insect oviposition induces volatile emission in herbaceous plants that attracts egg parasitoids.the egg parasitoid trissolcus basalis (wollaston) (hymenoptera: scelionidae) responded to synomones emitted by leguminous plants induced by feeding and oviposition activity of the bug nezara viridula (l.) (heteroptera: pentatomidae). this was shown by laboratory bioassays using a y-tube olfactometer. broad bean leaves (vicia faba l.) damaged by feeding activity of n. viridula and on which host egg mass had been laid produced synomones that attracted t. basalis. by contrast, undamaged leaves or f ...200414638832
songs of holcostethus strictus (fabricius): a different repertoire among landbugs (heteroptera: pentatomidae).songs emitted during mating by male and female holcostethus strictus were recorded as substrate vibrations. spectra of the vibrational signals have a dominant frequency peak between 100 and 260 hz and in this respect reflect the general characteristic of the family pentatomidae. songs of h. strictus differ from the song repertoire of the southern green stink bug nezara viridula (l.) (pentatomidae) in many respects. the female calling and courtship songs differ in echeme and phrase duration. the ...200111254993
intergeneric distribution and immunolocalization of a putative odorant-binding protein in true bugs (hemiptera, heteroptera).lygus antennal protein (lap) is an olfactory-related protein of the tarnished plant bug lygus lineolaris (hemiptera, heteroptera: miridae), a hemimetabolous insect. in previous work, a polyclonal antiserum was generated against the n-terminal sequence of lap; lap immunoreactivity was strongest in antennae of adult males, but was also present in antennae of adult females and of nymphs. in the current study, lap immunoreactivity was examined to determine the species specificity and the tissue and ...19989390934
attachment of metarhizium anisopliae to the southern green stink bug nezara viridula cuticle and fungistatic effect of cuticular lipids and this paper we examined the conidial attachment of metarhizium anisopliae on the southern green stink bug, nezara viridula, using the exuvia and nymphal stage of the host as a substrate for m. anisopliae conidiospores. initial studies using fluorescein isothiocyanate (fitc)-labeled conidia examined the differential binding of conidia to various sites on the cuticle. both the topography and the chemistry of the cuticle affected conidial adhesion. conidia were trapped in areas containing large n ...19979028925
non-genetic benefits of mate choice: fecundity enhancement and sexy sons.i compared reproductive success (lifetime number of fertilized eggs) as a function of mate choice among females of the stink bug, nezara viridula l. (hemiptera: pentatomidae). 'choosing' (c) females were placed with one of two males on alternate days. ci females chose between inexperienced males while cr females chose between males previously rejected by ci females. 'non-choosing' (n) females were placed with the same male every day. non-choosing ni, nr and na females encountered, respectively, ...19989632504
spermiogenesis in phytophagous bug (hemiptera, pentatomidae): an ultrastructural study.ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies were carried out on spermiogenesis in two species of phytophagous bug, acrosternum aseadum and nezara viridula. the nucleus development involved changes in the shape and in the degree of chromatin condensation, with specific aggregation patterns of dna-histone complex occurring during this process. the acrosome showed a three-layered and the acrosomal content a paracrystalline arrangement. the axoneme presented a 9 + 9 + 2 microtubule pattern and br ...19989851056
johnston's organ and central organ in nezara viridula (l.) (heteroptera, pentatomidae).the fine structure of johnston's organ and central organ in nezara viridula (heteroptera, pentatomidae) is described. johnston's organ consists of 45 scolopidia distributed around the periphery of the distal part of the third antennal segment (distal pedicellite). the scolopidia are anchored separately in invaginations of joint cuticle between the pedicel and flagellum. the scolopidia are amphinematic and each scolopidium comprises three sensory cells and three enveloping cells. the latter are a ...19968650675
vibrational directionality in the southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.), is mediated by female song.we tested the hypothesis that male southern green stink bugs, nezara viridula (l.), use substrate-borne songs to locate females. we recorded the responses of bugs on plants to the vibrations caused by a prerecorded female song and by an artificial sound. the female song caused males to walk, to respond with the calling and courtship songs and to approach the source of the song with characteristic search behaviour at junctions between branches on the plants. at a junction, a searching male stoppe ...199910600150
laboratory and field studies on the infection of stink bugs, nezara viridula, piezodorus guildinii, and euschistus heros (hemiptera: pentatomidae) with metarhizium anisopliae and beauveria bassiana in brazilisolates of metarhizium anisopliae (cnpso-ma12) and beauveria bassiana (cnpso-bb56) were tested under field conditions as biological control agents of soybean stink bugs (nezara viridula, piezodorus guildinii, and euschistus heros). kaolin-based powder formulations of m. anisopliae or b. bassiana were applied to soybean plots at a rate of 1.5 x 10(13) conidia per ha. after treatment, field cages (0.25 m2) were placed in plots and stink bug adults were introduced into the cages. mycosis for both ...19989500941
studies on the neurosecretory system and retrocerebral endocrine glands of nezara viridula linn. (heteroptera: pentatomidae). 19725016314
chemical and physical signals mediating conspecific and heterospecific aggregation behavior of first instar stink bugs.we investigated cues that mediate the aggregation behavior of immature pentatomid bugs by using nymphs of six different pentatomid bug species (nezara viridula, acrosternum hilare, chlorochroa ligata, chlorochroa sayi, thyanta pallidovirens, and euschistus conspersus). when first instars of any two species were put together in a petri dish, they readily formed heterospecific aggregations similar to their natural conspecific aggregations. the chemical profiles of first and second instar nymphs of ...200415303327
mechanoreceptors in insects: johnston's organ in nezara viridula (l) (pentatomidae, heteroptera).behavioural observations of nezara viridula suggested that the antennae could be involved in detecting the substrate vibrations important in intraspecific communication of these insects. therefore the vibrosensitive properties of johnston's organ, a mechanoreceptor sensitive to the movements of the antennal flagellum relative to pedicel, were investigated. vibrational stimuli were applied to the proximal flagellar segment where activity in the antennal nerve was recorded via a tapered tungsten e ...19968739374
impacts of biological control and invasive species on a non-target native hawaiian insect.the potential for classical biological control to cause unintended harm to native species was evaluated in the case of the endemic hawaiian koa bug, coleotichus blackburniae white (hemiptera: scutelleridae), and parasitoids introduced to hawaii for control of an agricultural pest, the southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.) (hemiptera: pentatomidae). parasitism of c. blackburniae eggs, nymphs and adults by biocontrol agents was quantified across a wide range of habitats and compared to ot ...200415688213
influence of herbicide tolerant soybean production systems on insect pest populations and pest-induced crop damage.conventional soybean weed management and transgenic herbicide-tolerant management were examined to assess their effects on soybean insect pest populations in south georgia in 1997 and 1998. soybean variety had very little impact on the insect species observed, except that maturity group effects were observed for stink bug, primarily nezara viridula (l.), population densities on some sampling dates. stink bugs were more abundant on the early maturing varieties in mid-season. velvetbean caterpilla ...200312852606
leptomonas serpens n. sp., parasitic in the digestive tract and salivary glands of nezara viridula (pentatomidae) and in the sap of solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and other plants. 195713504849
effects of double-stranded rna in metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and paecilomyces fumosoroseus on protease activities, conidia production, and virulence.isogenic strains (with and without dsrna) of the entomogenous fungi metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and paecilomyces fumosoroseus were investigated for correlation between the presence of dsrna and the production of cuticle-degrading proteases that play an important role in host parasitism, total secreted protein, and conidia production. similar levels of cuticle-degrading subtilisin-like (pr1) protease were observed for isogenic strains of m. anisopliae var. acridum after growth in medium s ...200415213741
behaviour of ring bivalents in holokinetic systems: alternative sites of spindle attachment in pachylis argentinus and nezara viridula (heteroptera).heteropteran chromosomes are holokinetic; during mitosis, sister chromatids segregate parallel to each other but, during meiosis, kinetic activity is restricted to one pair of telomeric regions. this meiotic behaviour has been corroborated for all rod bivalents. for ring bivalents, we have previously proposed that one of the two chiasmata releases first, and a telokinetic activity is also achieved. in the present work we analyse the meiotic behaviour of ring bivalents in pachylis argentinus (cor ...200314712858
influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage fall 2000, an on-farm sustainable agricultural research project was established for cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., in tift county, georgia. the objective of our 2-yr research project was to determine the impact of several cover crops on pest and predator insects in cotton. the five cover crop treatments included 1) cereal rye, secale cereale l., a standard grass cover crop; 2) crimson clover, trifolium incarnatum l., a standard legume cover crop; 3) a legume mixture of balansa clover, trifoli ...200415384330
variability of vibratory signals and mate choice selectivity in the southern green stink bug.the southern green stink bug, nezara viridula, has a complex mate recognition system that implicates chemical and acoustic signals. to localise a sexual partner acoustically, a male and female alternate between the male courtship song (mcrs) and the female calling song type 1 (fcs1). although previous research has revealed that both signals show geographical variability, until now no studies have explored the form of this variability. we analysed the temporal and spectral characteristics of mcrs ...200312642169
genetic differentiation of geographically separated populations of the southern green stink bug nezara viridula (hemiptera: pentatomidae).genetic variation in the southern green stink bug nezara viridula (linnaeus) from 11 geographically separated sampling locations (slovenia, france, greece, italy, madeira, japan, guadeloupe, galapagos, california, brazil and botswana) was studied by sequencing 16s and 28s rdna, cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit i gene fragments and random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis. sequencing revealed 11 distinct haplotypes clustering into lineages a, b and c. lineage c was characteri ...200616556332
flavonoid increase in soybean as a response to nezara viridula injury and its effect on insect-feeding preference.the ability of the stink bug (nezara viridula) to induce and/or increase production of chemical defenses, i.e., flavonoids, in immature seeds of five genotypes of soybean (br-16, iac-100, pi 227687, pi 229358, and pi 274454) was investigated under greenhouse and laboratory conditions. samples from pods of each genotype damaged by stink bug were analyzed for flavonoid content with high performance liquid chromatography. a dual-choice test was conducted to evaluate the feeding preference of n. vir ...200312857032
toxicity of insecticides in a glass-vial bioassay to adult brown, green, and southern green stink bugs (heteroptera: pentatomidae).adult brown, euschistus servus (say); green, acrosternum hilare (say); and southern green, nezara viridula (l.), stink bugs were collected from soybean, glycine max (l.) merr., in fall 2001 and 2002 near stoneville, ms, and eudora, ar. a glass-vial bioassay was used to determine lc50 values for the three species of stink bugs for the pyrethroids bifenthrin, cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin, and the organophosphates acephate, dicrotophos, malathion, and methyl parathio ...200515765680
delayed maturity associated with southern green stink bug (heteroptera: pentatomidae) injury at various soybean phenological stages.delayed maturity in soybean, glycine max (l.) merr., occurred in response to infestation by southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.), in 4 yr of field studies. maturity delays followed stink bug infestation that occurred only during the pod set and filling stages (r3-r5.5), and infestations at r3-4 and r5 resulted in delayed maturity more consistently than did infestation at r5.5. infestation levels of six stink bugs per 0.3 m of row for 7-14 d generally were required to delay soybean matu ...200010902319
properties of a new picorna-like virus of the brown-winged green bug, plautia stalia picorna-like virus was isolated from the brown-winged green bug, plautia stali. the virus was named plautia stali intestine virus (psiv) based on the multiplication site of the virus in the infected insects. psiv is a spherical particle with a diameter of 30 nm. particles of psiv were found to contain a 9.1-kb single-stranded rna. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified psiv particles revealed three major (33, 30, 26 kda), one medium (35 kda), and one minor (4.5 kda) structural proteins ...19989500944
population structure of the brazilian southern green stink bug, nezara viridula.the southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.) (heteroptera: pentatomidae), is a cosmopolitan and economically important pest to several crops. studies on n. viridula migration and population structure have been neglected. we studied geographically distinct brazilian n. viridula populations to assess their variability and to determine gene flow among them. dna from specimens collected on soybean fields were subjected to rapd analysis to determine genetic similarity and population structure p ...200517119605
dynamics and seasonal abundance of stink bugs (heteroptera: pentatomidae) in a cotton-soybean ecosystem.two soybean varieties (early-maturing group v and late-maturing group vii) and two cotton varieties (conventional and transgenic (bt) were grown in adjacent replicated large field plots (approximately 0.1 ha each) at two locations for 3 yr. the dynamics and relative abundance of phytophagous stink bugs within these two crops were observed. the most abundant pentatomid species in both crops for all 3 yr were nezara viridula (l.), acrosternum hilare (say), and euschistus servus (say). several othe ...200010902318
treatment thresholds for stink bugs (hemiptera: pentatomidae) in cotton.the green stink bug, acrosternum hilare (say), the southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l), and the brown stink bug, euschistus servus (say), were predominant phytophagous pentatomidae detected during 1995-1997 in cotton in south carolina. these species occurred in similar numbers in conventional and transgenic cotton 'nucotn33b', containing the gene for expression of cryia(c) delta-endotoxin of bacillus thuringiensis berliner variety kurstaki. adult stink bugs moved into cotton from wild ...200111332832
vibrational communication along plants by the stink bugs nezara viridula and murgantia histrionica.the velocity and spectral characteristics of vibrational signals of nezara viridula (l.) and murgantia histrionica (hahn) (heteroptera: pentatomidae) were analyzed as the signals were transmitted through different plants. the velocity parameter of the body vibrations ranges from 0.1 to 1 mm/s. according to the mechanical properties of different substrates, the signal is attenuated or amplified during transmission from the insect's body to the substrate. attenuation of up to 20 db occurs during t ...200717306471
geographical distribution of genetically determined types of nezara viridula (l.) (heteroptera: pentatomidae) in brazil.nezara viridula (l.) is a cosmopolitan and polymorphic pentatomid. several genetically determined types have been described due to body color variation in adults. a survey covering 13 brazilian states was conducted during 2001 and 2002 to determine the geographical distribution of the main types. type g (smaragdula--body entirely green), the most common, showed a wide distribution, from south to north (latitude 2 degrees 49' n to 31 degrees 46' s), except in the central-west region. type o (torq ...200617348127
tuning of host plants with vibratory songs of nezara viridula l (heteroptera: pentatomidae).songs of the southern green stink bug nezara viridula l, recorded on a non-resonant loudspeaker membrane, reflect frequency characteristics of body vibrations. the song dominant frequency directly depends on the repetition rate of potentials recorded from synchronously contracting muscles that vibrate the abdomen during singing. spectra of naturally emitted signals recorded on the pronotum of a singing bug or on a plant contain peaks characteristic of plant resonant spectra. the dominant resonan ...200515802672
sub-lethal effects of deltamethrin on walking behaviour and response to host kairomone of the egg parasitoid trissolcus basalis.the lethal doses of the pyrethroid deltamethrin were estimated for the egg parasitoid trissolcus basalis (wollaston) (hymenoptera: scelionidae), and the sub-lethal effects of an ld25 on female walking behaviour were evaluated. linear speed of treated parasitoids was reduced compared with that of untreated ones for a period of up to 24 h. the sub-lethal effects of deltamethrin on parasitoid response to patches contaminated by a contact kairomone from its host, nezara viridula l (heteroptera: pent ...200212146166
identification of volatile synomones, induced by nezara viridula feeding and oviposition on bean spp., that attract the egg parasitoid trissolcus basalis.bean plants (vicia faba l. and phaseolus vulgaris l.) damaged by feeding activity of nezara viridula (l.) (heteroptera: pentatomidae), and onto which an egg mass had been laid, produced volatiles that attracted the egg parasitoid trissolcus basalis (wollaston) (hymenoptera: scelionidae). extracts of volatiles of broad bean and french bean plants induced by adults of n. viridula as a result of their feeding activity, oviposition activity, and feeding and oviposition activity combined were analyze ...200415274441
the egg parasitoid trissolcus basalis uses n-nonadecane, a cuticular hydrocarbon from its stink bug host nezara viridula, to discriminate between female and male kairomones from adult southern green stink bugs, nezara viridula (l.) (heteroptera: pentatomidae) that elicit foraging behavior of the egg parasitoid trissolcus basalis (wollaston) were investigated in laboratory experiments. chemical residues from tarsi and scutella of n. viridula induced foraging by gravid female t. basalis. residues from body parts of female n. viridula elicited stronger responses than those from the corresponding body parts of males. deproteinized tarsi still elicite ...200717508134
nezara viridula and kernel spot of pecan. 191817746974
transmission of cotton seed and boll rotting bacteria by the southern green stink bug (nezara viridula l.).to determine the ability of the southern green stink bug (sgsb) (nezara viridula l.) to transmit pantoea agglomerans into cotton (gossypium hirsutum) bolls.200717650204
effect of host kairomones and oviposition experience on the arrestment behavior of an egg parasitoid.chemical residues left by walking adults of the southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.) (heteroptera: pentatomidae) induce arrestment behavior in the egg parasitoid trissolcus basalis (wollaston) (hymenoptera: scelionidae) leading to prolonged periods of walking on contaminated areas and to systematic return to the stimulus after encountering the treatment borders. in this study, we quantified how the hierarchical value of residues from host adults and oviposition experience can influence ...200616943503
possible egg positioning and gluing behavior by ovipositing southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.) (heteroptera: pentatomidae).from march 2002 to january 2004, a colony of southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.), was kept in the laboratory, and its oviposition behavior was observed. during oviposition, soon after the egg is expelled, the female touches the egg mass with the dorsal surface of the last tarsomere; this movement of one leg of the hind pair occurred once. this small component of the oviposition behavior of this pentatomid is little known and not yet fully understood; it may help to position and glue t ...200617352083
development of a dry artificial diet for nezara viridula (l.) and euschistus heros (fabricius) (heteroptera: pentatomidae).artificial diets prepared with wheat germ, soybean protein, dextrosol, potato starch, sucrose, cellulose, soybean or sunflower oil, and vitamin solution for rearing nezara viridula (l.) and euschistus heros (fabricius) were tested under controlled temperature (25 +/- 1 degrees c), rh (60 +/- 10%), and photophase (14h). three diets were tested and compared with the natural diet privet [soybean and peanut seeds and privet ligustrum lucidum ait. fruit (oleaceae)]. all three artificial diets allowed ...200617144126
long-term patterns and feeding sites of southern green stink bug (hemiptera: pentatomidae) in hawaii macadamia orchards, and sampling for management decisions.southern green stink bug (nezara viridula, hemiptera: pentatomidae) is a pest of macadamia nuts, causing pitting to kernels by feeding. in spite of its pest status, many aspects of the ecology of this insect in macadamia orchards are poorly understood. this study analyzes long-term n. viridula damage to macadamia nuts and investigates the extent to which damage to nuts occurs in the tree canopy, prior to nut-drop. we show that there are distinct seasonal peaks in damage detected after harvest an ...200717997869
toxicity of chromobacterium subtsugae to southern green stink bug (heteroptera: pentatomidae) and corn rootworm (coleoptera: chrysomelidae).diabrotica spp. (coleoptera: chrysomelidae) beetles and southern green stink bugs, nezara viridula (l.) (heteroptera: pentatomidae), are pests on corn, zea mays l., and soybean, glycine max (l.) merr., as well as on cucurbits. control of these insects has depended on chemicals. an alternative to chemical control is the use of biologicals. use of bacteria, fungi, viruses, pheromones, and metabolites to control these insects can potentially improve resistance management and reduce pesticide use. o ...200717598525
effect of relative humidity on emergence and on dispersal and regrouping of first instar nezara viridula (l.) (hemiptera: pentatomidae).laboratory studies with 1st instar of southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.) indicated that relative humidity (rh) greatly affected nymph emergence and survivorship up to the 2nd instar, reaching the maximum value (approximately 90%) with rh of > 80%. at 60% rh, 60% of the nymphs emerged and survived, while with 0% rh only approximately 15% of eggs hatched, and most nymphs died. emerged nymphs from egg masses placed in plastic boxes with a gradient of humidity remained on egg shells for ...200617273705
temporal analysis of cotton boll symptoms resulting from southern green stink bug feeding and transmission of a bacterial pathogen.the southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.), is a significant pest of cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., and is becoming an increasing challenge due to the decrease in use of broad-spectrum insecticides on the crop. the southern green stink bug can vector an opportunistic pantoea agglomerans strain (designated sc 1-r) into cotton bolls, resulting in infection. the appearance of stink bug damage varies, and pest managers cannot readily identify its source. this research reports a systematic de ...200919253615
field screening of experimental corn hybrids and inbred lines for multiple ear-feeding insect resistance.identifying and using native insect resistance genes is the core of integrated pest management. in this study, 10 experimental corn, zea mays l., hybrids and 10 inbred lines were screened for resistance to major ear-feeding insects in the southeastern coastal plain region of the united states during 2004 and 2005. ear-feeding insect damage was assessed at harvest by visual damage rating for the corn earworm, helicoverpa zea (boddie), and by the percentage of kernels damaged by the maize weevil, ...200717972651
response of the egg parasitoids trissolcus basalis and telenomus podisi to compounds from defensive secretions of stink bugs.we tested the hypotheses that host-searching behavior of the egg parasitoids telenomus podisi and trissolcus basalis may be differentially influenced by the different blends of volatiles released from the metathoracic glands of adult stink bug host species. we further studied whether such a differential response is due to different individual components of these glands and whether these responses reflect host preferences. y-tube olfactometer bioassays were carried out with crude extracts of meta ...200919127384
early-season soybean as a trap crop for stink bugs (heteroptera: pentatomidae) in arkansas' changing system of soybean production.early-season soybean, glycine max l. merrill, was evaluated in arkansas soybean fields as a trap crop for a complex of stink bug species that included nezara viridula l., acrosternum hilare (say), and euschistus servus (say). early-season soybean production systems (espss) are composed of indeterminate soybean cultivars planted in april. in the first year of a 2-yr study, field-scale trap crops ( approximately 0.5-1.0 ha) of maturity group (mg) iii and iv soybean were planted adjacent to product ...200919389295
the chemical volatiles (semiochemicals) produced by neotropical stink bugs (hemiptera: pentatomidae).in recent years the growing concern about environmental changes and how we are using the natural resources have triggered a search for natural products as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. the stink bugs produce a wide variety of chemical compounds (semiochemicals) that show potential to manage these insects. the stink bugs chinavia impicticornis (stål), c. ubica (rolston), dichelops melacanthus (dallas), euschistus heros (f.), piezodorus guildinii (westwood), thyanta perditor (westwood) and ...200819061033
seasonal abundance, species composition, and population dynamics of stink bugs in production fields of early and late soybean in south arkansas.from 2003 through 2007, densities of stink bugs were monitored weekly in 297 commercial production fields of early and late soybean, glycine max l. merrill, in southeast and southwest arkansas. the goal of this research was to better understand seasonal abundance, species composition, and population dynamics of pentatomids as a benchmark reference for future management systems. thirty-five percent of all the 25-sweep samples taken in soybean contained at least one stink bug specimen. the average ...200919253641
spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of stink bugs (heteroptera: pentatomidae) in peanut-cotton the southeast united states, a field of peanuts, arachis hypogaea l., is often closely associated with a field of cotton, gossypium hirsutum l. the objective of this 4-yr on-farm study was to examine and compare the spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of the southern green stink bug, nezara viridula l., and the brown stink bug, euschistus servus (say), in six of these peanut-cotton farmscapes. gs(+) version 9 was used to generate interpolated estimates of stink bug density by inverse distan ...200919689882
nezara viridula (hemiptera: pentatomidae) feeding patterns in macadamia nut in hawaii: nut maturity and cultivar effects.nezara viridula l. (hemiptera: pentatomidae) is a serious pest of macadamia nuts, macadamia integrifolia, in hawaii. using ruthenium red dye to stain stink bug feeding probes, feeding activity was determined for nuts of various maturity levels harvested from the tree and off the ground throughout the growing season in five commercial cultivars. damage occurred in the tree and on the ground during all nut growth stages. damage on the ground was often higher than in the tree. cultivar 246 was more ...200919689896
ultrastructural localization of enzymatic activity during spermiogenesis in two phytophagous bugs (hemiptera: pentatomidae).ultrastructural cytochemical techniques were used for the localization of phosphatases and oxidases in spermatid and spermatozoon of the phytophagous bugs acrosternum aseadum and nezara viridula (hemiptera: pentatomidae). acid phosphatase was found mainly in the trans most portion of the golgi complex, and in the acrosome of spermatozoon. glucose-6-phosphatase was located in the endoplasmic reticulum, trans portion of the golgi complex and in the acrosome of spermatids. the axoneme showed activi ...199918627862
spatial dynamics of stink bugs (hemiptera: pentatomidae) and associated boll injury in southeastern cotton fields.grid sampling (one sample per 0.40 ha) in 12 cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) fields for stink bugs and boll injury caused by stink bug feeding was conducted in 2007 and 2008 in south carolina and georgia. the main species collected using the beat cloth method were the green stink bug, acrosternum hilare (say) (69%); brown stink bug, euschistus servus (say) (18%); and the southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.) (14%), respectively. the inverted distance weighted interpolation method and spa ...201020550811
potential for nezara viridula (hemiptera: pentatomidae) to transmit bacterial and fungal pathogens into cotton bolls.recently, we showed that the southern green stink bug (sgsb), nezara viridula (l.), can transmit pantoea agglomerans (ewing and fife), an opportunistic bacterium, into green cotton bolls resulting in plant disease. here, we hypothesized that our established model could be used to determine if the sgsb was a general, non-discriminate vector by using two other opportunistic bacterial pathogens of bolls (pantoea ananatis [serano] and klebsiella pneumoniae [schroeter]) and the known fungal pathogen ...200919636620
potential use of antibiotic to improve performance of laboratory-reared nezara viridula (l.) (heteroptera: pentatomidae).the antibiotic streptomycin added to the drinking water at a concentration of 125 mg/ l during nymphal development of nezara viridula (l.) (heteroptera: pentatomidae)accelerated the development in ca. 2 days, increased survivorship, and doubled adult longevity; nymph survivorship and adult body weight were not affected when compared to control insects. streptomycin has potential in rearing n. viridula, especially in improving quality of field-collected adults, by mitigating the introduction of p ...200617348145
susceptibility of pest nezara viridula (heteroptera: pentatomidae) and parasitoid trichopoda pennipes (diptera: tachinidae) to selected insecticides.susceptibility of the southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.) (heteroptera: pentatomidae), and its endoparasitoid trichopoda pennipes (f.) (diptera: tachinidae) to acetamiprid, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, indoxacarb, oxamyl, and thiamethoxam was compared in residual and oral toxicity tests. in the residual toxicity test, cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, and oxamyl were highly toxic to n. viridula. thiamethoxam was moderately toxic to these insects. each of the four insecticides was highly toxic to t ...200616813294
assessing nezara viridula (hemiptera: pentatomidae) feeding damage in macadamia nuts by using a biological stain.damage caused by southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.), to macadamia nuts, macadamia integrifolia maiden & betche, is normally determined after nuts are harvested and processed, which may be many months after damage occurred in the field. we developed a method using ruthenium red dye to stain stink bug feeding probes and indirectly assess feeding activity in macadamia nuts. by using the staining method, feeding probes were easily detected on the husk, shell, and kernel. husk probing was ...200616813317
demography of gut symbiotic and aposymbiotic nezara viridula l. (hemiptera: pentatomidae).nezara viridula l. is a highly polyphagous and cosmopolitan pentatomid stink bug. despite its economic importance, aspects of its biology are poorly understood. n. viridula has one primary bacterium associated with its gastric caeca, which females provide to offspring by smearing it on the surface of eggs during oviposition. we studied the impact of three temperatures and egg mass surface sterilization on n. viridula's nymphal development rate and reproductive performance. our results show that ...200919791602
sampling stink bugs (hemiptera: pentatomidae) for population estimation and pest management in southeastern cotton production.stink bugs (hemiptera: pentatomidae) were sampled in commercial cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., fields in 2007 and 2008 in south carolina and georgia. the main species collected with the beat cloth and sweep net methods were green stink bug, acrosternum hilare (say) (63 and 57%, respectively); brown stink bug, euschistus servus (say) (23 and 18%, respectively); and southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.) (14 and 22%, respectively). average stink bug densities were 0.145 +/- 0.010 (mean +/- ...200920069868
identification of multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance in cimmyt maize inbred lines with varying levels of silk maysin.ninety four corn inbred lines selected from international center for the improvement of maize and wheat (cimmyt) in mexico were evaluated for levels of silk maysin in 2001 and 2002. damage by major ear-feeding insects [i.e., corn earworm, helicoverpa zea (boddie) (lepidoptera: noctuidae); maize weevil, sitophilus zeamais (motschulsky) (coleoptera: curculionidae); brown stink bug, euschistus servus (say); southern green stink bugs, nezara viridula (l.) (heteroptera: pentatomidae)], and common smu ...200818767760
spatial and temporal patterns of stink bugs (hemiptera: pentatomidae) in wheat.a 2-yr study was conducted in south carolina wheat fields to describe spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs sampled with sweep nets. in 2008, the main phytophagous species were euschistus servus (say) (35.8, 36.7%), oebalus pugnax (f.) (35.0, 6.0%), nezara viridula l., (15.2, 46.3%), and thyanta custator (f.) (14.0, 10.5%) for adults and nymphs, respectively. in 2009, the main phytophagous species were o. pugnax (39.8, 37.8%), e. servus (38.4, 30.0%), n. viridula (14.6, 29.5%), and t. cust ...201020550810
crop juxtaposition affects cotton fiber quality in georgia farmscapes.phytophagous stink bugs (hemiptera: pentatomidae), including green stink bug [acrosternum hilare (say)], southern green stink bug [nezara viridula (l.)], and brown stink bug [euschistus servus (say)], have become a serious production issue for southeastern u.s. cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., growers. to investigate how different agronomic crops may affect stink bug damage and fiber quality in neighboring cotton fields, replicated 1.6-2.0-ha trials were planted with corn (zea mays l.), peanut (ar ...200919736764
[yield of soybean genotypes under infestation of the velvetbean caterpillar and stink bugs].three soybean experiments, one for each maturation group (early, semi-early, and medium), were installed in the field in assis, state of são paulo, during the 2003/2004 growing season to evaluate damage caused by anticarsia gemmatalis (hubn.) and by the soybean stink bug complex, euschistus heros (f.), piezodorus guildinii (west.), and nezara viridula (l.). the experiments were installed again in 2004/2005, with the exception of the early cycle group. defoliation caused by a. gemmatalis was eval ...201020498967
biological activity of essential oils from aloysia polystachya and aloysia citriodora (verbenaceae) against the soybean pest nezara viridula (hemiptera: pentatomidae).the objective of the current study was to determine the chemical constituents, ovicidal activity, fumigant, contact toxicity and repellent effects of essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from aloysia polystachya and a. citriodora against eggs and second instar nymphs of nezara viridula. the major components were carvone (83.5%) for a. polystachya, and citronellal (51.3%) and sabinene (22.9%) for a. citriodora. the ovicidal activity of both oils was tested by topical application at differ ...201020334148
composition and biological activity of essential oils from labiatae against nezara viridula (hemiptera: pentatomidae) soybean pest.plant essential oils have been recognised as an important natural source of insecticide. this study analysed the chemical constituents and bioactivity of essential oils that were isolated via hydrodistillation from origanum vulgare l. (oregano) and thymus vulgaris l. (thyme) against eggs, second instar and adults of nezara viridula (l.).201121394885
flight-related metabolism and its regulatory peptides in the spittle bug locris arithmetica (cicadomorpha: cercopidae) and the stink bugs nezara viridula (heteroptera: pentatomidae) and encosternum delegorguei (heteroptera: tessaratomidae).three species of bugs (order: hemiptera) belonging to different suborders and different families were investigated with respect to flight-related metabolism, and the neuropeptide hormones that regulate metabolism in encosternum delegorguei, locris arithmetica and nezara viridula were characterised. the concentration of two potential metabolic fuels in the haemolymph of these bugs (at rest) revealed that lipids were more abundant than carbohydrates and that lipids increased significantly when the ...200919698718
effects of heterospecific and conspecific vibrational signal overlap and signal-to-noise ratio on male responsiveness in nezara viridula (l.).animals often communicate in environments with high levels of biotic noise that arises from the signals of other individuals. although effects of background biotic noise on mate recognition and discrimination have been widely studied in air-born sound communication, little is known about incidental interference between signallers that use substrate-borne vibrational signals. in this study we investigated the ability of males of the southern green stink bug nezara viridula (l.) (heteroptera: pent ...201020802124
pheromone attraction and cross-attraction of nezara, acrosternum, and euschistus spp. stink bugs (heteroptera: pentatomidae) in the field.detecting infestations of stink bugs (heteroptera: pentatomidae) using pheromones remains problematic, particularly so in the united states for the exotic stink bug, nezara viridula l., and our native stink bug, acrosternum hilare (say). therefore, we conducted a 2-yr on-farm study to examine the attractiveness and possible cross-attraction of the reported pheromones for n. viridula and a. hilare and those previously discovered for euschistus servus (say) and plautia stali scott to n. viridula, ...201020388294
composition and abundance of stink bugs (heteroptera: pentatomidae) in corn.the species composition and abundance of stink bugs (heteroptera: pentatomidae) in corn, zea mays l., was determined in this on-farm study in georgia. seven species of phytophagous stink bugs were found on corn with the predominant species being nezara viridula (l.) and euschistus servus (say). all developmental stages of these two pests were found, indicating they were developing on the corn crop. the remaining five species, oebalus pugnax pugnax (f.), euschistus quadrator (rolston), euschistu ...201022182541
influence of feeding and oviposition by phytophagous pentatomids on photosynthesis of herbaceous plants.feeding by herbivorous insects may change photosynthetic activity of host plants. we studied how feeding and oviposition by herbivorous stink bugs, murgantia histrionica and nezara viridula (heteroptera: pentatomidae), affect photosynthetic parameters of brassica oleracea (savoy cabbage) and phaseolus vulgaris (french bean). first, we measured photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, and emission of induced volatile organic compounds (voc) immediately after feeding and duri ...201020490900
ovary development and maturation in nezara viridula (l.) (hemiptera: pentatomidae).ovary development and maturation of nezara viridula (l.) were evaluated by examining ovariole morphology and the alterations in the biochemical (protein synthesis related to reproduction) composition of the hemolymph. quantitative and qualitative protein analyses were performed and ovary structural alterations for the pre-reproductive and reproductive stages were recorded. total concentration of proteins in female hemolymph gradually increased until the end of the pre-mating stage, remaining una ...201121437488
survivorship and egg production of phytophagous pentatomids in laboratory rearing.survivorship and reproductive performance of the pentatomids euschistus heros (f.) (eh), nezara viridula (l.) (nv), and dichelops melacanthus (dallas) (dm) were tested in the laboratory. a mixture of natural foods (pods of green beans, phaseolus vulgaris, raw shelled peanuts, arachis hypogaea, and fruits of privet, ligustrum lucidum, and 50 pairs/box (25 x 20 x 20 cm) were used, observed for 30 days, and replicated three times. thirty days after emergence, mean female survivorship was 91% (eh), ...201121437480
parasitism and predation of stink bug (heteroptera: pentatomidae) eggs in georgia corn fields.nezara viridula l. and euschistus servus (say) are the predominant species of phytophagous stink bugs on corn, zea mays l., in georgia. oebalus pugnax pugnax (f.) occurs in relatively low numbers, and the predatory stink bug podisus maculiventris (say) is commonly found. limited information is available on natural biological control of these four stink bug species in georgia corn fields; therefore, a 6-yr study of parasitism and predation of their eggs was initiated in 2003. naturally occurring ...201022127170
temporal processing of vibratory communication signals at the level of ascending interneurons in nezara viridula (hemiptera: pentatomidae).during mating, males and females of n. viridula (heteroptera: pentatomidae) produce sex- and species-specific calling and courtship substrate-borne vibratory signals, grouped into songs. recognition and localization of these signals are fundamental for successful mating. the recognition is mainly based on the temporal pattern, i.e. the amplitude modulation, while the frequency spectrum of the signals usually only plays a minor role. we examined the temporal selectivity for vibratory signals in f ...201122053216
neurohormones implicated in the control of malpighian tubule secretion in plant sucking heteropterans: the stink bugs acrosternum hilare and nezara viridula.plant sucking heteropteran bugs feed regularly on small amounts of k(+)-rich plant material, in contrast to their hematophagous relatives which imbibe large volumes of na(+)-rich blood. it was anticipated that this would be reflected in the endocrine control of malpighian tubule (mt) secretion. to explore this, neuroendocrine factors known to influence mt secretion were tested on mt of the pentatomid plant sucking stink bugs, acrosternum hilare and nezara viridula, and the results compared with ...201019772880
duration of feeding and superficial and in-depth damage to soybean seed by selected species of stink bugs (heteroptera: pentatomidae).laboratory studies were conducted to compare duration of feeding and superficial and in-depth damage to soybean (glycine max) seeds by the southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.), the neotropical brown stink bug, euschistus heros (f.), the red-banded stink bug, piezodorus guildinii (westwood), and the green-belly stink bug, dichelops melacanthus (dallas). results indicated that feeding time was significantly longer for n. viridula (≈ 133 min) compared to e. heros and d. melacanthus (≈ 70 ...201121584400
the gastric caeca of pentatomids as a house for actinomycetes.microbes are extensively associated with insects, playing key roles in insect defense, nutrition and reproduction. most of the associations reported involve proteobacteria. despite the fact that actinobacteria associated with insects were shown to produce antibiotic barriers against pathogens to the hosts or to their food and nutrients, there are few studies focusing on their association with insects. thus, we surveyed the actinobacteria diversity on a specific region of the midgut of seven spec ...201222682021
host sex discrimination by an egg parasitoid on brassica leaves.egg parasitoids are able to find their hosts by exploiting their chemical footprints as host location cues. in nature, the apolar epicuticular wax layer of plants that consists of several classes of hydrocarbons serves as the substrate that retains these contact kairomones. however, experiments on chemical footprints generally have used filter paper as substrate to study insect behavior. here, we explored the ability of trissolcus basalis (scelionidae) females to discriminate between footprint c ...201121547535
selection of soybean pods by the stink bugs, nezara viridula and piezodorus guildinii.different biological parameters of the stink bugs, nezara viridula l. and piezodorus guildinii westwood (hemiptera: pentatomidae), are affected by the developmental stage of the soybean (glycine max merrill) pods they feed on. these effects of the soybean on the stink bugs could represent a selection pressure leading to the ability of these species to discriminate the phenological stage of soybean pods, and, therefore, to exhibit feeding preferences. we designed three studies: (1) distant detect ...201223437991
a new methodology for processing mouthparts of hemipterans (hemiptera) for microscopic studies.a new methodology has been developed to produce sections as thin as 5 microm of stink bug (heteroptera: pentatomidae) mouthparts for morphological studies. heads of the southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.) (heteroptera: pentatomidae) were fixed on bouin solution, and treated with edta (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid 7%) in an ice bath within a microwave oven for 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h. the chitin structures and labium soft parts were well preserved after 0.5h edta treatment. longer ...201019900815
influence of corn on stink bugs (heteroptera: pentatomidae) in subsequent southeastern united states farmscapes, corn, zea mays l., is often closely associated with peanut, (arachis hypogaea l.), cotton, (gossypium hirsutum l.), or both. the objective of this 3-yr on-farm study was to examine the influence of corn on stink bugs (heteroptera: pentatomidae), nezara viridula (l.), and euschistus servus (say), in subsequent crops in these farmscapes. adults of both stink bug species entered corn first, and seasonal occurrence of stink bug eggs, nymphs, and adults indic ...201122251727
ingestion of a marked bacterial pathogen of cotton conclusively demonstrates feeding by first instar southern green stink bug (hemiptera: pentatomidae).long-held dogma dictates that first instars of nezara viridula (l.) do not feed, yet recent observations of stylet activity within a food source suggest otherwise. as a cosmopolitan pest of cotton and other high-value cash crops, confirmation of feeding by first instars may ultimately influence the knowledge on biology and management strategies for this pest. to determine whether first instars feed, newly hatched nymphs were provided sterile green beans (control) or beans infected with a rifampi ...201424342007
characteristics of acyrthosiphon pisum virus, a newly identified virus infecting the pea aphid.a new virus was isolated from the pea aphid, acyrthosiphon pisum, and tentatively named acyrthosiphon pisum virus (apv). the isometric virus particles were approximately 31 nm in diameter and contained a single-stranded rna molecule of approximately 10 kb. four structural proteins were observed with molecular masses of approximately 23.3, 24.2, 34.5, and 66.2 kda. the 34.5-kda capsid protein was the most abundant product in purified virions. computer-assisted analysis revealed no significant hom ...19979367722
egg parasitoid attraction toward induced plant volatiles is disrupted by a non-host herbivore attacking above or belowground plant organs.plants respond to insect oviposition by emission of oviposition-induced plant volatiles (oipvs) which can recruit egg parasitoids of the attacking herbivore. to date, studies demonstrating egg parasitoid attraction to oipvs have been carried out in tritrophic systems consisting of one species each of plant, herbivore host, and the associated egg parasitoid. less attention has been given to plants experiencing multiple attacks by host and non-host herbivores that potentially could interfere with ...201425414714
endophytic fungi alter sucking bug responses to cotton reproductive structures.all plants including cotton host a wide range of microorganisms as endophytes. there is a growing appreciation of the prevalence, ecological significance and management potential of facultative fungal endophytes in protecting plants from pests, pathogens and environmental stressors. hemipteran sucking bugs have emerged as major pests across the us cotton belt, reducing yields directly by feeding on developing reproductive structures and indirectly by vectoring plant pathogens. we used no-choice ...201728328087
relationship between piercing-sucking insect control and internal lint and seed rot in southeastern cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.).in 1999, crop consultants scouting for stink bugs (hemiptera spp.) in south carolina discovered a formerly unobserved seed rot of cotton that caused yield losses ranging from 10 to 15% in certain fields. the disease has subsequently been reported in fields throughout the southeastern cotton belt. externally, diseased bolls appeared undamaged; internally, green fruit contain pink to dark brown, damp, deformed lint, and necrotic seeds. in greenhouse experiments, we demonstrated transmission of the ...201526470293
evaluation of corn germplasm lines for multiple ear-colonizing insect and disease resistance.ear-colonizing insects and diseases that reduce yield and impose health threats by mycotoxin contaminations in the grain, are critical impediments for corn (zea mays l.) production in the southern united states. ten germplasm lines from the germplasm enhancement of maize (gem) program in ames, ia, and raleigh, nc, and 10 lines (derived from gem germplasm) from the texas agricultural experiment station in lubbock, tx, were examined in 2007 and 2008 with local resistant and susceptible controls. f ...201222928329
likelihood of stink bugs colonizing crops: a case study in southeastern farmscapes.stink bugs, including nezara viridula (l.), euschistus servus (say), and chinavia hilaris (say), are economic pests across agricultural farmscapes where they can colonize closely associated crops. this 4-yr on-farm study was conducted to examine the likelihood of these three stink bug species colonizing crops in corn-cotton, corn-peanut-cotton, and peanut-cotton farmscapes by using odds ratios. corn (zea mays l.), peanut (arachis hypogaea l.), and cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) served as host pl ...201323726052
influence of nezara viridula feeding on cotton yield, fiber quality, and seed germination.the influence of southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.), adults (males and females) and fourth to fifth instars on cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., boll abscission, seedcotton yield, fiber quality, and seed viability was evaluated in field studies conducted during 2004 and 2005. cotton bolls representing several age classes ranging from 0-600 heat units were individually infested with a specific gender or life stage of southern green stink bug. adults and nymphs induced abscission of bolls ...200717972633
the fungistatic and fungicidal effects of volatiles from metathoracic glands of soybean-attacking stink bugs (heteroptera: pentatomidae) on the entomopathogen beauveria bassiana.this study was initially designed to evaluate the differential susceptibility of three soybean-attacking pentatomids to the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana in standardized bioassays. euschistus heros (eh) was shown to be significantly less susceptible than chinavia ubica (cu), whereas dichelops melacanthus (dm) adults were highly susceptible to fungal infections. a deeper look at the mechanisms involved in the possible role of volatiles from metathoracic glands on fungal infections wa ...201526321153
plant surfaces of vegetable crops mediate interactions between chemical footprints of true bugs and their egg parasitoids.during the host location process, egg parasitoids can eavesdrop on chemical cues released from immature and adult hosts. these indirect host-related cues are highly detectable, but of low reliability because they lead egg parasitoid females to an area where oviposition is likely to occur rather then providing wasps with direct information on the presence of eggs and their location. in the host-parasitoid associations between true bugs and their scelionid egg parasitoids, female wasps perceive th ...201020539789
spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs in southeastern farmscapes.a 3-yr study (2009-2011) was conducted to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs in three commercial farmscapes. study locations were replicated in south carolina and georgia, in an agriculturally diverse region known as the southeastern coastal plain. crops included wheat, triticum aestivum (l.), corn, zea mays (l.), soybean, glycine max (l.), cotton, gossypium hirsutum (l.), and peanut, arachis hypogaea (l.). farmscapes were sampled weekly using whole-plant examinations for co ...201525843577
milkweed (gentianales: apocynaceae): a farmscape resource for increasing parasitism of stink bugs (hemiptera: pentatomidae) and providing nectar to insect pollinators and monarch peanut-cotton farmscapes in georgia, the stink bugs nezara viridula (l.) and chinavia hilaris (say) (hemiptera: pentatomidae) and the leaffooted bug, leptoglossus phyllopus (l.) (hemiptera: coreidae), disperse at crop-to-crop interfaces to feed on bolls in cotton. the main objective of this study was to determine whether insecticide-free tropical milkweed (asclepias curassavica l.), a nectar-producing plant, can increase parasitism of these bugs by trichopoda pennipes (f.) (diptera: tachinida ...201424763094
injury to preflowering and flowering cotton by brown stink bug and southern green stink bug.the impact of brown stink bug, euschistus servus (say), and southern green stink bug, nezara viridula (l.), injury was evaluated on preflowering and flowering cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., plants in no-choice tests. vegetative stage cotton seedlings and reproductive structures, including flower buds (square) and bolls, were infested with adults and/or nymphs of both species. there were no significant differences in height, height to node ratio, square retention, and flower initiation for cotton ...200415279273
complete genome sequence of a klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated from a known cotton insect boll vector.klebsiella pneumoniae (associated with bacterial pneumonia) was previously isolated from nezara viridula, a significant vector of cotton boll-rot pathogens. we provide the first annotated genome sequence of the cotton opportunistic strain k. pneumoniae 5-1. this data provides guidance to study the bases of cotton pathogenesis by bacteria associated with vectors.201425146146
insects associated with jatropha curcas linn. (euphorbiaceae) in west niger.jatropha curcas has been introduced into niger since 2004 by international crops research institute for the semi-arid tropics (icrisat). this plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a biofuel. through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with j. curcas has been conducted in western niger during two rainy seasons (from june to october) in 2010 and 2011. we have identified insects belonging to the following families: acrididae (oedaleus ...201425528746
host chemical footprints induce host sex discrimination ability in egg parasitoids.trissolcus egg parasitoids, when perceiving the chemical footprints left on a substrate by pentatomid host bugs, adopt a motivated searching behaviour characterized by longer searching time on patches were signals are present. once in contact with host chemical footprints, trissolcus wasps search longer on traces left by associated hosts rather than non-associated species, and, in the former case, they search longer on traces left by females than males. based on these evidences, we hypothesized ...201324244417
demonstration that a klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolated from an insect (nezara viridula) harbors a plasmid-borne type iv secretion system.previously, we reported the isolation of klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies pneumoniae strain kp 5-1 from a southern green stink bug (nezara viridula) that is a significant pest of numerous economically important crops. we subsequently sequenced the strains whole genome. here, we report the presence of a functional plasmid-borne type iv secretion (tfss) system that was identified using genomic mining of the annotated genome. comparison of the kp 5-1 resident 186 kb plasmid (pkp 5-1) with nine othe ...201728616744
green stink bug nezara viridula detects differences in amplitude between courtship song vibrations at stem and stink bug nezara viridula courtship songs are transmitted through plants as substrate vibrations. the amplitude of the vibrations is different at different distances from the source of vibration and at different locations on the plant. amplitudes of the local vibration were measured on stem and petioli of the bean plant (phaseolus vulgaris) with a laser-doppler vibrometer. differences of the amplitudes of vibration between adjacent points around the nodes were large enough to release diffe ...200010653188
stability of spatial distributions of stink bugs, boll injury, and ndvi in cotton.a 3-yr study was conducted to determine the degree of aggregation of stink bugs and boll injury in cotton, gossypium hirsutum l., and their spatial association with a multispectral vegetation index (normalized difference vegetation index [ndvi]). using the spatial analysis by distance indices analyses, stink bugs were less frequently aggregated (17% for adults and 4% for nymphs) than boll injury (36%). ndvi values were also significantly aggregated within fields in 19 of 48 analyses (40%), with ...201627436843
green stink bug nezara viridula detects differences in amplitude between courtship song vibrations at stem and stink bug nezara viridula courtship songs are transmitted through plants as substrate vibrations. the amplitude of the vibrations is different at different distances from the source of vibration and at different locations on the plant. amplitudes of the local vibration were measured on stem and petioli of the bean plant (phaseolus vulgaris) with a laser-doppler vibrometer. differences of the amplitudes of vibration between adjacent points around the nodes were large enough to release diffe ...200028176119
history and contemporary perspectives of the integrated pest management of soybean in brazil.the integrated pest management (ipm) of soybean developed and implemented in brazil was one of the most successful programs of pest management in the world. established during the 1970s, it showed a tremendous level of adoption by growers, decreasing the amount of insecticide use by over 50%. it included outstanding approaches of field scouting and decision making, considering the economic injury levels (eils) for the major pests. two main biological control programs were highly important to sup ...201323949744
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