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a protostrongylid nematode (strongylida: protostrongylidae) in woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou). 19767349
survey for meningeal worm (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) and ear mites in white-tailed deer from northern idaho.during the fall hunting season of 1990, 95 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) heads were collected from hunters in boundary and bonner counties in northern idaho (usa), an area currently occupied by woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou). the heads were examined for adult and larval meningeal worms (parelaphostrongylus tenuis) by physical examination of the brain surfaces, and the baermann technique, respectively, and for ear mites by examination of ear scrapings. meningeal worms o ...19911758042
an epizootic of besnoitiosis in captive caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou), reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus).besnoitia sp. was diagnosed in two caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) which died of pneumonia at the assiniboine park zoo (winnipeg, manitoba, canada) in 1983. during the following 3 yr besnoitiosis spread to an isolated herd of caribou, to mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and to reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus). reduction of exposure to biting insects appears to have reduced the transmission of besnoitiosis within the reindeer herd. the morbidity rate was approximately 82% in cari ...19901971029
parelaphostrongylus odocoilei (nematoda: protostrongylidae) and a protostrongylid nematode in woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) of alberta, canada.two size-groups of dorsal-spined, first-stage, nematode larvae were found in feces of woodland caribou, rangifer tarandus caribou (gmelin), in alberta from 1976-1982. larvae from caribou feces in northeastern alberta were 451 +/- 17 micrograms in length, while those from west-central alberta were 362 +/- 18 micrograms in length. larvae collected from west-central alberta developed to the infective stage, experimentally, in the terrestrial gastropod triodopsis multilineata (say) and were infectiv ...19862869151
evidence of herpesvirus infection in woodland caribou in saskatchewan.sera were collected from 40 female and two male woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) in saskatchewan (canada) from march 1992 to january 1995, inclusive. the samples were examined for antibodies against smooth brucella spp., five serovars of leptospira interrogans, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1). twenty-two (52%) of 42 sera exhibited positive reactions to bhv-1 by a modified serum neutralization test, and the prevalence correlated positively with the age of ...200312685086
geographic distribution of the muscle-dwelling nematode parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in north america, using molecular identification of first-stage larvae.molecular identification of dorsal-spined larvae (dsl) from fecal samples indicates that the protostrongylid parasite parelaphostrongylus odocoilei occupies a broader geographic range in western north america than has been previously reported. we analyzed 2,124 fecal samples at 29 locations from thinhorn sheep (ovis dalli dalli and o. d. stonei), bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis and o. c. californiana), mountain goats (oreamnos americanus), woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou), ...200516108550
herpesvirus infection in woodland caribou in alberta, canada.sera and genital swabs collected from 121 adult woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) in five subpopulations in northern alberta, canada, between december 1997 and october 1999, were examined for evidence of infection with herpesviruses or pestiviruses. no virus was isolated from sera or swabs, and no antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus were detected. however, 63 (52%) of the 121 animals had neutralizing antibody titers against bovine herpesvirus 1. there was sufficient serum f ...200516456173
deer exposed to exceptionally high concentrations of lead near the continental mine in idaho, usa.habitat surrounding the inactive continental mine in northern idaho, usa, supports bear (ursus arctos, ursus americanus), moose (alces alces), elk (cervus elaphus), woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou), and abundant mule (odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). tailings on the mining site were capped and remediated in 2003 to reduce environmental exposure of surrounding soil and sediments of blue joe creek, downslope of the mine. before capping, the mean pb c ...200717521153
using predator-prey theory to predict outcomes of broadscale experiments to reduce apparent competition.apparent competition is an important process influencing many ecological communities. we used predator-prey theory to predict outcomes of ecosystem experiments aimed at mitigating apparent competition by reducing primary prey. simulations predicted declines in secondary prey following reductions in primary prey because predators consumed more secondary prey until predator numbers responded to reduced prey densities. losses were exacerbated by a higher carrying capacity of primary prey and a long ...201525905509
space-use behaviour of woodland caribou based on a cognitive movement model.movement patterns offer a rich source of information on animal behaviour and the ecological significance of landscape attributes. this is especially useful for species occupying remote landscapes where direct behavioural observations are limited. in this study, we fit a mechanistic model of animal cognition and movement to gps positional data of woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou; gmelin 1788) collected over a wide range of ecological conditions. the model explicitly tracks individual a ...201525714592
implications of body condition on the unsustainable predation rates of endangered mountain caribou.both top-down and bottom-up processes influence herbivore populations, and identifying dominant limiting factors is essential for applying effective conservation actions. mountain caribou are an endangered ecotype of woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) that have been declining, and unsustainable predation has been identified as the proximate cause. to investigate the role of poor nutrition, we examined the influence of sex, season, age class, and available suitable habitat (i.e., old-gr ...201122183706
the role of translocation in recovery of woodland caribou populations.maintenance of viable populations of many endangered species will require conservation action in perpetuity. efforts to conserve these species are more likely to be successful if their reliance on conservation actions is assessed at the population level. woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) were extirpated recently from banff national park, canada, and translocations of caribou to banff and neighboring jasper national park are being considered. we used population viability analysis to as ...201021091770
serum biochemistry, serology, and parasitology of boreal caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) in the northwest territories, canada.boreal caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) are an ecologically and culturally important wildlife species and now range almost exclusively in the boreal forests of canada, including the northwest territories, northern alberta, and british columbia. boreal caribou are threatened throughout their canadian range because of direct and indirect natural and anthropogenic factors. in the northwest territories, however, they have a continuous range that overall has not yet been subjected to the same degr ...201020966261
influence of forage preferences and habitat use on 13c and 15n abundance in wild caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) and moose (alces alces) from canada.stable isotope composition (delta(13)c and delta(15)n) of moose (alces alces) and caribou (rangifer tarandus) hair from the boreal forest of jacques-cartier park and cote-nord (quebec) and arctic tundra of queen maud gulf and southampton island (nunavut) was investigated as an indicator of dietary preferences and habitat use. values of delta(13)c(hair) and delta(15)n(hair) in moose were consistently lower compared to those of caribou. this is consistent with the depletion in (13)c and (15)n in t ...201020229388
modern and ancient dna reveal recent partial replacement of caribou in the southwest yukon.the long-term persistence of forest-dwelling caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) will probably be determined by management and conservation decisions. understanding the evolutionary relationships between modern caribou herds, and how these relationships have changed through time will provide key information for the design of appropriate management strategies. to explore these relationships, we amplified microsatellite and mitochondrial markers from modern caribou from across the southern yukon, ...201020196813
seasonal effects of pacific-based climate on recruitment in a predator-limited large herbivore.1. climate is an important factor influencing the population dynamics of large herbivores operating directly on individuals or through its effect on forage characteristics. however, the seasonal effect of climate may differ between forage- and predator-limited populations because of a climatic influence on predation rates. the influence of climate on predator-limited large herbivores is less well known than on forage-limited populations. further, the effect of pacific-based climate on large herb ...201020002863
survival in the rockies of an endangered hybrid swarm from diverged caribou (rangifer tarandus) lineages.in north america, caribou (rangifer tarandus) experienced diversification in separate refugia before the last glacial maximum. geographical isolation produced the barren-ground caribou (rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) with its distinctive migratory habits, and the woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou), which has sedentary behaviour and is now in danger of extinction. herein we report on the phylogenetics, population structure, and migratory habits of caribou in the canadian rockies, util ...200919175508
comment arising from a paper by wittmer et al.: hypothesis testing for top-down and bottom-up effects in woodland caribou population dynamics.conservation strategies for populations of woodland caribou rangifer tarandus caribou frequently emphasize the importance of predator-prey relationships and the availability of lichen-rich late seral forests, yet the importance of summer diet and forage availability to woodland caribou survival is poorly understood. in a recent article, wittmer et al. (can j zool 83:407-418, 2005b) concluded that woodland caribou in british columbia were declining as a consequence of increased predation that was ...200717891419
spectrum of selection: new approaches to detecting the scale-dependent response to habitat.detecting habitat selection depends on the spatial scale of analysis, but multi-scale studies have been limited by the use of a few, spatially variable, hierarchical levels. we developed spatially explicit approaches to quantify selection along a continuum of scales using spatial (coarse-graining) and geostatistical (variogram) pattern analyses at multiple levels of habitat use (seasonal range, travel routes, feeding areas, and microsites). we illustrate these continuum-based approaches by apply ...200717645009
changes in landscape composition influence the decline of a threatened woodland caribou population.1. large-scale habitat loss is frequently identified with loss of biodiversity, but examples of the direct effect of habitat alterations on changes in vital rates remain rare. quantifying and understanding the relationship between habitat composition and changes in vital rates, however, is essential for the development of effective conservation strategies. 2. it has been suggested that the decline of woodland caribou rangifer tarandus caribou populations in north america is precipitated by timbe ...200717439473
potential spatial overlap of heritage sites and protected areas in a boreal region of northern canada.under article 8-j of the convention on biological diversity, governments must engage indigenous and local communities in the designation and management of protected areas. a better understanding of the relationship between community heritage sites and sites identified to protect conventional conservation features could inform conservation-planning exercises on indigenous lands. we examined the potential overlap between gwich'in first nations' (northwest territories, canada) heritage sites and ar ...200717391188
mitochondrial dna and microsatellite dna variation in domestic reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) and relationships with wild caribou (rangifer tarandus granti, rangifer tarandus groenlandicus, and rangifer tarandus caribou).reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) in alaska are semidomestic livestock descended from 1280 animals introduced from siberia, russia, approximately 100 years ago. genetic variation at 18 microsatellite dna loci and the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) was quantified in reindeer from alaska, siberia (russia), and scandinavia and compared with wild north american caribou. mean sequence divergence among 15 mtdna haplotypes in reindeer was 0.007 substitutions per nucleotide site, and ...200616837563
evaluation of the fluorescence polarization assay and comparison to other serological assays for detection of brucellosis in cervids.the complement fixation test (cft), competitive enzyme immunoassay (celisa), indirect enzyme immunoassay (ielisa) and fluorescence polarization assay (fpa) were evaluated for the detection of antibodies to brucella abortus and brucella suis biotype 4 in caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou), elk (cervus elapus), red deer (cervus elapus), and reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus). when combining the data the fpa and the celisa were determined to be the most suitable tests for serodiagnosis of cervi ...200111272484
antigenic, phenotypic and molecular characterization confirms babesia odocoilei isolated from three cervids.babesia isolates from an elk (cervus elaphus canadensis) and a caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) with fatal infections were compared to babesia odocoilei (engeling isolate) from white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) by experimental infection, serologic, and small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna) gene sequence analysis studies. both the indirect fluorescent antibody test and immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated antigenic variation among the isolates. experimental infection studies showe ...200010941738
trypanosomiasis in woodland caribou of northern alberta.blood was collected from 49 adult woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) captured in northern alberta, canada, from october to february, 1991 to 1992 and 1992 to 1993. smears of the buffy coat layer and of whole blood were examined microscopically for trypanosoma sp., and blood was cultured for latent parasites. trypanosomes were present in 41 (84%) of 49 cultures 9 days or older, but none was detected in fresh blood. trypanosomes were pleomorphic, consisting of small oval amastigotes, 2 t ...19979131558
repetitive sequence families in alces alces americana.high-resolution derivative melting was used to obtain detailed distributions of local (g + c) contents in a number of ruminant dnas. profiles over low (g + c) regions [20-36% (g + c)] are congruent for all ruminants. this region represents 45-50% of the nuclear dna content and primarily contains intergenic and intron sequences. the high (g + c) region, where most coding sequences are found [38-68% (g + c)], is marked by satellite bands denoting the presence of transcriptionally inert, tandemly r ...19979115175
application of a competitive elisa for the detection of bluetongue virus antibodies in llamas and wild ruminants.a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa), using a group-specific monoclonal antibody against bluetongue virus (btv), was applied to detect anti-btv antibodies in serum samples from two llamas (llama glama) experimentally infected with btv serotype 10. antibodies were detected in both llamas by 1 wk or 2 wk post-infection. antibodies to btv increased exponentially during the first 4 wk in both llamas and stabilized at an elevated level during the remaining 5-wk-period of the expe ...19958592352
a tandemly repetitive, centromeric dna sequence from the canadian woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou): its conservation and evolution in several deer species.a highly repetitive dna clone, designated rt-pst3, was isolated from the psti digest of canadian woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou; 2n = 70) genomic dna. it was found to be a 991 bp monomer of a tandemly repeated dna sequence comprising about 5.7% of the genome and localized to the centromeric regions of all caribou acrocentric autosomes. southern blot analyses revealed that this caribou satellite dna sequence was well conserved in the genomes of five other deer species studied. in sit ...19947921645
in vitro isolation and cultivation of a babesia from an american woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou).a babesia species isolated from a captive caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) with clinical signs of babesiosis and a circulating parasitemia was cultured in vitro. normal adult caribou erythrocytes supported the growth of the babesia sp., as did erythrocytes from white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). two basal media (m-199 and rpmi-1640) and a defined medium (hl-1) each supplemented with adult bovine serum were compared. the most favorable growth of the parasite occurred in hl-1 medium wi ...19947913142
serological evidence of some bovine viruses in the caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) in quebec. 19816121921
fascioloides magna (bassi, 1875) ward, 1917 (trematoda) in woodland caribou, rangifer tarandus caribou (gmelin), of northeastern quebec, and its distribution in wild ungulates in canada. 19715101972
dermacentor albipictus (acari, ixodidae) on captive reindeer and free-ranging woodland caribou.infestations of winter ticks (dermacentor albipictus) on two captive reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) are reported and may be associated with increased grooming and alopecia. over 400,000 ticks were recovered from one reindeer. few ticks (less than 25 ticks/animal) were found on three free-ranging woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou).19901974936
elaphostrongylus cervi cameron 1931 (nematoda: metastrongyloidea) in caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) of newfoundland. 197943773
cadmium and other elements in tissues from four ungulate species from the mackenzie mountain region of the northwest territories, canada.tissue samples from four ungulate species from the south mackenzie mountain region of the northwest territories (nt), canada, were analysed for stable and radioactive elements and (15)n and (13)c stable isotopes. elevated cd concentrations in moose (alces americanus) kidney have been observed in the region and are a health care concern for consumers of traditional foods. this study examined the factors associated with, and potential renal effects from, the accumulation of cadmium, and interactio ...201627240258
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in caribou, moose, and wolf scat samples from three areas of the alberta oil sands.impacts of toxic substances from oil production in the alberta oil sands (aos), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs), have been widely debated. studies have been largely restricted to exposures from surface mining in aquatic species. we measured pahs in woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou), moose (alces americanus), and grey wolf (canis lupus) across three areas that varied in magnitude of in situ oil production. our results suggest a distinction of pah level and source profil ...201526284348
the importance of observation versus process error in analyses of global ungulate populations.population abundance data vary widely in quality and are rarely accurate. the two main components of error in such data are observation and process error. we used bayesian state space models to estimate the observation and process error in time-series of 55 globally distributed populations of two species, cervus elaphus (elk/red deer) and rangifer tarandus (caribou/reindeer). we examined variation among populations and species in the magnitude of estimates of error components and density depende ...201324201239
the role of predation in the decline and extirpation of woodland caribou.to select appropriate recovery strategies for endangered populations, we must understand the dynamics of small populations and distinguish between the possible causes that drive such populations to low numbers. it has been suggested that the pattern of population decline may be inversely density-dependent with population growth rates decreasing as populations become very small; however, empirical evidence of such accelerated declines at low densities is rare. here we analyzed the pattern of decl ...200515891849
conservation strategies for species affected by apparent competition.apparent competition is an indirect interaction between 2 or more prey species through a shared predator, and it is increasingly recognized as a mechanism of the decline and extinction of many species. through case studies, we evaluated the effectiveness of 4 management strategies for species affected by apparent competition: predator control, reduction in the abundances of alternate prey, simultaneous control of predators and alternate prey, and no active management of predators or alternate pr ...201323282104
evaluating random search strategies in three mammals from distinct feeding guilds.searching allows animals to find food, mates, shelter and other resources essential for survival and reproduction and is thus among the most important activities performed by animals. theory predicts that animals will use random search strategies in highly variable and unpredictable environments. two prominent models have been suggested for animals searching in sparse and heterogeneous environments: (i) the lévy walk and (ii) the composite correlated random walk (ccrw) and its associated area-re ...201627354185
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