
baseline susceptibility of mediterranean strains of trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) to cyantraniliprole.cyantraniliprole is a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide that acts on a broad-spectrum of insect pest, exclusively by activating their ryanodine receptors. cyantraniliprole is very effective against whitefly and it presents a favorable ecotoxicological profile. in this study, the baseline susceptibility to cyantraniliprole of trialeurodes vaporariorum populations from mediterranen area was stablished making nymphal systemic uptake bioassays.201829377447
diversity and phylogenetic analyses of bacterial symbionts in three whitefly species from southeast europe.bemisia tabaci (gennadius), trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood), and siphoninus phillyreae (haliday) are whitefly species that harm agricultural crops in many regions of the world. these insects live in close association with bacterial symbionts that affect host fitness and adaptation to the environment. in the current study, we surveyed the infection of whitefly populations in southeast europe by various bacterial symbionts and performed phylogenetic analyses on the different symbionts detecte ...201729053633
single-target and multiplex discrimination of whiteflies (hemiptera: aleyrodidae) bemisia tabaci and trialeurodes vaporariorum with modified priming oligonucleotide thermodynamics.the whitefly species bemisia tabaci (gennadius) and trialeurodes vaporariorum (westwood) are worldwide agricultural pests and virus vectors. bemisia tabaci, in particular, is often transported internationally via trade routes leading to potential introductions of exotic whiteflies or plant viruses. quick identification of agriculturally important whiteflies can facilitate interventions that prevent these cross-border introductions. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) primers were designed to amplify ...201728498951
developing scar markers to study predation on trialeurodes vaporariorum.dna markers of trialeurodes vaporariorum were developed to detect remains of these whitefly in the gut of the predator dicyphus tamaninii. a 2400-bp dna fragment of t. vaporariorum, absent in other closely related prey species and in the predator banding pattern, was identified by random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis. after cloning and sequencing this fragment, two pairs of sequence-characterized amplified region (scar) primers were developed, amplifying single bands of 2100 bp and 3 ...200010886409
volatile-mediated attraction of greenhouse whitefly trialeurodes vaporariorum to tomato and eggplant.the behavior of the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum westwood (hemiptera: aleyrodidae), is known to be affected by plant volatile cues, but its attraction or repellent to specific volatile cues has not been deeply studied yet. therefore, the aim of our study was to identify the most attractive plant among cultivars of tomato (solanum lycopersicum) and eggplant (solanum melongena) to evaluate the volatiles of plants to identify the chemical compound(s) that attract t. vaporariorum. ...201728775733
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