a method for serological differentation of closely related poxviruses.a two-step gel precipitation reaction with antiserum to vaccinia virus, based on sequential addition of two test viruses was elaborated for differentiation of closely related orthopoxviruses. the appearance of an additional precipitation line indicated differences in the antigenic structure of the viruses compared. differences in the antigenic structure of vaccinia, variola and monkey pox viruses as well as the antigenic identity with cow pox virus of poxviruses isolated from carnivora, elephant ...197661718
outbreak of pox disease among carnivora (felidae) and outbreak of pox disease in carnivora of the family felidae occurred in the moscow zoo. two forms of the disease were found: (1) fatal, fulminant pulmonary without skin lesions and (2) dermal with rash. the severity of the dermal form varied from subclinical to lethal. the pulmonary form was characterized by pneumonia and exudative pleuritis, and large concentrations of virus were observed in the lungs and exudate. in addition to carnivora of the family felidae, two giant anteaters had a sever ...1977191538
[further studies on the sinus coronarius cordis, vena cordis media and arcus aortae as well as on the ductus (lig.) botalli in various mammalian hearts].this study supplements earlier works on the topography of the mammalian heart. the material comprises the hearts of 25 species, 12 of which have not been examined previously. the general morphology of the hearts is briefly dealt with. v. cava cranialis sinistra is preserved in phascolomys and macropus. it is presumably present in all ruminantia, where it has been reduced to the sinus coronarius cordis in perissodactyla. a particular emphasis is laid on the fact that the paired a. carotides and a ...1975808440
carbohydrate in pancreatic ribonucleases.a survey of the presence and compositions of carbohydrate chains attached to pancreatic ribonucleases is given. carbohydrate chains may occur at asparagine residues in asn-x-ser/thr sequences at four exposed sites of the molecule (positions 21, 34, 62 and 76). these sites form part of highly variant sequences in pancreatic ribonucleases with the consequence that the enzymes from very closely related species may differ in the presence or absence of carbohydrate. in a number of ribonucleases asn-x ...19761261555
rotavirus-like infection associated with diarrhea in okapi. 19862851576
genomic characterization of a poxvirus isolated from a child.a poxvirus was isolated from a six-year-old girl. the comparative analyses of the genome of this isolate (h-cp-lsax) which were carried out using the restriction endonucleases bamhi, hindiii, kpni, mlui, ncoi, saci, and smai revealed that this isolate is a member of the genus orthopoxvirus. since the girl had never been vaccinated against smallpox, and had close contact to domestic animals, including cats, rabbits and guinea pigs, the genome of h-cp-lsax virus was genetically analysed in compari ...19873614092
comparative analysis of the genomes of orthopoxviruses isolated from elephant, rhinoceros, and okapi by restriction enzymes. brief report.orthopoxviruses from different zoo-kept mammalian species including elephas maximus (8 isolates), ceratotherium simum (1 isolate), and okapia johnstoni (2 isolates) were characterized by restriction enzyme analysis of the viral genome. the four enzymes bamhi, mlui, ncoi, and sali were found to be optimal for strain differentiation.19863954598
kidney of a juvenile okapi, okapia johnstoni.the kidney of the okapi is of the medullary crest type and is divided transversely into six lobes by encroachments of cortex into medulla. these lobes are demarcated externally by furrows. the collecting ducts open at the apex of the truncated medullary crest. the pelvis part of the kidney, or pars pelvina renis, is the entire inner medulla and is the only part exposed to the pelvic urine. the pelvis has 10 interlobar vascular eminences and extends peripherally along-side the interlobar vessels ...19817270469
assignment of the human prosaposin gene (psap) to 10q22.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. giraffidae, okapi (okapiajohnstoni), and giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis): evidence for ancestral telomeres at the okapi polymorphic rob (4;26) fusion site.the human prosaposin gene (psap) was previously localized to 10q21-->q22 by isotopic in situ hybridization using a human prosaposin cdna as a probe. the present study, using fluorescence in situ hybridization with a mouse genomic prosaposin fragment as probe, confirms the localization of psap and precisely maps it to band 10q22.1.19968641138
redescriptions of haemonchus mitchelli and haemonchus okapiae (nematoda: trichostrongyloidea) and description of a unique synlophe for the the course of a revision of haemonchus cobb, 1898 (nematoda), commonly referred to as large stomach worms, significant new morphological information was discovered that allows the recognition of 2 species believed for more than 50 yr to be synonymous. both species, haemonchus mitchelli le roux, 1929, from the eland taurotragus oryx and other african ruminants and h. okapiae van den berghe, 1937, from the okapi okapia johnstoni, have a synlophe of 42 ridges, but the synlophe of h. mitchelli is ...200212435136
molecular and morphological phylogenies of ruminantia and the alternative position of the moschidae.the ruminants constitute the largest group of ungulates, with >190 species, and its distribution is widespread throughout all continents except australia and antarctica. six families are traditionally recognized within the suborder ruminantia: antilocapridae (pronghorns), bovidae (cattle, sheep, and antelopes), cervidae (deer), giraffidae (giraffes and okapis), moschidae (musk deer), and tragulidae (chevrotains). the interrelationships of the families have been an area of controversy among morph ...200312746147
a novel giraffidae-specific interspersed repeat with a microsatellite, originally found in an intron of a ruminant paralogous p97bcnt gene.the ruminant-specific p97bcnt gene (bcntp97) is a paralogous gene that includes a region derived from a retrotransposable element 1 (rte-1). the region comprises an exon (rte-1 exon) encoding 325 amino acids in the middle of the p97bcnt protein. to understand how the bcntp97 paralog evolved, we examined its organization in several ruminants. we found a 700-base pair (bp) insert in the 5' intron of the rte-1 exon in giraffe bcntp97. this insert is missing in the corresponding regions of bovine an ...200415475170
a 12-month survey of the gastro-intestinal helminths of antelopes, gazelles and giraffids kept at two zoos in belgium.faecal egg count patterns and clinical signs associated with gastro-intestinal (gi) nematodes of 107 zoo ruminants were monitored at fortnightly intervals for 1 year. the ruminants in this study were kept under different husbandry conditions at two sites of the royal zoological society of antwerp, the antwerp zoo and the animal park planckendael. artiodactylids involved were arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), bongos (tragelaphus euryceros isaaci), sitatungas (trage ...200415710531
fluid and particle retention in captive okapi (okapia johnstoni).retention time of food in the digestive tract is among the key variables that describe the digestive strategy of a herbivore. mean retention time (mrt) was measured on 4 captive specimens of the okapi, a strictly browsing ruminant. retention time was quantified on different diets, using co-edta (fluid phase) and cr-mordanted fibres (1-2 mm) (particle phase) as pulse-fed markers. average food intake was 55-65 g dm/(kg bw0.75*d). fecal excretion of the markers was quantified over 10 days. differen ...200515936703
morphological evidence of marine adaptations in human kidneys.amongst primates, kidneys normally exhibiting lobulated, multipyramidal, medullas is a unique attribute of the human species. although, kidneys naturally multipyramidal in their medullary morphology are rare in terrestrial mammals, kidneys with lobulated medullas do occur in: elephants, bears, rhinoceroses, bison, cattle, pigs, and the okapi. however, kidneys characterized with multipyramidal medullas are common in aquatic mammals and are nearly universal in marine mammals. to avoid the deleteri ...200616263222
cross-species chromosome painting in cetartiodactyla: reconstructing the karyotype evolution in key phylogenetic lineages.recent molecular and morphological studies place artiodactyla and cetacea into the order cetartiodactyla. within the cetartiodactyla such families as bovidae, cervidae, and suidae are well studied by comparative chromosome painting, but many taxa that are crucial for understanding cetartiodactyl phylogeny remain poorly studied. here we present the genome-wide comparative maps of five cetartiodactyl species obtained by chromosome painting with human and dromedary paint probes from four taxa: ceta ...200919350402
a long life among ruminants: giraffids and other special order to investigate differences in the relative maximum longevity and other life history parameter between ruminant species, we collated data on mean body mass, maximum longevity, gestation period and newborn mass in wild ruminant and camelid species. among ruminants, giraffids (giraffe giraffa camelopardalis and okapi okapia johnstoni) have particularly high longevities, long gestation periods, and low intrauterine growth rates. a particularly high absolute and relative longevity is also ac ...201122045457
Resource wars and conflict ivory: the impact of civil conflict on elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo--the case of the Okapi Reserve.Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to docume ...201122096529
the spectral transmission of ocular media suggests ultraviolet sensitivity is widespread among mammals.although ultraviolet (uv) sensitivity is widespread among animals it is considered rare in mammals, being restricted to the few species that have a visual pigment maximally sensitive (╬╗max) below 400 nm. however, even animals without such a pigment will be uv-sensitive if they have ocular media that transmit these wavelengths, as all visual pigments absorb significant amounts of uv if the energy level is sufficient. although it is known that lenses of diurnal sciurid rodents, tree shrews and pri ...201424552839
distinct and diverse: range-wide phylogeography reveals ancient lineages and high genetic variation in the endangered okapi (okapia johnstoni).the okapi is an endangered, evolutionarily distinctive even-toed ungulate classified within the giraffidae family that is endemic to the democratic republic of congo. the okapi is currently under major anthropogenic threat, yet to date nothing is known about its genetic structure and evolutionary history, information important for conservation management given the species' current plight. the distribution of the okapi, being confined to the congo basin and yet spanning the congo river, also make ...201425007188
the cervical anatomy of samotherium, an intermediate-necked giraffid.giraffidae are represented by many extinct species. the only two extant taxa possess diametrically contrasting cervical morphology, as the okapi is short-necked and the giraffe is exceptionally long-necked. samotherium major, known from the late miocene of samos in greece and other eurasian localities, is a key extinct giraffid; it possesses cervical vertebrae that are intermediate in the evolutionary elongation of the neck. we describe detailed anatomical features of the cervicals of s. major, ...201526716010
giraffe genome sequence reveals clues to its unique morphology and physiology.the origins of giraffe's imposing stature and associated cardiovascular adaptations are unknown. okapi, which lacks these unique features, is giraffe's closest relative and provides a useful comparison, to identify genetic variation underlying giraffe's long neck and cardiovascular system. the genomes of giraffe and okapi were sequenced, and through comparative analyses genes and pathways were identified that exhibit unique genetic changes and likely contribute to giraffe's unique features. some ...201627187213
diagnosis and medical and surgical management of chronic infectious fibrinous pleuritis in an okapi (okapia johnstoni).a 10-yr-old female okapi (okapia johnstoni) at the san diego zoo safari park was evaluated for intermittent malaise, inappetence, occasional cough, abdominal splinting, and licking at both flanks. physical examination revealed tachypnea, tachycardia, and fluid sounds on thoracic auscultation. transthoracic ultrasound showed multiple uniform, anechoic filled structures in the right and left pleural space. surgical exploration of the thoracic cavity revealed bilateral, mature, fibrous, compartment ...201526056911
diversity of the subspecies bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis.strains of bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are well-known health-promoting probiotics used commercially. b. animalis subsp. lactis has been isolated from different sources, and little is known about animal isolates of this taxon. the aim of this study was to examine the genotypic and phenotypic diversity between b. animalis subsp. lactis strains different animal hosts including cameroon sheep, barbary sheep, okapi, mouflon, german shepard) and to compare to bb12, food isolates and the col ...201728108391
long-term assessment of glucosuria in captive okapi (okapia johnstoni) after a dietary change.glucosuria in okapis (okapia johnstoni) was first documented in 1980, yet the etiology remains unclear. in august 2006, an attempt to lower glucosuria in captive okapi by diet modification (omitting all fruit and adding unmolassed beet pulp) was started at the antwerp zoo. to study the possible relationship between glucosuria and diet, stress, and/or pregnancy, four okapis were monitored over a period of 4.5 yr. one animal, born in 2006, became glucosuric near the age of three. three okapis were ...201425314831
evolution of toll-like receptors in the context of terrestrial ungulates and cetaceans diversification.toll-like receptors (tlrs) are the frontline actors in the innate immune response to various pathogens and are expected to be targets of natural selection in species adapted to habitats with contrasting pathogen burdens. the recent publication of genome sequences of giraffe and okapi together afforded the opportunity to examine the evolution of selected tlrs in broad range of terrestrial ungulates and cetaceans during their complex habitat diversification. through direct sequence comparisons and ...201728209121
quantitative macroscopic anatomy of the giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) digestive tract.quantitative data on digestive anatomy of the world's largest ruminant, the giraffe, are scarce. data were collected from a total of 25 wild-caught and 13 zoo-housed giraffes. anatomical measures were quantified by dimension, area or weight and analysed by allometric regression. the majority of measures scaled positively and isometrically to body mass. giraffes had lower tissue weight of all stomach compartments and longer large intestinal length than cattle. when compared to other ruminants, th ...201627593556
the binucleate cell of okapi and giraffe placenta shows distinctive glycosylation compared with other ruminants: a lectin histochemical study.the placenta of ruminants contains characteristic binucleate cells (bnc) with a highly conserved glycan structure which evolved early in ruminant phylogenesis. giraffe and okapi placentae also contain these cells and it is not known whether they have a similar glycan array. we have used lectin histochemistry to examine the glycosylation of these cells in these species and compare them with bovine bnc which have a typical ruminant glycan composition. two placentae, mid and near term, from giraffe ...201525527317
immunocytochemistry of the placentas of giraffe (giraffa cameleopardalis giraffa) and okapi (okapi johnstoni): comparison with other ruminants.the trophoblast binucleate cell [bnc] is central to the structure and function of all ruminant placentas so far investigated. the giraffidae are considered to form a separate family within the ruminant suborder.201525465705
bottom-up effect of different host plants on plutella xylostella (lepidoptera: plutellidae): a life-table study on canola.the effects of 10 commercial canola, brassica napus l., cultivars widely grown in iran--'slm(046),' 'opera,' 'okapi,' 'rgs(003),' 'modena,' 'sarigol,' 'zarfam,' 'licord,' 'hayula(420),' and 'talaye'--on the demographic parameters of diamondback moth, plutella xylostella l. (lepidoptera-plutellidae), were determined. the experiments were conducted in a growth chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees c, 65 +/- 2% rh, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (l:d) h. the comparison of intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) ...201021309221
critical period of weed control in winter canola (brassica napus l.) in a semi-arid order to determine the critical period of weed control in winter canola (brassica napus l. cv. okapi) an experiment was carried out at research field of tarbiat modarres university, tehran, iran on 2004-2005 growing season. fourteen experimental treatments which divided into two sets were arranged in randomized complete blocks design with four replications. in the first set, the crop was kept weed-free from emergence time to two-leaf stage (v2), four-leaf stage (v4), six-leaf stage (v6), eigh ...200818819576
effects of osmopriming on seed germination of canola (brassica napus l.) under salinity stress.canola has good yield and performance in weak and saline soils that other oil crops can not be cultivated in them. performance and production of this crop can be improved by increasing the vigor of its seeds. priming is one of the techniques for enhancing seed vigor under stress condition. pretreatment of seeds in osmotic solutions is called osmopriming, which is used to increase the seed moisture content and speed of germination. in this study, seeds of three varieties of canola (slm046, okapi ...200617390787
chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy in six okapis (okapia johnstoni).renal tubular atrophy with conical and medullary interstitial fibrosis with severe thickening of the basement membranes of atrophic tubules was found in six okapis (okapia johnstoni). focal glomerular atrophy, probably secondary to ischemic collapse of the glomerular capillary tuft, was also observed. although the etiologies and pathogeneses of these nephropathies are unclear, primary damage of the tubular epithelium appears to be the most likely cause, and toxicity from ingested plant material, ...200112785701
giraffe stature and neck elongation: vigilance as an evolutionary mechanism.giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis), with their long neck and legs, are unique amongst mammals. how these features evolved is a matter of conjecture. the two leading ideas are the high browse and the sexual-selection hypotheses. while both explain many of the characteristics and the behaviour of giraffe, neither is fully supported by the available evidence. the extended viewing horizon afforded by increased height and a need to maintain horizon vigilance, as a mechanism favouring the evolution of i ...201627626454
fossil evidence and stages of elongation of the giraffa camelopardalis neck.several evolutionary theories have been proposed to explain the adaptation of the long giraffe neck; however, few studies examine the fossil cervical vertebrae. we incorporate extinct giraffids, and the okapi and giraffe cervical vertebral specimens in a comprehensive analysis of the anatomy and elongation of the neck. we establish and evaluate 20 character states that relate to general, cranial and caudal vertebral lengthening, and calculate a length-to-width ratio to measure the relative slend ...201526587249
the cervical osteology of okapia johnstoni and giraffa camelopardalis.giraffidae is the only family of ruminants that is represented by two extant species; okapia johnstoni and giraffa camelopardalis. of these taxa, o. johnstoni represents a typical short-necked ungulate, and g. camelopardalis exemplifies the most extreme cervical elongation seen in any ruminant. we utilize these two species to provide a comprehensive anatomic description of the cervical vertebrae. in addition, we compare the serial morphologic characteristics of the okapi and giraffe cervical ver ...201526302156
mitochondrial sequences reveal a clear separation between angolan and south african giraffe along a cryptic rift valley.the current taxonomy of the african giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) is primarily based on pelage pattern and geographic distribution, and nine subspecies are currently recognized. although genetic studies have been conducted, their resolution is low, mainly due to limited sampling. detailed knowledge about the genetic variation and phylogeography of the south african giraffe (g. c. giraffa) and the angolan giraffe (g. c. angolensis) is lacking. we investigate genetic variation among giraffe mat ...201425927851
monodontella giraffae infection in wild-caught southern giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis giraffa).postmortem examination of seven wild-caught southern giraffes (giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) from namibia demonstrated focal discoloration, biliary thickening, and peribiliary fibrosis affecting mainly the left liver lobe. the giraffes were infected with monodontella giraffae, previously associated with lethal infections in captive okapis (okapia johnstoni) and giraffes. contrary to this, all seven giraffes investigated in the present study were clinically healthy. based on these findings, it ...200919901403
differences in the distribution and nature of the interstitial telomeric (ttaggg)n sequences in the chromosomes of the giraffidae, okapai (okapia johnstoni), and giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis): evidence for ancestral telomeres at the okapi polymorphic rob(5;26) fusion site.intrachromosomal telomeric sequences (ttaggg)n were analyzed in the two members of the family giraffidae, the giraffe and the okapi. the giraffe has a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 30, whereas the okapi chromosome number varies from 2n = 46 to 2n = 45 and 2n = 44 due to a "recent" robertsonian fusion event. the interstitial telomeres that we detected in these species are of two types: (1) in the okapi, a long interstitial telomeric element is present at the fusion site of the rob(4;26). the ...19968641137
implications of the placental structure compatibility for interspecies embryo transfer.comparative histological features of the chorionic villi in placental cotyledons of the common eland (taurotragus oryx ) and bongo (boocercus euryceros ) antelopes and okapi (okapia johnstoni ) and giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis ) were examined. the chorionic villi in both antelope species showed only moderate branching and/or surface corrugation and their cross-sections were polygonal to oval. the close similarity in the structure of cotyledons has been apparently a contributing factor for suc ...198716726356
seasonal acclimatization determined by non-invasive measurements of coat insulation.seasonal acclimatization in terrestrial mammals in the northern hemisphere involves changes in coat insulation. it is more economical to provide increased insulation than increased heat production for protection against the cold. this study was done to test a technique for the non-invasive measurement of mammal coat insulation and to measure coat insulation over several seasons on captive exotics. the working hypothesis was that species that have no coat or have a coat that does not change seaso ...201526087320
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