eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in relation to the avian community of a coastal cedar swamp.eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eeev) is perpetuated in eastern north america in a mosquito-wild bird maintenance cycle that involves culiseta melanura (coquillett) as the principal enzootic vector and passerine birds as the primary amplifying hosts. we examined the role of birds in the eeev cycle at a site in southern new jersey where eeev cycles annually at high levels. birds and mosquitoes were sampled during three epiornitics and one season of limited virus activity. we examined anti ...19947966175
benefits to satellite members in mixed-species foraging groups: an experimental analysis.hypotheses proposed to explain the formation of mixed-species foraging groups have focused on both foraging and antipredation benefits. mixed-species flocks of bark-foraging birds form during the winter in the eastern deciduous forests of north america. these flocks are composed of two parid nuclear species, tufted titmice, baeolophus bicolor, and either carolina or black-capped chickadees, poecile carolinensis or p. atricapillus, and several satellite species including downy woodpeckers, picoid ...19989787042
seasonal variation in avian auditory evoked responses to tones: a comparative analysis of carolina chickadees, tufted titmice, and white-breasted nuthatches.we tested for seasonal plasticity of the peripheral auditory system of three north american members of the sylvioidea: carolina chickadees (poecile carolinensis), tufted titmice (baeolophus bicolor), and white-breasted nuthatches (sitta carolinensis). we measured three classes of auditory evoked responses (aer) to tone stimuli: sustained receptor/neural responses to pure-tone condensation waveforms, the frequency-following response (ffr), and the earliest peak of the aer to stimulus onset (tone ...200717066303
variation in chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, baeolophus bicolor: note type and individual distinctiveness.the chick-a-dee call of chickadee species (genus poecile) has been the focus of much research. a great deal is known about the structural complexity and the meaning of variation in notes making up calls in these species. however, little is known about the likely homologous "chick-a-dee" call of the closely related tufted titmouse, baeolophus bicolor. tufted titmice are a prime candidate for comparative analyses of the call, because their vocal and social systems share many characteristics with t ...200717672668
the effects of extended exposure to traffic noise on parid social and risk-taking behavior.traffic noise is a prevalent and yet poorly understood anthropogenic disturbance associated with reduced avian diversity, population densities and pairing and mating success. how these systems are affected is not clear as a direct experimental link between noise and behavior underlying these patterns is missing. here we provide the first empirical evidence of the effects of long-term exposure to simulated traffic noise on social and risk-taking behavior of carolina chickadees (poecile carolinens ...201222688079
tufted titmouse (baeolophus bicolor) calling and risk-sensitive foraging in the face of threat.individuals often produce alarm or mobbing calls when they detect a threat such as a predator. little is known about whether such calling is affected by the facial orientation of a potential threat, however. we tested for an effect of facial orientation of a potential threat on tufted titmice, baeolophus bicolor, a songbird that uses chick-a-dee calls in a variety of social contexts. in two studies, a human observer wore an animal mask that either faced or faced away from the focal bird(s). in s ...201424929843
titmouse calling and foraging are affected by head and body orientation of cat predator models and possible experience with real cats.although anti-predator behavior systems have been studied in diverse taxa, less is known about how prey species detect and assess the immediate threat posed by a predator based on its behavior. in this study, we evaluated a potential cue that some species may utilize when assessing predation threat-the predator's body and head orientation. we tested the effect of this orientation cue on signaling and predation-risk-sensitive foraging of a prey species, tufted titmice (baeolophus bicolor). earlie ...201526123081
when the birds go unheard: highway noise disrupts information transfer between bird species.highway infrastructure and accompanying vehicle noise is associated with decreased wildlife populations in adjacent habitats. noise masking of animal communication is an oft-cited potential mechanism underlying species loss in sound-polluted habitats. this study documents the disruption of between-species information transfer by anthropogenic noise. titmice and chickadees broadcast specific calls to alert kin of predator threats, and sympatric vertebrates eavesdrop on these alarm calls to avoid ...201627095267
do carolina chickadees (poecile carolinensis) and tufted titmice (baeolophus bicolor) attend to the head or body orientation of a perched avian predator?individuals of many prey species adjust their foraging behavior in response to the presence of a predator. responding to predators takes time away from searching for and exploiting food resources. to balance between the need to avoid predation and the need to forage, individuals should attend to cues from predators that indicate risk. two such cues might be the predator's head orientation (where it might be looking) and body orientation (where it might be moving). in the current study, flocks of ...201627195595
haemosporidian prevalence and parasitemia in the tufted titmouse (baeolophus bicolor).hemosporidians are a diverse group of blood parasites that infect terrestrial vertebrates worldwide, but there is variability in parasite prevalence and parasitemia with infections ranging from virtually inconsequential to lethal. in this study, we determined prevalence and parasitemia of avian hemosporidians in the tufted titmouse ( baeolophus bicolor ; n = 81). plasmodium and parahaemoproteus were detected and quantified from blood samples using microscopy, polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and ...201627560486
diversity in mixed species groups improves success in a novel feeder test in a wild songbird community.mixed-species groups are common and are thought to provide benefits to group members via enhanced food finding and antipredator abilities. these benefits could accrue due to larger group sizes in general but also to the diverse species composition in the groups. we tested these possibilities using a novel feeder test in a wild songbird community containing three species that varied in their dominant-subordinate status and in their nuclear-satellite roles: carolina chickadees (poecile carolinensi ...201728230159
host associations of mosquitoes at eastern equine encephalitis virus foci in connecticut, usa.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne arbovirus, with active transmission foci in freshwater hardwood swamps in eastern north america, where enzootic transmission is maintained between the ornithophilic mosquito, culiseta melanura, and wild passerine birds. the role of other locally abundant mosquito species in virus transmission and their associations with vertebrate hosts as sources of blood meals within these foci are largely unknown but are of importa ...201627577939
foraging ecology drives social information reliance in an avian eavesdropping community.vertebrates obtain social information about predation risk by eavesdropping on the alarm calls of sympatric species. in the holarctic, birds in the family paridae function as sentinel species; however, factors shaping eavesdroppers' reliance on their alarm calls are unknown. we compared three hypothesized drivers of eavesdropper reliance: (a) foraging ecology, (b) degree of sociality, and (c) call relevance (caller-to-eavesdropper body-size difference). in a rigorous causal-comparative design, w ...201931695870
susceptibility of wild songbirds to the house finch strain of mycoplasma gallisepticum.conjunctivitis in house finches (carpodacus mexicanus), caused by mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg), was first reported in 1994 and, since this time, has become endemic in house finch populations throughout eastern north america. although the house finch is most commonly associated with mg-related conjunctivitis, mg has been reported from other wild bird species, and conjunctivitis (not confirmed as mg related) has been reported in over 30 species. to help define the host range of the house finch st ...200516107666
dynamics of vector-host interactions in avian communities in four eastern equine encephalitis virus foci in the northeastern u.s.eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus (togaviridae, alphavirus) is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for occasional outbreaks of severe disease in humans and equines, resulting in high mortality and neurological impairment in most survivors. in the past, human disease outbreaks in the northeastern u.s. have occurred intermittently with no apparent pattern; however, during the last decade we have witnessed recurring annual emergence where eee virus activity had bee ...201626751704
predicted and observed mortality from vector-borne disease in small songbirds.numerous diseases of wildlife have recently emerged due to trade and travel. however, the impact of disease on wild animal populations has been notoriously difficult to detect and demonstrate, due to problems of attribution and the rapid disappearance of bodies after death. determining the magnitude of avian mortality from west nile virus (wnv) is emblematic of these challenges. although correlational analyses may show population declines coincident with the arrival of the virus, strong inferenc ...023956457
spatial, temporal, molecular, and intraspecific differences of haemoparasite infection and relevant selected physiological parameters of wild birds in georgia, usa.the prevalence of five avian haemoparasite groups was examined for effects on health and associations with extrinsic factors. overall, 786 samples were examined from six sites in two georgia (usa) watersheds, during breeding and non-breeding periods in 2010 and 2011. among the four most commonly infected species, haemoproteus prevalence was significantly higher in northern cardinals (cardinalis cardinalis) compared to indigo buntings (passerina cyanea) and tufted titmice (baeolophus bicolor) whi ...201324533333
management of fat reserves in tufted titmice baelophus bicolor in relation to risk of predation.fat reserves are an important energy source for animals wintering in temperate zones. long nights, low ambient temperature and often unpredictable food all increase the probability of death from starvation, and to survive, animals carry energy reserves as fat. based on the assumption that extra weight makes birds more vulnerable to diurnal predators, it has been hypothesized that predation risk places an upper limit on avian fat reserves. the hypothesis leads to the prediction that birds should ...19989710461
flocking propensity by satellites, but not core members of mixed-species flocks, increases when individuals experience energetic deficits in a poor-quality foraging habitat.mixed-species bird flocks are complex social systems comprising core and satellite members. flocking species are sensitive to habitat disturbance, but we are only beginning to understand how species-specific responses to habitat disturbance affect interspecific associations in these flocks. here we demonstrate the effects of human-induced habitat disturbance on flocking species' behavior, demography, and individual condition within a remnant network of temperate deciduous forest patches in india ...201930625186
mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in songbirds from new york.a field study was conducted to determine the prevalence of conjunctivitis and mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) infections in house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) and other songbirds common to bird feeders in tompkins county (new york, usa). eight hundred two individuals of 23 species and nine families of birds were captured and given physical examinations during the 14 mo study beginning in february 1998. clinical conjunctivitis (eyelid or conjunctival swelling, erythema, and discharge) was observe ...200010813607
host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of west nile virus in the eastern united important variable in determining the vectorial capacity of mosquito species for arthropod-borne infections is the degree of contact of the vector and the vertebrate reservoir. this parameter can be estimated by examining the host-feeding habits of vectors. serological and polymerase chain reaction based methods have been used to study the host-feedings patterns of 21 mosquito species from new york, new jersey, and tennessee, 19 of which previously have been found infected with west nile viru ...200415018775
mycoplasma gallisepticum in house finches (carpodacus mexicanus) and other wild birds associated with poultry production facilities.since 1994, an epidemic of conjunctivitis caused by mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) has spread throughout the eastern population of house finches (carpodacus mexicanus). the adaptation of mg to a free-flying avian species presents potential problems for the control of mycoplasmosis in commercial poultry. to evaluate risks associated with this emerging problem, a field survey was conducted to assess prevalence of mg infection in house finches and other passerine birds associated with poultry farms. ...200111417811
vector-host interactions and epizootiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus in massachusetts.eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for outbreaks of severe disease in humans and equines, resulting in high mortality or severe neurological impairment in most survivors. in the northeastern united states, eee virus is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophilic mosquito, culiseta melanura (coquillett) and passerine birds in freshwater swamp habitats. to evaluate the role of cs. melanura and culiseta morsitan ...201323473221
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