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preliminary note on the phlebotomus of the bamako-mali region. presence of phlebotomus sergenti, parrot 1917. 19757120
cutaneous leishmaniasis in kabul: observations on a 'prolonged epidemic'.cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in kabul have increased steadily in number since the first report, in 1964. this increase is despite insecticide application in houses and intensive detection and treatment of cases. the age distribution of infection remains as it was in 1972, and approximates that of the afghan population. there is no evidence of accumulating immunity in the population. multiple lesions are infrequent, but commoner on older people, and tend to be located on the arms and legs rather ...19921463356
[leishmania tropica in morocco. iv--intrafocal enzyme diversity].ecoepidemiological analysis of a moroccan focus of leishmaniasis caused by leishmania tropica revealed considerable enzymatic diversity. seven zymodemes belonging to the complex were identified in 149 strains isolated from humans, dogs, and the vector phlebotomus sergenti. three distinct subgroups were identifiable, two of which were in turn, composed of three "small variant" zymodemes. the diversity appears to be related to the age of the focus, which may have allowed colonization by zymodemes ...19911776781
[leishmania tropica in morocco. iii--the vector of phlebotomus sergenti. apropos of 89 isolates].in a moroccan focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania tropica, 7,907 female sandflies captured with cdc traps were dissected from summer to autumn 1989. among species of the genus phlebotomus, only p. sergenti harbored promastigotes. eighty-nine strains belonging to the complex l. tropica were isolated. the frequency of vector infection was zero in june, rose to 1.3% in august, and reached 9.9% in october, which indicates that the period of high risk is at the end of the hot season ...19911776784
distribution of phlebotomine sandflies and the rate of their infection with leishmania promastigotes in the algarve, portugal.four species of sandflies: phlebotomus (larroussius) perniciosus newstead, sergentomyia minuta (rondani), phlebotomus (paraphlebotomus) sergenti parrot and phlebotomus (larroussius) ariasi tonnoir, were collected, by aspiration and light traps, from three dog kennels and an area of high prevalence of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the algarve, portugal. midgut infections with leishmanial promastigotes were observed only in p. perniciosus with a minimum infection rate of 5%. the engor ...19892519654
[the activization of an ashkhabad focus of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis].6 patients with characteristic clinical symptoms of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) have been revealed in 1987-1988 in the city of ashkhabad (the turkmen ssr). 3 leishmania strains isolated from these patients (mhom/su/87/392, mhom/su/87/393, mhom/su/87/410) were identified as acl causative agents--leishmania tropica--by means of isoenzymatic analysis. the analysis for 12 enzymes (g-6-pdh, pgm, 6-pgdh, acp, alp, pgi, got, me, ldh, ald, hk, fk) was performed by electrophoresis on acet ...19892533319
leishmania infecting man and wild animals in saudi arabia. 6. cutaneous leishmaniasis of man in the south-west.cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) is common on the high plateaux and foothills of the asir range in the south-west of saudi arabia and yemen. in 1987 1198 and 1104 cases were reported among the saudi populations of asir and al-baha provinces, representing an estimated annual incidence of 12 and 38 per 10,000 respectively. the incidence rises from october to december, then declines to a minimum between may and august. the prevalence of phlebotomus sergenti, a proven local vector in the highlands, is r ...19892617623
phlebotomus sergenti, a vector of leishmania tropica in saudi arabia. 19883232175
[new localizations in corsica of phlebotomus sergenti parrot, 1917]. 19715131707
[presence of phlebotomus (paraphlebotomus) sergenti parro 1917 in corsica]. 19705496464
[confirmation of the existence in continental france of phlebotomus sergenti parrot, 1917]. 19827168536
evora district as a new focus for canine leishmaniasis in portugal.on the basis of information acquired from local health authorities in evora district of portugal on cases of visceral leishmaniasis (vl), an epidemiology survey study was conducted. to determine the prevalence of anti-leishmania antibodies in the local human and canine populations residing in evora town and 14 adjacent villages, blood samples collected from 885 children and 3,614 dogs were tested in a direct agglutination test (dat). seropositivity for leishmania parasite obtained by dat in both ...19957770430
anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in kabul, afghanistan: the high susceptibility of phlebotomus sergenti to leishmania tropica. 19958560513
phlebotomus sergenti parrot, 1917: morphological and isoenzymatic comparisons of two natural populations from tenerife (canary islands, spain) and crete (greece).samples of two phlebotomus sergenti natural populations from san juan (tenerife), representing the western edge of the distribution area of this species, and axos (crete) were collected. the morphological comparison showed marked differences in the lengths of parts of the male genitalia, female pharynx, and spermathecae. the isoenzyme study revealed characteristic monomorphic phenotypes for glucose phosphate isomerase, hexokinase, and phosphoglucomutase in the canarian specimens as compared with ...19968825445
[cutaneous leishmaniasis in the urban area of sanliurfa (turkey)].in the leishmaniasis focus of sanliurfa, south-east turquey, phlebotomine sandflies catches in houses and stables seem to confirm the parasitological data with an urban cycle due to leishmania tropica transmitted by phlebotomus sergenti. the incidence could be reduce drastically by intradomiciliar and stables insecticide pulverisations.19969053048
[the taxonomic status of phlebotomus sergenti parrot, 1917, vector of leishmania tropica (wright, 1903) and phlebotomus similis perfiliev, 1963 (diptera - psychodidae). morphologic and morphometric approaches. biogeographical and epidemiological corollaries].a morphological and morphometrical study of the closely related taxa phlebotomus (paraphlebotomus) sergenti et p. (paraphlebotomus) similis confirms their specific taxonomic status. differential characters between these two species are discussed. males differ by the aspect of the basal process of the coxite which is curved and narrow in the first species whereas straight and thick for the latter. the p. similis process is bigger and tuffer and its style is longer than those of p. sergenti. femal ...19989846232
an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an afghan refugee settlement in north-west pakistan.cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) due to leishmania tropica appears to be an emerging disease in parts of north-east afghanistan and north-west pakistan. timargara, an afghan refugee camp of 17 years' standing, in the district of dir, north west frontier province of pakistan, experienced a major outbreak of cl in 1997 for the first time. as part of the investigation, each section of the camp was surveyed for cl. around 38% of the 9200 inhabitants bore active lesions and a further 13% had scars from e ...199910450434
the vectorial competence of phlebotomus sergenti is specific for leishmania tropica and is controlled by species-specific, lipophosphoglycan-mediated midgut attachment.the vectorial competence of phlebotomus sergenti for 3 old world species of leishmania, l. tropica, l. major and l. donovani, was investigated in vivo and by in vitro midgut binding assays using living promastigotes and purified lipophosphoglycan (lpg). p. sergenti consistently showed a high specificity for l. tropica strains, which were able to develop mature, potentially transmissible infections. the loss of infection with l. major and l. donovani correlated with the excretion of the digested ...200011085222
epidemiological and entomological survey in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in pap district (fergana valley) of namangan region, uzbekistan.an active focus of human visceral leishmaniasis (vl) is present in uzbekistan, namangan region, pap district, situated along the fergana valley at an altitude of 900-1300 m a.s.l. an overall total of 19 vl cases, all recorded in children less than 14 years of age, have been reported during the period of 1987-99 in three villages, namely oltinkon (9 cases), chodak (7 cases) and guliston (3 cases). clinical and epidemiological features suggest that the disease is zoonotic in nature and that it is ...200111700179
new record of phlebotomus sergenti, the vector of leishmania tropica, in the southern nile valley of egypt.we report the 1st collection of phlebotomus sergenti, a vector of the cutaneous and visceralizing forms of leishmania tropica, from southern egypt. four female and 1 male p. sergenti were collected from unlit centers for disease control light traps placed in a village on the nile river, 6 km north of aswan, egypt, during studies conducted from 1998 to 1999. this extends the known distribution of this species farther south in egypt than previously recorded.200111804468
sand flies (diptera: phlebotominae) in sanliurfa, turkey: relationship of phlebotomus sergenti with the epidemic of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis.sand fly (diptera: phlebotominae) fauna were surveyed in various districts of sanliurfa in southeast turkey for 3 yr immediately after an epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis (leishmania tropica). sticky papers and cdc light traps collected a total of 10,937 sand flies, of which 10,919 (4,158 females and 6,761 males) were identified as phlebotomus and 18 (11 females and seven males) as sergentomyia (s. theodori parrot; s. adleri theodor). eight phlebotomus spp. were identified: p. sergenti parrot ...200211931243
a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania tropica.to determine the epidemiological status of the cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak, isolation and identification of the parasite and preparation of a control program in a recently identified focus located in the province of yazd, central iran.200211938418
its 2 sequences heterogeneity in phlebotomus sergenti and phlebotomus similis (diptera, psychodidae): possible consequences in their ability to transmit leishmania tropica.an intraspecific study on phlebotomus sergenti, the main and only proven vector of leishmania tropica among the members of the subgenus paraphlebotomus was performed. the internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) sequences of 12 populations from 10 countries (cyprus, egypt, italy, lebanon, morocco, pakistan, portugal, spain, syria, and turkey) were compared. samples also included three species closely related to p. sergenti: phlebotomus similis (three populations from greece and malta), phlebotomus j ...200212117495
leishmaniasis in turkey.leishmaniases are widespread in most countries in the mediterranean basin, including turkey. two forms are observed in turkey; leishmania infantum is responsible from visceral leishmaniasis (vl), and l. tropica causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl). phlebotomus sergenti, p. papatasi, p. major and p. syriacus are considered to be the probable vectors, and dogs are the main reservoir of l. infantum, while p. sergenti is the main suspected vector of l. tropica.vl is sporadically seen mainly in the ae ...200212387909
short report: distribution and feeding preference of the sand flies phlebotomus sergenti and p. papatasi in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in sanliurfa, turkey.sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) and rodents were collected in the endemic focus of urban cutaneous leishmaniasis in sanliurfa, turkey. phlebotomus sergenti and p. papatasi represented 99% of the sand fly population. these flies were trapped in highest numbers in animal sheds, followed by cellars. however, p. sergenti was relatively more abundant in rooms. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the gut contents from blood-fed females detected immunoglobulins specific to birds and mammals, sugg ...200312556140
leishmania tropica in the black rat (rattus rattus): persistence and transmission from asymptomatic host to sand fly vector phlebotomus sergenti.black rats (rattus rattus) receiving leishmania tropica injected intradermally into the ear were studied for the persistence of parasites and infectivity to natural sand fly vector. the mammalian host, the parasite, and the vector all originated from the endemic focus of urfa, turkey. rats did not develop lesions or any apparent signs of disease, although at the site of inoculation they harboured live parasites capable of infecting sand flies. the number of l. tropica amastigotes detected in the ...200312737990
experimental transmission of leishmania tropica to hamsters and mice by the bite of phlebotomus sergenti.phlebotomus sergenti is a natural vector of leishmania tropica. however, the ability of p. sergenti to transmit l. tropica by bite has not been proven experimentally yet. we have transmitted l. tropica to golden hamsters and balb/c mice by the bite of p. sergenti. sand flies and leishmania both originated from an anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in urfa, turkey. p. sergenti females from a laboratory colony were infected by feeding on lesions of needle-inoculated hamsters or mice. grav ...200312758274
anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, kabul, afghanistan.a prevalence survey in kabul city showed that 2.7% and 21.9% of persons have active leishmaniasis lesions or scars, respectively. incidence of disease was estimated to be 2.9% (29 cases/1,000 persons per year; 95% confidence interval 0.018 to 0.031). disease was associated with age and gender; logistic regression analyses showed significant clustering of cases.200312781016
phlebotomus (adlerius) halepensis vector competence for leishmania major and le. tropica.in eurasia, phlebotomine sandflies of the subgenus adlerius (diptera: psychodidae) comprise about 20 known species. some are suspected vectors of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) and at least one species has been implicated as a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl). we tested phlebotomus (adlerius) halepensis theodor (jordan strain) for cl vector competence, compared with three standard vectors: phlebotomus (phlebotomus) duboscqi n-l. from senegal, phlebotomus (paraphlebotomus) sergenti parrot from ...200312941007
outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern israel.this study describes a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) due to leishmania tropica, in the galilee region of northern israel. thirty-three cases from 4 villages (northern part) and from the city of tiberias (southern part) have been clinically diagnosed since 1996. parasites from 13 patients and from 6 sand flies were characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis, 2 immunological methods, and 3 polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based methods. isolates from the northern part were antigenically ...200314513429
leishmania tropica (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae)--a perplexing parasite.leishmania tropica is one of the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl), a disfiguring parasitic disease that recently was found to be viscerotropic. in urban areas it is transmitted from infected individuals by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies to naïve persons (anthroponotic cl). in rural areas animals are thought to be the reservoir, but the full life cycle is still under investigation (zoonotic cl). for many years l. tropica was either confused or merely grouped with l. major whi ...200314971592
multifarious characterization of leishmania tropica from a judean desert focus, exposing intraspecific diversity and incriminating phlebotomus sergenti as its vector.the predominant sand fly species collected inside houses in kfar adumim, an israeli village in the judean desert that is a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, was phlebotomus papatasi, which was also caught attempting to bite humans. phlebotomus sergenti, which is rarely seen inside houses, constituted the predominant sand fly species in caves near the village. leishmania isolates from ph. sergenti and humans typed as leishmania tropica. sand fly and human isolates produced similar small nodular c ...200415100448
leishmania tropica: intraspecific polymorphisms in lipophosphoglycan correlate with transmission by different phlebotomus species.lipophosphoglycan (lpg) is a dominant surface molecule of leishmania promastigotes which has been shown to be critical for parasite-sand fly vector interactions. to provide additional evidence for its importance in transmission, the lpgs from three leishmania tropica strains that differ in their capability to infect sand flies, were biochemically characterized. one of these strains, iser/il/98/lrc-l747, was isolated from a phlebotomus sergenti female collected in the judean desert close to jerus ...200415208044
cutaneous leishmaniasis, northern afghanistan. 200415216854
regional genetic differentiation of phlebotomus sergenti in three moroccan foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania tropica.phlebotomus sergenti was identified morphologically in samples from three moroccan foci of leishmaniasis caused by leishmania tropica in the provinces of azilal, essaouira and taza. three primary mitochondrial dna lineages were identified, and they could be markers for regionally distributed cryptic species. greater mitochondrial diversity in azilal indicated that this central province could have been the origin of dispersal of p. sergenti or the zone of secondary contact. all except one of the ...200415224581
about the presence of phlebotomus sergenti parrot, 1917 (diptera: psychodidae) in eastern sicily, italy.the note reports the data of a three-year sand fly investigation (1997-99) carried out in eastern sicily (italy) with the aim to study the distribution of phlebotomus sergenti. the survey involved a densely inhabited area at the foot of mount etna and the area of iblei mounts. a total of 9,095 sand flies, of which 63.4% males, were captured. five species belonging to the genus phlebotomus (p. perniciosus, p. perfiliewi, p. neglectus, p. sergenti and p. papatasi) and one to the genus sergentomyia ...200415490752
laboratory transmission of rift valley fever virus by phlebotomus duboscqi, phlebotomus papatasi, phlebotomus sergenti, and sergentomyia schwetzi (diptera: psychodidae).we examined the potential for phlebotomus papatasi (scopoli), phlebotomus duboscqi (neveu-lemarie), phlebotomus sergenti (parrot), and sergentomyia schwetzi (adler, theodor, & parrot) to transmit rift valley fever (rvf) virus. after feeding on hamsters that had been inoculated with rvf virus, p. papatasi, p. sergenti, and s. schwetzi became infected and developed disseminated infections. all p. papatasi and p. duboscqi inoculated with rvf virus developed high-titer infections. in contrast, only ...200015535589
bionomics of phlebotomine sandflies in the galilee focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern israel.the bionomics of phlebotomine sandflies (diptera: psychodidae) were studied for three years (2001-2003) in the galilee focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern israel, where the causative leishmania tropica (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae) is transmitted by phlebotomus (adlerius) arabicus theodor and phlebotomus (paraphlebotomus) sergenti parrot, comprising 22% and 8%, respectively, of the local sandfly fauna sampled by light traps. the predominant species overall was phlebotomus (larrouss ...200415642009
the phlebotomine sandflies of portugal. xiii--occurrence of phlebotomus sergenti parrot, 1917 in the arrabida leishmaniasis focus.in a survey carried out during the summer in 2002 and 2003, in the canine and vulpine leishmaniasis focus of arrabida, 665 phlebotomine sandflies were caught. 13.83% were p. ariasi, 58.65% p. pemiciosus, 0.45% p. sergenti and 27.07% s. minuta. despite the low abundance, the finding of the three adults p. sergenti (two males in aldeia grande and one female in quinta da ramada) confirm the colonization of the arrabida leishmaniasis focus by this species, which presence had been previously reported ...200515828585
sand fly specificity of saliva-mediated protective immunity in leishmania amazonensis-balb/c mouse model.immune response of balb/c mice to the salivary antigens of sand flies was found to vary with different species used, i.e. phlebotomus papatasi, phlebotomus sergenti and lutzomyia longipalpis. exposure of mice to bites of these sand flies elicits production of antibodies, which are largely specific to different saliva antigens previously identified as unique to the respective fly species. when immunized intradermally (i.d.) with salivary gland lysates (sgl) of l. longipalpis, balb/c mice develope ...200515866511
detection of species-specific antibody response of humans and mice bitten by sand flies.sand fly saliva plays an important role in leishmania transmission. we characterized the host antibody response to saliva from 3 sand fly species. specific igg was observed in sera from experimentally bitten mice as well as in sera from individuals living in the endemic area of leishmania tropica in sanliurfa, turkey. sera of sanliurfa inhabitants showed high igg levels against saliva of phlebotomus sergenti and p. papatasi, the 2 most abundant sand fly species in this area, but did not react wi ...200515991492
entomological investigations in chichaoua: an emerging epidemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in morocco.cutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania tropica wright seems to be an emerging disease in chichaoua, a province located in southwestern morocco. in this study, sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) were collected from 12 stations. sticky traps were placed in domestic, peridomestic, and sylvatic sites. in total, 3,787 specimens consisting of 10 species (seven phlebotomus and three sergentomiya) were identified. phlebotomus perniciosus newstead, the predominant species, was abundant, especially in m ...200516119562
isolation of leishmania tropica from an ethiopian cutaneous leishmaniasis patient.cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) in the old world is caused mainly by three species of leishmania: l. major, l. tropica and l. aethiopica, and sporadically by l. infantum and l. donovani. in ethiopia, zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by l. aethiopica, is a major public health problem affecting thousands of people in the highlands. by contrast, little is known about the existence and epidemiology of cl due to l. tropica. in this report, we provide the first well-documented case of cl in ethio ...200616154167
nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sandflies (diptera: psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in chichaoua, morocco.the nocturnal activity of phlebotomine sandflies (diptera: psychodidae) was studied "at an epidemic focus" on human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania tropica wright in chichaoua province, in morocco. sandflies were collected using light and sticky-paper traps changed at 2-h intervals, inside and around houses, in august and october 2004. overall, 633 sandflies, belonging to six species of phlebotomus and three of sergentomyia, were collected. sandfly activity was nocturnal and higher at ...200616323026
use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of natural leishmania infections in phlebotomine sand flies from southeastern turkey.in total, 320 phelebotomine sand flies from alibozlu (osmaniye), kizyusuflu (osmaniye), and sanliurfa in southeastern turkey were tested for the detection and identification of leishmania in vector sand flies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with species-specific monoclonal antibodies. we used monoclonal antibodies that recognize both leishmania tropica and leishmania major, and a monoclonal antibody specific only to l. tropica. phosphate-buffered saline and monoclonal antibody m2 recognizin ...200616619606
zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, afghanistan. 200617176597
a comparison of the intraspecific variability of phlebotomus sergenti parrot, 1917 (diptera: psychodidae).phlebotomus sergenti populations from different areas of the mediterranean basin are known to exhibit high intraspecific variability. previous studies of its2 revealed the presence of two branches that may represent sibling species. to corroborate this finding by other tools, two colonies of p. sergenti originating from turkey and israel, each belonging to a different its2 branch, were compared by three different methods: geometric morphometric analysis of wing shape, rapd (random amplified poly ...200617249339
deltamethrin-impregnated bed nets and curtains in an anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis control program in northeastern iran.anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) has long been a significant public health problem in northeastern iran. the objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of deltamethrin-impregnated vs. nonimpregnated bed nets (nibs) and curtains (nics) in acl control.200717277492
impact of phlebotomine sand flies on u.s. military operations at tallil air base, iraq: 2. temporal and geographic distribution of sand flies.cdc miniature light traps were used to evaluate the general biology of phlebotomine sand flies from april 2003 to november 2004 at tallil air base, iraq. factors evaluated include species diversity and temporal (daily and seasonal) and geographic distribution of the sand flies. in addition, the abundance of sand flies inside and outside tents and buildings was observed. in total, 61,630 sand flies were collected during 1,174 trap nights (mean 52 per trap, range 0-1,161), with 90% of traps contai ...200717294918
distinct transmission cycles of leishmania tropica in 2 adjacent foci, northern israel.transmission of leishmania tropica was studied in 2 adjacent foci in israel where vector populations differ. only phlebotomus sergenti was found infected with l. tropica in the southern focus; p. arabicus was the main vector in the northern focus. rock hyraxes (procavia capensis) were incriminated as reservoir hosts in both foci. l. tropica strains from the northern focus isolated from sand flies, cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, and rock hyraxes were antigenically similar to l. major, and strains ...200617326936
intraspecific variation within phlebotomus sergenti parrot (1917) (diptera: psychodidae) based on mtdna sequences in islamic republic of iran.an intraspecific study on the morphological and molecular characteristics of phlebotomus sergenti s.l., the main vector of leishmania tropica, was performed on 28 iranian populations from 11 provinces and a few samples from greece, morocco, lebanon, turkey, pakistan, and syria. three morphotypes were identified as a, b and c, with some intermediate forms in the samples under investigation. based on the number of setae and the width of basal lobe of coxite, differences between a and b morphotypes ...200717451632
transmission of leishmania metacyclic promastigotes by phlebotomine sand flies.a thorough understanding of the transmission mechanism of any infectious agent is crucial to implementing an effective intervention strategy. here, our current understanding of the mechanisms that leishmania parasites use to ensure their transmission from sand fly vectors by bite is reviewed. the most important mechanism is the creation of a "blocked fly" resulting from the secretion of promastigote secretory gel (psg) by the parasites in the anterior midgut. this forces the sand fly to regurgit ...200717517415
serodiagnosis of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) caused by leishmania tropica in sanliurfa province, turkey, where acl is highly endemic.in this study, we aimed to evaluate the validity of the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and the western blotting test for the diagnosis of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) using serum samples obtained from 51 patients with parasitologically proven nontreated cl (nont-cl patients) and 62 patients under treatment for cl (ut-cl patients). additionally, 29 serum samples obtained from patients with parasitologically and serologically proven visceral leishmaniasis (vl ...200717761525
prevalence of antibodies against rift valley fever virus in kenyan wildlife.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is an arbovirus associated with periodic outbreaks, mostly on the african continent, of febrile disease accompanied by abortion in livestock, and a severe, fatal haemorrhagic syndrome in humans. however, the maintenance of the virus during the inter-epidemic period (iep) when there is low or no disease activity detected in livestock or humans has not been determined. this study report prevalence of rvfv-neutralizing antibodies in sera (n=896) collected from 16 keny ...200817988425
phlebotomine sandflies (diptera: psychodidae) of marrakech city, morocco.the sandflies at 17 sites within or near the moroccan city of marrakech were surveyed between 2002 and 2006. overall 2310 specimens were collected and five species were identified. phlebotomus (phlebotomus) papatasi was the most prevalent species (47.4%), followed by sergentomyia (sergentomyia) minuta (16.6%), s. (s.) fallax (16.1%), p. (paraphlebotomus) sergenti (12.8%) and p. (larroussius) longicuspis (7.1%). phlebotomus sergenti appeared to be the most endophilic species. when the collection ...200718028733
phenotypic variation among local populations of phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) in southern turkey.the wing-shape morphology of local populations of the medically important phlebotomine sand flies, phlebotomus sergenti, p. papatasi, p. tobbi, and p. similis, were examined in both sexes by using geometric morphometrics. there are three major mountain ranges that may serve as geographical barriers for species distribution in the study area and four main gaps were recognized among these barriers. we found no statistically important differences in wing morphology in all examined species in both s ...200718260512
il-10 and tgf-beta control the establishment of persistent and transmissible infections produced by leishmania tropica in c57bl/6 mice.leishmania tropica is the causative agent of old world anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is characterized by lesions that take an extended period of time to heal, often resulting in disfiguring scars, and are more refractory to treatment than leishmaniasis caused by leishmania major. immunologic studies involving experimental animal models of l. tropica infection are virtually nonexistent. in the current study, infectious-stage l. tropica were used to establish dermal infections in c5 ...200818322219
entomological and epidemiological study of a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in morocco.cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) due to leishmania tropica wright has become an increasingly important problem in al-haouz province, morocco. the objective of this paper was to undertake a retrospective analysis of cl between 2000 and 2006 and to study the sandfly fauna for the first time in this focus. the consultation of bulletins, registers and monthly and annual reports published by local and national medical services permitted a global synthesis of cl in al-haouz between 2000 and 2006. sandflie ...200818592272
spread of vector-borne diseases and neglect of leishmaniasis, europe.the risk for reintroduction of some exotic vector-borne diseases in europe has become a hot topic, while the reality of others is neglected at the public health policy level. leishmaniasis is endemic in all southern countries of europe, with approximately 700 autochthonous human cases reported each year (3,950 if turkey is included). asymptomatic cases have been estimated at 30-100/1 symptomatic case, and leishmaniasis has up to 25% seroprevalence in domestic dogs. even though leishmaniasis is e ...200818598618
intraspecific variability (rdna its and mtdna cyt b) of phlebotomus sergenti in spain and morocco.phlebotomus sergenti, the main vector of leishmania tropica, is widely represented in spain, whilst l. tropica is not an endemic species in this country. nevertheless, the important human migrant flow from regions where l. tropica is endemic, the existence of its vector and the anthroponotic cycle of the parasite could lead to its establishment in our country. the vectorial capacity of p. sergenti could depend on the existence of cryptic species or races, which can only be identified by molecula ...200818703008
ecoepidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak, israel.a total of 161 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania tropica occurred in the jerusalem district during 2004-2005; 127 (79%) cases were in a town just outside jerusalem. environmental models suggest that in the context of global warming, this outbreak has the potential to extend into jerusalem.200818760010
sand flies, leishmania, and transcriptome-borne solutions.sand fly-parasite and sand fly-host interactions play an important role in the transmission of leishmaniasis. vector molecules relevant for such interactions include midgut and salivary proteins. these potential targets for interruption of propagation of leishmania parasites have been poorly characterized. transcriptomic analysis has proven to be an effective tool for identification of new sand fly molecules, providing exciting new insights into vector-based control strategies against leishmania ...200918768167
hyaluronidase of bloodsucking insects and its enhancing effect on leishmania infection in mice.salivary hyaluronidases have been described in a few bloodsucking arthropods. however, very little is known about the presence of this enzyme in various bloodsucking insects and no data are available on its effect on transmitted microorganisms. here, we studied hyaluronidase activity in thirteen bloodsucking insects belonging to four different orders. in addition, we assessed the effect of hyaluronidase coinoculation on the outcome of leishmania major infection in balb/c mice.200818820742
control of phlebotomine sandflies in confined spaces using diffusible repellents and insecticides.the control of phlebotomine sandflies (diptera: psychodidae), the vectors of leishmaniasis, is directed mostly against adults as larvae develop in unknown or inaccessible habitats. in the current study we tested geraniol, a natural plant-derived product, as a space repellent and the synthetic pyrethroid prallethrin as a diffusible insecticide. geraniol was dispersed in the air using diffusers with an electric fan and prallethrin was evaporated using electrically heated evaporators. both substanc ...200819120969
faunistic study of the sandflies (diptera: psychodidae) in an emerging focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in al haouz province, morocco.the moroccan province of al haouz is an emerging focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania tropica. in an entomological investigation of three communes in the province (ourika, stti fatma and rhmate), 3440 sandflies were collected on sticky traps in 2005-2007. of the six phlebotomus species caught, phlebotomus papatasi (13.3% of the total collection), p. sergenti (12.8%) and p. perniciosus (12.8%) were predominant, followed by p. longicuspis (7.9%), p. ariasi (2.6%) and p. alex ...200919173778
use of oral miltefosine for cutaneous leishmaniasis in canadian soldiers returning from afghanistan.old world cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) is caused by leishmania major and leishmania tropica, and is endemic to several asian and middle-eastern countries where the rates of infection can be substantial. cl is one of the most common vector-transmitted parasitic infections in afghanistan. six cases of cl in canadian soldiers returning from afghanistan are reported in the present study. their lesions did not improve with fluconazole therapy, and the organism demonstrated in vitro resistance. oral m ...200819436567
aspects of the bionomics of phlebotomus sergenti sandflies from an endemic area of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in aleppo governorate, syria.aspects of the bionomics of phlebotomine sandflies (diptera: psychodidae) were studied from june to november 2005 in three foci of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) in aleppo governorate, syria, where the agent leishmania tropica (wright) (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae) is transmitted by phlebotomus sergenti parrot. syria has been designated by the world health organization as one of four countries in the old world where cutaneous leishmaniasis is hyperendemic, but little is known a ...200919493194
analysis of salivary transcripts and antigens of the sand fly phlebotomus arabicus.sand fly saliva plays an important role in blood feeding and leishmania transmission as it was shown to increase parasite virulence. on the other hand, immunity to salivary components impedes the establishment of infection. therefore, it is most desirable to gain a deeper insight into the composition of saliva in sand fly species which serve as vectors of various forms of leishmaniases. in the present work, we focused on phlebotomus (adlerius) arabicus, which was recently shown to transmit leish ...200919555500
first report of leishmania tropica from a classical focus of l. major in north-sinai, egypt.cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) is prevalent in the egyptian sinai peninsula and previous research has consistently documented the etiologic agent to be leishmania major. we report the first isolation of leishmania tropica from human cases of cl in a northern sinai community bordering palestine. parasite culturing, real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr), gene sequencing, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analyses indicate cl cases in this community were caused by either l. majo ...200919635872
molecular characterization of gregarines from sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) and description of psychodiella n. g. (apicomplexa: gregarinida).sand fly and mosquito gregarines have been lumped for a long time in the single genus ascogregarina and on the basis of their morphological characters and the lack of merogony been placed into the eugregarine family lecudinidae. phylogenetic analyses performed in this study clearly demonstrated paraphyly of the current genus ascogregarina and revealed disparate phylogenetic positions of gregarines parasitizing mosquitoes and gregarines retrieved from sand flies. therefore, we reclassified the ge ...200919883447
specificity of anti-saliva immune response in mice repeatedly bitten by phlebotomus sergenti.sand flies are bloodsucking insects transmitting parasites of genus leishmania, the causative agents of diseases in humans and dogs. experimental hosts repeatedly exposed to sand fly saliva can control leishmania infection. cell-mediated anti-saliva immune response is most likely responsible for this protective effect; however, there is no study so far concerning its antigenic specificity towards different sand fly vectors. in this study, splenocytes from balb/c mice repeatedly exposed to the bi ...200919891614
[human leishmaniases in morocco: a nosogeographical diversity.]leishmaniases in morocco are endemic diseases. three forms of leishmaniasis are reported, visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania tropica and cutaneous lesions due to leishmania major. leishmania infantum, a common parasite inducing visceral leishmaniasis, was observed thereafter in cutaneous lesions. the first case of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to l. tropica was isolated since 1987. but, this parasite was shown to be more polymorphic with almost 8 zymodemes. howeve ...200919942371
efficacy of olyset long-lasting bednets to control transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in iran.a large-scale intervention field trial of the effect of olyset long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets on transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis was carried out in 2 cities in the islamic republic of iran from october 2003 to july 2005. we enrolled 8620 individuals in 3000 households in 6 pairs of sectors in each city. epidemiological and entomological surveys were carried out pre- and post-intervention. in both cities a statistically significant reduction was found in the incidence of new cas ...200920214120
phlebotomine sandflies (diptera: psychodidae) of southern morocco: results of entomological surveys along the marrakech-ouarzazat and marrakech-azilal roads.since the 1970s, azilal and ouarzazat have been the main foci for human cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) in morocco. the sandflies along the main roads linking these two foci to marrakech city, which is considered to be an area at risk of cl, were recently surveyed. among the 872 sandflies collected, in june 2005, on the marrakech-ouarzazat road, sergentomyia fallax was the most common species (36.1%), followed by phlebotomus sergenti (21.1%), p. papatasi (14.2%), s. minuta (11.7%), p. longicuspis ( ...201020406583
distribution and seasonality of phlebotomus sand flies in cutaneous leishmaniasis foci, judean desert, israel.the ecology of phlebotomus sand flies in cutaneous leishmaniasis foci as a result of leishmania tropica in the judean desert was studied. between 2005 and 2007, >265,000 specimens were trapped outdoors and 1,233 specimens were collected indoors. the catches included phlebotomus sergenti parrot, phlebotomus papatasi (scopoli), phlebotomus syriacus adler & theodor, and phlebotomus tobbi adler & theodor. p. sergenti, the local vector of leishmania tropica, comprised 90% of outdoor catches, and rela ...201020496578
molecular and serological evidence for the presence of novel phleboviruses in sandflies from northern algeria.during summer 2007, a total of 785 phlebotomine flies were trapped in northern algeria, identified morphologically, organised as monospecific pools and tested for the presence of phlebovirus rna using degenerate primers. three pools were positive, and the corresponding pcr products were cloned and sequenced. viral sequences corresponding to two phleboviruses distinct from each other were detected in sandflies circulating in two close locations (140 km apart) in northern algeria. the 3 sequences ...201020563287
first report on isolation of leishmania tropica from sandflies of a classical urban cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in southern iran.shiraz district in south of iran is a classical focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) and previous research has consistently documented the etiologic agent to be leishmania tropica and leishmania major in urban and rural areas, respectively. however, none of the phlebotomus sergenti, a known vector for l. tropica, of the region has been found infected. we report the first isolation of l. tropica from sandflies in urban community of southern part of shiraz city. parasite polymerase chain reaction ...201020570590
the life cycle and host specificity of psychodiella sergenti n. sp. and ps. tobbi n. sp. (protozoa: apicomplexa) in sand flies phlebotomus sergenti and ph. tobbi (diptera: psychodidae).two new gregarines in the recently erected genus psychodiella (formerly ascogregarina), psychodiella sergenti n. sp. and psychodiella tobbi n. sp., are described based on morphology and life cycle observations conducted on larvae and adults of their natural hosts, the sand flies phlebotomus sergenti and phlebotomus tobbi, respectively. the phylogenetic analyses inferred from small subunit ribosomal dna (ssu rdna) sequences indicate the monophyly of newly described species with psychodiella chaga ...201020627106
molecular characterization of leishmania species isolated from cutaneous leishmaniasis in yemen.cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) is a neglected tropical disease endemic in the tropics and subtropics with a global yearly incidence of 1.5 million. although cl is the most common form of leishmaniasis, which is responsible for 60% of dalys lost due to tropical-cluster diseases prevalent in yemen, available information is very limited.201020862227
cutaneous leishmaniasis (leishmania major infection) in dutch troops deployed in northern afghanistan: epidemiology, clinical aspects, and treatment.cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania major infection affected 172 (18.3%) of 938 dutch military troops deployed in northern afghanistan in 2005. the high attack rate was a result of initial insufficient availability of means of prevention and insufficient adherence to preventive measures. at presentation, the lymphatic system was involved in 24.8%. treatment with intralesional injections of antimony with or without cryotherapy was satisfactory, but 19.5% of patients received secondary tr ...201021118937
bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) in the province of al-baha, saudi arabia.the bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) were studied for two successive years (january 1996-december 1997) at 12 collecting stations representing six sectors of the province of al-baha, saudi arabia. the predominant species was phlebotomus bergeroti (41.7%), followed by lesser numbers of phlebotomus sergenti (11%), phlebotomus arabicus (10.6%), sergentomyia tiberiadis (10.5%), phlebotomus papatasi (10.2%), sergentomyia antennata (9.6%), phlebotomus alexandri (3%), phlebot ...201021120352
leishmania tropica infection in golden jackals and red foxes, israel.during a survey of wild canids, internal transcribed spacer 1 real-time pcr and high-resolution melt analysis identified leishmania tropica in samples from jackals and foxes. infection was most prevalent in ear and spleen samples. jackals and foxes may play a role in the spread of zoonotic l. tropica.201021122235
evaluation of a metofluthrin fan vaporizer device against phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in the judean desert, israel.the off! clip-on fan vaporizer device releasing metofluthrin was evaluated against phletobomine sand flies in the judean desert, israel, in october, 2009. a total of 76,400 sand flies was collected, with male flies representing 98.3%phlebotomus sergenti and 1.7%p. papatasi. females comprised 43.0% of the total catch and included 6.7% blood-fed females. similar proportions of flies were collected in both suction and sticky traps. in trials with unbaited suction traps, similar numbers of sand flie ...201121366769
genetic structures of sand fly (diptera: psychodidae) populations in a leishmaniasis endemic region of turkey.the object of this study was to determine the genetic structures of three vector species, phlebotomus tobbi, phlebotomus papatasi, and phlebotomus sergenti, in the cukurova region of turkey, an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. the genetic diversity indices, neutrality tests and hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (amova) were performed using partial sequences of its2 and cytochrome b gene regions. in all species, within population genetic variation was higher than between popula ...201121366779
intraspecific variability of natural populations of phlebotomus sergenti, the main vector of leishmania tropica.an intraspecific study of phlebotomus sergenti was performed on populations from turkey, syria, israel, and uzbekistan by four different approaches: geometric morphometrics, rapd analysis, internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) sequencing (nuclear marker), and cytochrome b sequencing (mitochondrial marker). in rapd analysis, distinct clades were formed in accordance with the geographical origin of the specimens. there was no distinct grouping according to place of origin within the turkish samples ...201121366780
phlebotomus sergenti (parrot, 1917) identified as leishmania killicki host in gharda+»a, south algeria.since 2005, an outbreak of human cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) in gharda+»a, south algeria, was studied and one output of these investigations was the identification of two leishmania species, leishmania major and leishmania killicki, as the cl causative agents. in the present study, we were curious to focus on sand fly fauna present in this area and detection of leishmania-positive sand fly females. sand flies (3717) were collected during two seasons using sticky papers and cdc light traps in ur ...201121382502
the sandflies (diptera: psychodidae, phlebotominae) in military camps in northern afghanistan (2007-2009), as identified by morphology and dna 'barcoding'.as part of a continuous, standardized programme of monitoring the leishmania vectors in german military camps in northern afghanistan between 2007 and 2009, a detailed taxonomic analysis of the endemic sandfly fauna, as sampled using light and odour-baited traps, was conducted. of the 10 sandfly species that were recorded, six may serve as enzootic and/or zooanthroponotic vectors of parasites causing human leishmaniasis. the use of a simple dna-'barcoding' technique based on the mitochondrial cy ...201121396252
canine leishmaniosis and its relationship to human visceral leishmaniasis in eastern uzbekistan.abstract:201121489254
habitats of the sandfly vectors of leishmania tropica and l. major in a mixed focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeast tunisia.from 2009 to 2010, 3129 sandflies were caught in cdc light traps placed in various habitats in ghomrassen, tataouine governorate, southeast tunisia, a mixed focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania tropica and leishmania major. species diversity was quantified in anthropogenic, semi-anthropogenic and semi-natural locations. sandflies were identified according to morphological characters and also by the comparative sequence analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome ...201121605538
effects of psychodiella sergenti (apicomplexa, eugregarinorida) on its natural host phlebotomus sergenti (diptera, psychodidae).phlebotomine sand flies (diptera, psychodidae) are important vectors of human pathogens. moreover, they possess monoxenous parasites, including gregarines of the genus psychodiella votypka, lantova, and volf, which can negatively affect laboratory-reared colonies, and have been considered as potential candidates in biological control. in this study, effects of the gregarine psychodiella sergenti lantova, volf, and votypka on its natural host phlebotomus sergenti parrot were evaluated. the gregar ...201121936316
phenology and population dynamics of sand flies in a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern azarbaijan province, north western of iran.to investigate species composition, density, accumulated degree-day and diversity of sand flies during april to october 2010 in azarshahr district, a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north western iran.201121914536
comparison of three carbon dioxide sources on phlebotomine sand fly capture in egypt.lighted centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) light traps were baited with carbon dioxide (co2) produced from three different sources to compare the efficacy of each in collecting phlebotomine sand flies in bahrif village, aswan governorate, egypt. treatments consisted of compressed co2 gas released at a rate of 250 ml/min, 1.5 kg of dry ice (replaced daily) sublimating from an insulated plastic container, co2 gas produced from a prototype fastgas (fg) co2 generator system (aptiv inc. ...201121936325
first report on natural infection of phlebotomus sergenti with leishmania promastigotes in the cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in southeastern tunisia.during september 2010, 133 female sand flies were caught inside houses of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the focus for this disease in southeastern tunisia and subsequently dissected. one specimen was positive for leishmania protozoa. this sand fly species was identified as phlebotomus sergenti, and the parasite was identified as l. tropica. this is the first report of p. sergenti involvement in transmission of l. tropica in tunisia.201121976566
individual variability of salivary gland proteins in three phlebotomus species.pooled salivary gland samples are frequently used to ensure the sufficient amount of material for the experiments; however, this could mask an individual variability. thus, we compared salivary protein profiles in seven colonies of three phlebotomus species: phlebotomus sergenti, phlebotomus perniciosus, and phlebotomus papatasi. surprisingly, the individual profiles differed significantly between the colonies as well as between individuals. the highest variability was observed in proteins with ...201122197318
cutaneous leishmaniasis in bam: a comparative evaluation of pre- and post-earthquake years (1999-2008).the recent devastating earthquake of december 26 in bam, 2003 created various risk factors; caused a sharp increase in incidence of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) cases and reached to an epidemic proportion. the objective of this study was to evaluate the status of acl cases five years before the earthquake compared to the cases occurred five years after the earthquake (1999-2008).201123113072
susceptibility status of phlebotomus papatasi and p. sergenti (diptera: psychodidae) to ddt and deltamethrin in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis after earthquake strike in bam, iran.the cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) has been occurred in dehbakri county, located 46 km of bam district, kerman province since 2004-2005. phlebotomus papatasi is an important vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmanisis (zcl) as well as sand fly fever and p. sergenti is considered as main vector of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) in iran. there are several measures for vector control with emphasizing on insecticides. the objective of this study was to determine the baseline susceptibility ...201122808416
phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) in iran and their role on leishmania transmission.sand fly research has a long history in iran beginning with the work of adler, theodor and lourie in 1930 and followed by mesghali's foundational taxonomic work on sand flies in 1943. since then, research has been continued unabated throughout the country and official publications report the existence of at least 44 species of sand flies (26 of the genus phlebotomus and 18 of genus sergentomyia) in iran. so far, seven phlebotomus species and one sergentomyia species have been collected and descr ...201223293774
mapping the genes for susceptibility and response to leishmania tropica in mouse.l. tropica can cause both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in humans. although the l. tropica-induced cutaneous disease has been long known, its potential to visceralize in humans was recognized only recently. as nothing is known about the genetics of host responses to this infection and their clinical impact, we developed an informative animal model. we described previously that the recombinant congenic strain ccs-16 carrying 12.5% genes from the resistant parental strain sts/a and 87.5% ge ...201323875032
benefit of insecticide-treated nets, curtains and screening on vector borne diseases, excluding malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis.insecticide-treated nets (itns) are one of the main interventions used for malaria control. however, these nets may also be effective against other vector borne diseases (vbds). we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of itns, insecticide-treated curtains (itcs) and insecticide-treated house screening (its) against chagas disease, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, dengue, human african trypanosomiasis, japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and onchoc ...201425299481
an increase of larval rearing temperature does not affect the susceptibility of phlebotomus sergenti to leishmania tropica but effectively eliminates the gregarine psychodiella sergenti.in mosquitoes, it has previously been shown that rearing conditions of immature stages have an effect on the vector competence of adults. here, we studied the impact of different larval rearing temperatures (27 °c versus 32 °c) on the sand fly phlebotomus sergenti parrot, 1917 and its susceptibility to two parasites: leishmania tropica wright, 1903, a dixenous trypanosomatid transmissible from sand flies to humans, and psychodiella sergenti lantova, volf & votypka, 2010, a monoxenous sand fly gr ...201627756429
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