[new faunal and biological observations on ticks in abruzzo].ticks collected during the years 1975-76 in abruzzo (prov. l'aquila and chieti) italy are reported. the following species have been identified: ixodes canisuga, ixodes frontalis, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, haemaphysalis sulcata, rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus sanguineus, hyalomma marginatum. new hosts are: felis catus for ixodes canisuga; scolopax rusticola, motacilla flava, corvus cornix for ixodes frontalis; sciurus vulgaris for haemaphysalis punctata; garrul ...19761032325
the effects of spatial and temporal heterogeneity on the population dynamics of four animal species in a danish landscape.variation in carrying capacity and population return rates is generally ignored in traditional studies of population dynamics. variation is hard to study in the field because of difficulties controlling the environment in order to obtain statistical replicates, and because of the scale and expense of experimenting on populations. there may also be ethical issues. to circumvent these problems we used detailed simulations of the simultaneous behaviours of interacting animals in an accurate facsimi ...200919549327
response to displaced neighbours in a territorial songbird with a large repertoire.neighbour recognition allows territory owners to modulate their territorial response according to the threat posed by each neighbour and thus to reduce the costs associated with territorial defence. individual acoustic recognition of neighbours has been shown in numerous bird species, but few of them had a large repertoire. here, we tested individual vocal recognition in a songbird with a large repertoire, the skylark alauda arvensis. we first examined the physical basis for recognition in the s ...200919495716
hierarchical modelling and estimation of abundance and population trends in metapopulation designs.1. population assessment in changing environments is challenging because factors governing abundance may also affect detectability and thus bias observed counts. we describe a hierarchical modelling framework for estimating abundance corrected for detectability in metapopulation designs, where observations of 'individuals' (e.g. territories) are replicated in space and time. we consider two classes of models; first, we regard the data as independent binomial counts and model abundance and detect ...201019886893
the effects of landscape modifications on the long-term persistence of animal populations.the effects of landscape modifications on the long-term persistence of wild animal populations is of crucial importance to wildlife managers and conservation biologists, but obtaining experimental evidence using real landscapes is usually impossible. to circumvent this problem we used individual-based models (ibms) of interacting animals in experimental modifications of a real danish landscape. the models incorporate as much as possible of the behaviour and ecology of four species with contrasti ...201020126614
are unfamiliar neighbours considered to be dear-enemies?discriminating threatening individuals from non-threatening ones allow territory owners to modulate their territorial responses according to the threat posed by each intruder. this ability reduces costs associated with territorial defence. reduced aggression towards familiar adjacent neighbours, termed the dear-enemy effect, has been shown in numerous species. an important question that has never been investigated is whether territory owners perceive distant neighbours established in the same gr ...201020865148
immune function in a free-living bird varies over the annual cycle, but seasonal patterns differ between years.a central hypothesis of eco-immunology proposes trade-offs between immune defences and competing physiological and behavioural processes, leading to immunological variation within and among annual-cycle stages, as has been revealed for some species. however, few studies have simultaneously investigated patterns of multiple immune indices over the entire annual cycle in free-living birds, and none has investigated the consistency of seasonal patterns across multiple years. we quantified lysis, ag ...201222562421
wild skylarks seasonally modulate energy budgets but maintain energetically costly inflammatory immune responses throughout the annual cycle.a central hypothesis of ecological immunology is that immune defences are traded off against competing physiological and behavioural processes. during energetically demanding periods, birds are predicted to switch from expensive inflammatory responses to less costly immune responses. acute phase responses (aprs) are a particularly costly form of immune defence, and, hence, seasonal modulations in aprs are expected. yet, hypotheses about apr modulation remain untested in free-living organisms thr ...201222570706
the genus biuterina fuhrmann, 1902 (cestoda, paruterinidae) in the old world: redescriptions of three species from palaearctic passeriformes.the syntypes of biuterina passerina fuhrmann, 1908 from alauda arvensis and galerida cristata (passeriformes, alaudidae) from an unknown locality are redescribed. b. fuhrmanni schmelz, 1941 is redescribed on the basis of its syntypes from emberiza aureola from china; its type-material contains, in addition to a scolex and pre-gravid and gravid fragments of biuterina, fragments of mature proglottides from a dilepidid cestode, which were erroneously used in the original description. specimens, whi ...200414739677
a new morphologically distinct avian malaria parasite that fails detection by established polymerase chain reaction-based protocols for amplification of the cytochrome b gene.plasmodium polymorphum n. sp. (haemosporida, plasmodiidae) was found in the skylark, alauda arvensis (passeriformes: alaudidae), during autumnal migration in southern italy. this organism is illustrated and described based on the morphology of its blood stages. the most distinctive feature of this malaria parasite is the clear preference of its blood stages (trophozoites, meronts, and gametocytes) for immature red blood cells, including erythroblasts. based on preference of erythrocytic meronts ...201222288487
chlamydia psittaci exposure in pet birds.chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic pathogen with a wide range of avian hosts and may be transmitted to humans and cause severe disease. to assess the risk of psittacosis posed by pet birds, the seroprevalence of chlamydia psittaci antibodies in 360 eurasian siskins (carduelis spinus), 289 oriental skylarks (alauda arvensis) and 36 black-tailed grosbeaks (coccothraustes migratorius) in gansu province, north-western china was detected by an indirect haemagglutination assay. twenty-seven out of 289 ( ...201424445511
predator-prey relationships in a changing environment: the case of the sparrowhawk and its avian prey community in a rural area.1. changes in community composition are expected to entail cascading effects at different trophic levels within a food web. however, empirical evidence on the impact of changes in prey communities on the population dynamics of generalist predators, and on the extent of possible feedback processes, remains scarce. 2. we analysed the dynamics of a generalist predator, the european sparrowhawk accipiter nisus l., in a rural area of northern denmark. over a 20-year period, the diet of the predator h ...200919558613
the bird species of kumasir lake (kahramanmaras-turkey) and a view of environmental ethics on sustainable wetland management.kumasir lake is located next to towns of donuklu and fatih, nine km west of kahramanmaras city center the region of east mediterranean, turkey this lake is of crucial importance from the point of native and immigrant birds. we located 17 birdspecies in this area during our observations carried out in the spring and autumn of 2005-2006. these were ciconia ciconia l., anas platyrhynchos l., accipiter nisus l., accipiter brevipes l., fulica atra l., columba palumbus l., merops apiaster l., upupa ep ...200818972701
how to identify dear enemies: the group signature in the complex song of the skylark alauda geographic variation and neighbour-stranger (n-s) discrimination have been intensively but separately studied in bird species, especially in those with small- to medium-sized repertoires. here, we establish a link between the two phenomena by showing that dialect features are used for n-s recognition in a territorial species with a large repertoire, the skylark alauda arvensis. in this species, during the breeding season, many pairs settle in stable and adjoining territories gathered in loc ...200818203986
fear in grasslands: the effect of eurasian kestrels on skylark abundances.predation has received considerable theoretical and empirical support in population regulation. the effect of predators, however, could be achieved in direct (killing) or indirect effects (such as displacement). in this paper, we explored the relationship between eurasian kestrels falco tinnunculus and skylarks alauda arvensis in mediterranean grasslands. first, we analysed the presence of skylarks in the kestrel diet over 9 years. we also compared a grassland area of experimentally increased ke ...200818189123
[new species of the rhinonyssid mites (gamasina: rhinonyssidae) from birds of russia and neighboring countries].four new species of the nasal mite family rhinonyssidae collected in different regions of the former ussr are described: neonyssus (otocorinyssus) alaudae sp. n. from alauda arvensis l. (alaudidae, passeriformes) from turkmenistan; rhinonyssus clangulae sp. n. from clangula hyemalis (l.) (anatidae, anseriformes) from yakutia; r. marilae sp. n. from aythya marilae l. (anatidae, anseriformes) from the russian far east; locustellonyssus sibiricus sp. n. from locustella certhiola (pall.) (sylviidae, ...200711881136
[effect of the moon on the nocturnal postnuptial migration of the skylark alauda arvensis l. in france].night-migrating skylarks (alauda arvensis) were captured during four successive autumns in france. the study aimed at detecting a possible influence of the lunar cycle on the nocturnal migration of this species. though nocturnal postnuptial migration of the skylarks can occur during every phase of the moon, main nocturnal movements occurred when the moon was in its waxing gibbous phase. this phase gives the best conditions for migration because from the very beginning of night, it provides the n ...200010763440
physiological adjustments to arid and mesic environments in larks (alaudidae).because deserts are characterized by low food availability, high ambient temperature extremes, and absence of drinking water, one might expect that birds that live in these conditions exhibit a lower basal metabolic rate (bmr), reduced total evaporative water loss (tewl), and greater ability to cope with high air temperatures than their mesic counterparts. to minimize confounding effects of phylogeny, we compared the physiological performance of four species of larks at ambient temperatures (t(a ...200612177833
cutaneous and respiratory water loss in larks from arid and mesic environments.birds from deserts generally have lower total evaporative water loss (tewl), the sum of cutaneous (cwl) and respiratory water loss (rwl), than species from mesic areas. we investigated the role of cwl and rwl as a function of air temperature (t(a)) in hoopoe larks (alaemon alaudipes) and dunn's larks (eremalauda dunni) from the arabian desert and skylarks (alauda arvensis) and woodlarks (lullula arborea) from temperate mesic grasslands. the proportional contribution of cwl to tewl in all larks a ...201312601615
complete mitochondrial genome of skylark, alauda arvensis (aves: passeriformes): the first representative of the family alaudidae with two extensive heteroplasmic control regions.the circular mitochondrial genome of alauda arvensis is 17,018 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (pcgs), 2 ribosomal rna genes, 22 transfer rna (trna) genes, and 2 extensive heteroplasmic control regions. all of the genes encoded on the h-strand, with the exceptions of one pcg (nad6) and eight trna genes (trna(gln), trna(ala), trna(asn), trna(cys), trna(tyr), trna(ser(ucn)), trna(pro), and trna(glu)), as found in other birds' mitochondrial genomes. all of these pcgs are initiated ...201323311453
immune response to an endotoxin challenge involves multiple immune parameters and is consistent among the annual-cycle stages of a free-living temperate zone between immune function and other physiological and behavioural processes are central in ecoimmunology, but one important problem is how to distinguish a reallocation of resources away from the immune system from a reallocation or redistribution within the immune system. while variation in baseline values of individual immune parameters is well established, studies in wild animals on multiple parameters during an immune response are lacking. it also remains to be tested whether and ho ...201323531817
modelling skylarks (alauda arvensis) to predict impacts of changes in land management and policy: development and testing of an agent-based model.agent-based simulation models provide a viable approach for developing applied models of species and systems for predictive management. however, there has been some reluctance to use these models for policy applications due to complexity and the need for improved testing and communication of the models. we present the development and testing of a comprehensive model for skylark (alauda arvensis) in danish agricultural landscapes. the model is part of the almass system, which considers not only i ...201323762430
offspring pay sooner, parents pay later: experimental manipulation of body mass reveals trade-offs between immune function, reproduction and theory predicts that organisms trade off survival against reproduction. however, the time scales on which various consequences become evident and the physiology mediating the cost of reproduction remain poorly understood. yet, explaining not only which mechanisms mediate this trade-off, but also how fast or slow the mechanisms act, is crucial for an improved understanding of life-history evolution. we investigated three time scales on which an experimental increase in body mass coul ...201324344978
how a songbird with a continuous singing style modulates its song when territorially songbirds of the temperate zone, often only males sing and their songs serve to attract females and to deter territorial rivals. in many species, males vary certain aspects of their singing behavior when engaged in territorial interactions. such variation may be an honest signal of the traits of the signaler, such as fighting strength, condition, or aggressive motivation, and may be used by receivers in decisions on whether to retreat or to escalate a fight. this has been studied intensively ...201424436508
inferring the nature of anthropogenic threats from long-term abundance records.diagnosing the processes that threaten species persistence is critical for recovery planning and risk forecasting. dominant threats are typically inferred by experts on the basis of a patchwork of informal methods. transparent, quantitative diagnostic tools would contribute much-needed consistency, objectivity, and rigor to the process of diagnosing anthropogenic threats. long-term census records, available for an increasingly large and diverse set of taxa, may exhibit characteristic signatures ...201525065712
assessing vocal performance in complex birdsong: a novel approach.vocal performance refers to the ability to produce vocal signals close to physical limits. such motor skills can be used by conspecifics to assess a signaller's competitive potential. for example it is difficult for birds to produce repeated syllables both rapidly and with a broad frequency bandwidth. deviation from an upper-bound regression of frequency bandwidth on trill rate has been widely used to assess vocal performance. this approach is, however, only applicable to simple trilled songs, a ...201425096363
do the effects of crops on skylark (alauda arvensis) differ between the field and landscape scales?the promotion of biodiversity in agricultural areas involves actions at the landscape scale, and the management of cropping patterns is considered an important means of achieving this goal. however, most of the available knowledge about the impact of crops on biodiversity has been obtained at the field scale, and is generally grouped together under the umbrella term "crop suitability." can field-scale knowledge be used to predict the impact on populations across landscapes? we studied the impact ...201526213656
causes and consequences of partial migration in a passerine bird.many animal species have populations in which some individuals migrate and others remain on the breeding grounds. this phenomenon is called partial migration. despite substantial theoretical work, empirical data on causes and consequences of partial migration remain scarce, mainly because of difficulties associated with tracking individuals over large spatial scales. we used stable hydrogen isotopes in claw material to determine whether skylarks alauda arvensis from a single breeding population ...201526655576
chewing lice of genus ricinus (phthiraptera, ricinidae) deposited at the zoological institute of the russian academy of sciences, saint petersburg, russia, with description of a new species.we revised a collection of chewing lice deposited at the zoological institute of the russian academy of sciences, saint petersburg, russia. we studied 60 slides with 107 specimens of 10 species of the genus ricinus (de geer, 1778). the collection includes lectotype specimens of ricinus ivanovi blagoveshtchensky, 1951 and of ricinus tugarinovi blagoveshtchensky, 1951. we registered ricinus elongatus olfers, 1816 ex turdus ruficollis, r. ivanovi ex leucosticte tephrocotis and ricinus serratus (dur ...201626902646
the park-view effect: residential development is higher at the boundaries of protected changes in the surrounding of protected areas might compromise their conservation efficacy, and thus the potential attractive effect that protected areas may exert on urban development is particularly concerning. we investigated whether the proximity to protected areas in a region (lombardy, italy) with a high density of urban areas and parks may increase the likelihood of residential development. the main change around protected areas was the loss of open areas (mostly due to developme ...201627381460
simulation to aid in interpreting biological relevance and setting of population-level protection goals for risk assessment of pesticides.specific protection goals (spgs) comprise an explicit expression of the environmental components that need protection and the maximum impacts that can be tolerated. spgs are set by risk managers and are typically based on protecting populations or functions. however, the measurable endpoints available to risk managers, at least for vertebrates, are typically laboratory tests. we demonstrate, using the example of eggshell thinning in skylarks, how simulation can be used to place laboratory endpoi ...201728716578
cold tolerance and sex-dependent hypothermia may explain winter sexual segregation in a farmland bird.migration is an important event in the life cycle of many organisms, but considerable intraspecific variation may occur in its timing and/or destination, resulting in sexual segregation during wintering periods. in this study, we tested the body size hypothesis, or cold tolerance hypothesis, which predicts that body size dimorphism modulates metabolic costs associated with cold climate. using the eurasian skylark, we first investigated whether this species showed sexual differential migration. t ...201727082725
phenotypic flexibility in cutaneous water loss and lipids of the stratum corneum.when vertebrates invaded land during the carboniferous period, they were exposed not only to new ecological opportunities but also to a desiccating environment. to maintain cellular water homeostasis, natural selection modified the integument of pioneering terrestrial animals, enabling them to reduce water loss through the skin. in desert environments, where ambient temperatures (t(a)) can reach 50 degrees c, relative humidities are low and drinking water is scarce, integumentary modifications t ...200312966049
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