the opossum (didelphis virginiana) as a host for sarcocystis debonei from cowbirds (molothrus ater) and grackles (cassidix mexicanus, quiscalus quiscula).sarcocystis-infected muscles from ducks, cowbirds, and grackles were fed to cats, opossums, rats, and a dog. only the opossum (didelphis virginiana) was a suitable definitive host. all opossums that were fed sarcocystis-infected cowbirds (molothrus ater) and grackles (cassidix mexicanus and quiscalus quiscula) passed sporocysts in their feces. opossums that ate the cowbirds had prepatent periods of 5 and 10 days and remained patent for at least 105 days. opossums that ate the grackles became pat ...1978417165
experimental transmission of chlamydia psittaci to turkeys from wild birds.wild birds were inoculated with chlamydia psittaci to determine species that could be potential hosts and vectors in transmitting the agent to domestic turkeys. infection occurred in turkeys exposed to starlings (sturnus vulgaris), common grackles (quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (molothrus ater), and inca doves (cardafella inca). mourning doves (zenaidura macroura) shed the agent sparingly, but turkeys exposed to them did not become infected, these findings and knowledge of the habit ...1979546413
transmission of chlamydiae from grackles to turkeys.two female common grackles (quiscalus quiscula) were inoculated intratracheally with 1.6 x 10(8) chick embryo lethal doses50 of a chlamydial organism isolated from turkeys. eight female grackles were kept as uninoculated contacts. six days later, two 12-week-old broad-breasted white turkeys (1 male and 1 female) were placed in the pen with the grackles. chlamydiae were isolated in mice from cloacal swabs taken 14 days postinoculation from the infected grackles. swabs from the contact grackles di ...1978678235
frequency of sarcocystis spp in detroit, metropolitan area, michigan.a survey of sarcocystis spp in feral animals and in domesticated animals slaughtered in detroit, mi, was undertaken during a 6-month period, april to september, 1973, using histologic and digestion diagnostic techniques. results indicated 75.3% of 789 sheep and 10.8% of 306 lambs were infected. infection in young and adult sheep was low in april (0% of 78 lambs and 6.7% of 62 adult sheep), but increased in july (24% of 90 lambs and 94.1% of 201 adult sheep). high frequency of sarcocystis in summ ...1975803806
community ecology of helminth parasitism in an insular passerine avifauna.three hundred and thirty specimens of 7 species of passerine birds from south bass island, ottawa county, ohio, were examined for helminth parasites. the total number of helminth specimens collected was 4,333. forty-one helminth taxa were identified. ten species of helminths were identified as having foci of infection on the island. an index of association for these 10 species is presented. the low association revealed between helminth species utilizing common species of intermediate hosts indic ...19761255354
yersinia enterocolitica and related species isolated from wildlife in new york state.fecal specimens for yersinia screening were obtained from a variety of wild mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates throughout new york state. one specimen from each of 1,426 animals was examined. a total of 148 isolates of yersinia enterocolitica and related species were obtained from 133 (9.3%) of the animals. y. enterocolitica was isolated from 100 (7%) of the animals tested, including 81 (10%) of 812 mammals and 19 (3.3%) of 573 birds. y. intermedia, y. frederiksenii, and y. kriste ...19863767355
effects of dde and pcb (aroclor 1260) on experimentally poisoned female little brown bats (myotis lucifugus): lethal brain female little brown bats (myotis lucifugus) were collected in a church attic in north east, cecil county, md. mealworms (tenebrio molitor) containing organochlorine pollutants were fed to the bats as follows: 5 bats were dosed at 480 ppm dde, 12 at 150 ppm dde, 5 at 1000 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb; aroclor 1260), and 12 at 15 ppm pcb. seven other bats were fed untreated mealworms. the objective was to elevate brain levels of dde and pcb to lethality and measure these concentrations. ...19816790723
wildlife surveillance during a mycoplasma gallisepticum epornitic in domestic turkeys.during a major mycoplasma gallisepticum (mg) epornitic in domestic turkeys, tracheal swabs were collected and cultured from 477 and 770 potentially exposed wild mammals and birds, respectively. all culture attempts were negative. serum-plate (sp) and hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) tests on 770 bird sera revealed low titers (less than or equal to 1:40) in 0.9% of tested house sparrows, 1.1% of brown-headed cowbirds, 35.7% of common grackles, 1.0% of starlings, and 16.6% of eastern meadowlarks. ...19827159324
fat of the wild avian filarial nematode chandlerella quiscali (onchocercidae: filarioidea) in the domestic chicken.chandlerella quiscali is a filarial nematode parasitizing the brain of the common grackle (quiscalus quiscula versicolor), blue jay (cyanocitta cristata bromia), brown-headed cowbird (molothrus ater ater), and starling (sturnus vulgaris). filarial infections of many wild bird species are common but natural infections of domestic fowl are rare. the habits of many wild birds commonly bring them in close association with domestic poultry. because of the high prevalence of c. quiscali in grackles (9 ...19807393850
ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting wild birds (aves) and white-footed mice in lyme, ct.birds were captured and recaptured (20.8% of 5,297) with japanese mist nets, and white-footed mice, peromyscus leucopus (rafinesque), were caught and recaught (69.1% of 355) with sherman box traps during the late spring, summer, and early fall from july 1989 through october 1991 to study tick-host relationships in lyme, ct. ixodes scapularis say, a vector of lyme disease spirochetes, borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto johnson, schmid, hye, steigerwalt & brenner, infested 803 birds (15.2%) in 36 ...19957650706
relative importance of bird species as hosts for immature ixodes dammini (acari: ixodidae) in a suburban residential landscape of southern new york state.abundance of birds and their tick parasites were estimated in a residential community located in westchester county, ny, where lyme disease is endemic. in total, 36 bird species (416 captures) were collected, of which 25 species (69%) were parasitized by ticks. ixodes dammini spielman, clifford, piesman & corwin composed 96.4% of the 1,067 ticks found on birds. the bird species most heavily parasitized was house wren, troglodytes aedon vieillot (11.1 ixodes dammini per bird). relative density es ...19938360897
experimental infection of north american birds with the new york 1999 strain of west nile evaluate transmission dynamics, we exposed 25 bird species to west nile virus (wnv) by infectious mosquito bite. we monitored viremia titers, clinical outcome, wnv shedding (cloacal and oral), seroconversion, virus persistence in organs, and susceptibility to oral and contact transmission. passeriform and charadriiform birds were more reservoir competent (a derivation of viremia data) than other species tested. the five most competent species were passerines: blue jay (cyanocitta cristata), c ...200312643825
detection of anti-west nile virus immunoglobulin m in chicken serum by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the emergence of west nile (wn) virus in new york and the surrounding area in 1999 prompted an increase in surveillance measures throughout the united states, including the screening of sentinel chicken flocks for antibodies. an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the detection of chicken immunoglobulin m (igm) to wn virus was developed, standardized, and characterized as a rapid and sensitive means to detect wn viral antibodies in sentinel flocks. serum specimens from experimentally i ...200312734241
vectest as diagnostic and surveillance tool for west nile virus in dead birds.the vectest antigen-capture assay for west nile virus was performed on oral and tissue swabs from dead birds in new york state from april 2003 through july 2004. results were compared with those from real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of kidney or brain. oral vectest sensitivity is adequate for surveillance in american crows (corvus brachyrhynchos) (87%), blue jays (cyanocitta cristata) (80%), and house sparrows (passer domesticus) (76%). oral vectest performed well for sm ...200415663856
west nile virus epizootiology in the southeastern united states, 2001.we investigated mosquito and bird involvement in west nile virus (wnv) transmission in july 2001 in jefferson county, fl, and lowndes county, ga. we detected 16 wnv-infected pools from culex quinquefasciatus, cx. salinarius, cx. nigripalpus, and culiseta melanura. in florida, 11% of 353 bird sera neutralized wnv. antibody prevalence was greatest in northern cardinal (cardinalis cardinalis, 75%), northern mockingbird (mimus polyglottus, 50%), common ground-dove (columbina passerina, 25%), common ...200515815153
host choice and west nile virus infection rates in blood-fed mosquitoes, including members of the culex pipiens complex, from memphis and shelby county, tennessee, 2002-2003.the source of bloodmeals in 2,082 blood-fed mosquitoes collected from february 2002 through december 2003 in memphis and surrounding areas of shelby county, tennessee were determined. members of the genus culex and anopheles quadrimaculatus predominated in the collections. members of the cx. pipiens complex and cx. restuans were found to feed predominately upon avian hosts, though mammalian hosts made up a substantial proportion of the bloodmeals in these species. no significant difference was s ...200717767413
species differences in the sensitivity of avian embryos to methylmercury.we injected doses of methylmercury into the air cells of eggs of 26 species of birds and examined the dose-response curves of embryo survival. for 23 species we had adequate data to calculate the median lethal concentration (lc(50)). based on the dose-response curves and lc(50)s, we ranked species according to their sensitivity to injected methylmercury. although the previously published embryotoxic threshold of mercury in game farm mallards (anas platyrhynchos) has been used as a default value ...200918421496
severe winter freezes enhance st. louis encephalitis virus amplification and epidemic transmission in peninsular florida.mosquito-borne arboviral epidemics tend to strike without warning. the driving force for these epidemics is a combination of biotic (vector, amplification host, and virus) and abiotic (meteorological conditions, especially rainfall and temperature) factors. abiotic factors that facilitate the synchronization and interaction of vector and amplification host populations favor epidemic amplification and transmission. in florida, epidemics of st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus (family flaviviridae, ...200919960704
host feeding patterns of culex mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in east baton rouge parish, feeding patterns were examined for four species of culex mosquitoes collected from 18 sites in or adjacent to east baton rouge parish, la, from november 2002 to october 2004. host dna from 37 bloodfed culex coronator dyar and knab, 67 bloodfed cx. salinarius coquillett, 112 bloodfed cx. nigripalpus theobald, and 684 bloodfed cx. quinquefasciatus say were identified. the percentages of bloodmeals containing mammalian dna were 94.6% for cx. coronator, 82.1% for cx. salinarius, 66.1% for cx. n ...201020380306
the culex pipiens complex in the mississippi river basin: identification, distribution, and bloodmeal hosts.members of the culex pipiens complex are the primary vectors of st. louis encephalitis virus and west nile virus in the mississippi river basin (mrb). the cx. pipiens complex in the mrb is composed of 4 taxa: cx. p. pipiens form pipiens, cx. p. quinquefasciatus, hybrids between cx. p. pipiens f. pipiens and cx. p. quinquefasciatus, and cx. p. pipiens form molestus. three studies on bloodmeal hosts with large sample sizes have been conducted on members of the cx. pipiens complex in the mrb includ ...201223401948
theoretical potential of passerine filariasis to enhance the enzootic transmission of west nile virus.vertebrate reservoirs of arboviruses are often infected with microfilariae (mf). laboratory studies have shown that mf can enhance the infectivity of arboviruses to mosquitoes. soon after being ingested, mf penetrate the mosquito midgut. if the host blood also contains virus (i.e., vertebrate is dually infected), penetrating mf may introduce virus into the hemocoel. this can transform otherwise virus-incompetent mosquito species into virus-competent species and simultaneously accelerate viral de ...201223270173
identification of mosquito avian-derived blood meals by polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex analysis.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) heteroduplex assay (hda) was developed to identify avian derived mosquito blood meals to the species level. the assay used primers amplifying a fragment of the cytochrome b gene from vertebrate but not invertebrate species. in culex tarsalis fed on quail, pcr products derived from the quail cytochrome b gene were detected seven days post-engorgement. in an analysis of wild-caught mosquitoes, 85% of blood-fed mosquitoes produced detectable pcr products. heterodup ...012201598
use of observed wild bird activity on poultry farms and a literature review to target species as high priority for avian influenza testing in 2 regions of canada.the risk of avian influenza outbreaks in poultry is partially dependent on the probability of contact between domestic poultry and wild birds shedding avian influenza (ai) virus. the major objective of this study was to document wild bird activity on poultry farms to determine which wild bird species should be targeted for ai surveillance in canada. we collected data in 2 major poultry producing regions of canada, southwestern ontario and the fraser valley of british columbia, on the relative ab ...022851777
isolation of escherichia coli o157:h7 and salmonella from migratory brown-headed cowbirds (molothrus ater), common grackles (quiscalus quiscula), and cattle egrets (bubulcus ibis).zoonotic enteric pathogenic bacteria can live in the intestinal tract of birds and can be transmitted to food animals or humans via fecal contact. in the present study, cecal samples were collected from 376 migratory birds from species often associated with cattle during the fall migration in the central flyway of the united states. brown-headed cowbirds (n=309, molothrus ater), common grackles (n=51, quiscalus quiscula), and cattle egrets (n=12, bubulcus ibis) contained foodborne pathogenic bac ...201425078494
a review of the mite subfamily harpirhynchinae (acariformes: harpirhynchidae)--parasites of new world birds (aves: neognathae).mites of the subfamily harpirhynchinae (acariformes: cheyletoidea: harpirhynchidae) associated with neognathous birds (aves: neognathae) in the new world are revised. in all, 68 species in 8 genera are recorded. among them, 27 new species and 1 new genus are described as new for science: harpyrhynchoides gallowayi bochkov, oconnor and klompen sp. nov. from columba livia (columbiformes: columbidae) from canada (manitoba), h. zenaida bochkov, oconnor and klompen sp. nov. from zenaida macroura (col ...201526624161
cascade of ecological consequences for west nile virus transmission when aquatic macrophytes invade stormwater habitats.artificial aquatic habitats are ubiquitous in anthropogenic landscapes and highly susceptible to colonization by invasive plant species. recent research into the ecology of infectious diseases indicates that the establishment of invasive plant species can trigger ecological cascades which alter the transmission dynamics of vector-borne pathogens that imperil human health. here, we examined whether the presence or management of two invasive, emergent plants, cattails (typha spp.) and phragmites ( ...201627039521
dynamics of vector-host interactions in avian communities in four eastern equine encephalitis virus foci in the northeastern u.s.eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus (togaviridae, alphavirus) is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for occasional outbreaks of severe disease in humans and equines, resulting in high mortality and neurological impairment in most survivors. in the past, human disease outbreaks in the northeastern u.s. have occurred intermittently with no apparent pattern; however, during the last decade we have witnessed recurring annual emergence where eee virus activity had bee ...201626751704
vector-host interactions of culiseta melanura in a focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus activity in southeastern virginia.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) causes a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for sporadic outbreaks of severe illness in humans and equines in the eastern usa. culiseta (cs.) melanura is the primary vector of eeev in most geographic regions but its feeding patterns on specific avian and mammalian hosts are largely unknown in the mid-atlantic region. the objectives of our study were to: 1) identify avian hosts of cs. melanura and evaluate their potential role in ...201526327226
absence of wolbachia endobacteria in chandlerella quiscali: an avian filarial parasite.abstract chandlerella quiscali is a filarial nematode parasite of the common grackle (quiscalus quiscula), a widespread bird species found throughout most of north america. worms collected from wild-caught birds were morphologically identified as c. quiscali and tested for the presence of wolbachia, an alphaproteobacterial endosymbiont required for reproduction and maturation by many filarial species. although various methods, including pcr, in situ hybridization and immunohistology, were empl ...201122032328
host selection by culex pipiens mosquitoes and west nile virus amplification.recent field studies have suggested that the dynamics of west nile virus (wnv) transmission are influenced strongly by a few key super spreader bird species that function both as primary blood hosts of the vector mosquitoes (in particular culex pipiens) and as reservoir-competent virus hosts. it has been hypothesized that human cases result from a shift in mosquito feeding from these key bird species to humans after abundance of the key birds species decreases. to test this paradigm, we performe ...200919190226
patterns of avian nest predators and a brood parasite among restored riparian habitats in agricultural fragmented edge-dominated landscapes, nest predation and brood parasitism may reduce avian reproductive success and, ultimately, populations of some passerine species. in the fragmented agroecosystem of northwest mississippi, placement of drop-pipe structures has been used as a restoration technique for abating gully erosion along stream banks. these actions have formed small herbaceous and woody habitat extensions into former agricultural lands. we quantified species relative abundances, spe ...200516160783
comparison of the retinal structure and function in four bird species as a function of the time they start singing in the morning.we postulated that the retinas of bird species that are the earlier singers are more sensitive to low light conditions than species that sing closer to sunrise. the selected species were the american robin (turdus migratorius) and the hermit thrush (catharus guttatus) as early singers, the common grackle (quiscalus quiscula) and the mourning dove (zenaida macroura) which join the dawn chorus near sunrise. scotopic electroretinogram (ergs) intensity-response functions were obtained from anestheti ...200515703474
food chain aspects of chlordane poisoning in birds and bats.we have observed recurring chlordane poisonings of large numbers of common grackles (quiscalus quiscula), european starlings (sturnus vulgaris), and american robins (turdus migratorius) at suburban roosts in new jersey during the month of july. this paper describes aspects of the food chain uptake of chlordane that account for the periodicity of these poisonings. chlordane concentrations ranged from < 0.02 to 20.3 microg/g wet weight in 11 soil samples collected from residential lawns and a golf ...200111243332
females have a larger hippocampus than males in the brood-parasitic brown-headed cowbird.females of the brood-parasitic brown-headed cowbird (molothrus ater) search for host nests in which to lay their eggs. females normally return to lay a single egg from one to several days after first locating a potential host nest and lay up to 40 eggs in a breeding season. male brown-headed cowbirds do not assist females in locating nests. we predicted that the spatial abilities required to locate and return accurately to host nests may have produced a sex difference in the size of the hippocam ...19938356091
oxychlordane, hcs-3260, and nonachlor in birds: lethal residues and loss rates.oxychlordane reached lethal levels in birds given dietary dosages of hcs-3260 (70.75% cis-chlordane and 23.51% trans-chlordane) at 6 levels from 50 to 500 ppm. oxychlordane ranged from 9.4 to 22.1 ppm in brains of cowbirds (molothrus ater), grackles (quiscalus quiscula), and red-winged blackbirds (agelaius phoeniceus) that died on dosage and from 1.3 to 4.8 ppm in sacrificed birds, providing a clear diagnostic separation. among starlings (sturnus vulgaris), however, oxychlordane ranged from 5.0 ...19836668611
chlamydia shedding by four species of wild birds.four wild bird species--great-tailed grackle (cassidix mexicanus), common grackle (quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbird (molothrus ater), and mourning dove (zenaidura macroura)--were either inoculated intratracheally with chlamydia psittaci or exposed indirectly as uninoculated cagemates. shedding of chlamydiae was monitored by inoculating mice with suspensions of material eluted from cloacal swabs collected from all birds, usually at 3-day intervals. sporadic shedding of chlamydiae was dem ...1978749892
comparison of direct and modified direct complement-fixation and agar-gel precipitin methods in detecting chlamydial antibody in wild birds.detection of chlamydial antibody in serums of wild birds was compared for the following methods: direct complement-fixation (dcf), modified dcf (mdcf), and agar-gel precipitin (agp). the birds species used were great-tailed grackles (cassidix mexicanus), common grackles (quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (molothrus ater), bronzed cowbirds (tangavius aeneus), and mourning doves (zenaida macroura). the birds were either inoculated with an isolate of chlamydia psittaci obtained originally ...1978100098
communication and spatial relationships in a colony of common grackles.most communication among common grackles quiscalus quiscula occurs at distances of less than a few metres in the noisy environment of a breeding colony. this report examines both the adaptations of communication to these conditions and the effects of communication in regulating individual's spatial relationships. for each of six vocalizations and five action patterns studied in one colony, i consider variation in the form of the display, the circumstances associated with its use, and the respons ...1976962193
evolutionary aspects of parental care in the common grackle, quiscalus quiscula l. 197928568074
response of common grackles to dietary concentrations of four organophosphate pesticides. 19827149774
angiotensin converting enzyme in brush-border membranes of avian small intestine.angiotensin converting enzyme activity was identified in brush-border membranes purified from the small intestinal epithelium of the common grackle, quiscalus quiscula. angiotensin converting enzyme was enriched 20-fold in the membrane preparation, compared with intestinal epithelial cell scrapes, and was coenriched with the brush-border markers, alkaline phosphatase and aminopeptidase n. the kinetics of hydrolysis of n-[3-(2-furyl)acryloyl]-l-phenylalanylglycylglycine (fapgg) gave a vmax of 907 ...19882836543
first record of ixodes brunneus in kansas.a single specimen, a partially engorged female, of ixodes brunneus was recovered from a common grackle (quiscalus quiscula) in butler county, near el dorado, kansas (usa). the discovery of this tick in kansas represents a new state record.19911758045
maternal transfer of contaminants to eggs in common grackles (quiscalus quiscala) nesting on coal fly ash basins.coal combustion is a major source of trace elements to the environment. aquatic disposal of wastes from this process can result in reproductive failure in many wildlife species, but little is known regarding impacts on avian fauna. individual eggs were collected from common grackles (quiscalus quiscala) nesting in association with coal fly ash settling basins and a reference site to determine if females from the contaminated site transfered trace elements to their eggs. whole clutches were also ...200314565586
egg size variation in birds with asynchronous hatching: is bigger really better?in many animals large size at birth enhances offspring survival, but comparative evidence remains equivocal for birds. failure to consider asynchronous hatching (ash) may have confounded previous analyses. we assessed effects of egg size and ash on growth and survival of common grackle (quiscalus quiscula) nestlings to test the hypothesis that females adjust the size of last-laid eggs to modify effects of ash. although positive, the effect of egg size on nestling growth and survival was overwhel ...200818217858
seasonal sex allocation by common grackles? revisiting a foundational study.despite the general importance of replication in science, relatively few behavioral ecology studies are repeated. here we repeat the seminal 1977 research of h. f. howe, who found that the proportion of male nestlings at hatching in nests of common grackles (quiscalus quiscula) increased as the breeding season progressed. howe interpreted this pattern as an adaptive response to changing food conditions that favored greater production of daughters (the sex less expensive to rear) when food was sc ...200919967874
seasonal sex allocation by common grackles? comment. 201021141203
coal fly ash basins as an attractive nuisance to birds: parental provisioning exposes nestlings to harmful trace elements.birds attracted to nest around coal ash settling basins may expose their young to contaminants by provisioning them with contaminated food. diet and tissues of common grackle (quiscalus quiscala) nestlings were analyzed for trace elements to determine if nestlings were accumulating elements via dietary exposure and if feather growth limits elemental accumulation in other tissues. arsenic, cadmium, and selenium concentrations in ash basin diets were 5× higher than reference diets. arsenic, cadmiu ...201222230082
affiliation between the sexes in common grackles. ii: spatial and vocal coordination. 19761266426
affiliation between the sexes in common grackles i. specificity and seasonal progression.heterosexual affiliation involves behavioral mechanisms that limit bond membership and regulate partners interactions. among common grackles, quiscalus quiscula, two characteristic activities of partners, following and vocal answering, develop during group activities and promote the individual specificity of pair bonds. pairs differ substantially in the durations and seasonal timing of the early stages of nesting activities and in the male's fidelity to his mate through incubation. after the rel ...1976944979
arthropod parasites of the common grackle in ohio. 19751159755
helminth parasites of the common grackle (quiscalus quiscula versicolor) in central ohio. 19751127572
hybridization in the grackle quiscalus quiscula in louisiana. 19685690200
seasonal variation in diagnostic enzymes and biochemical constituents of captive northern bobwhites and passerines.1. a variety of biochemical measurements were taken periodically in captive northern bobwhite (colinus virginianus l.), european starlings (sturnus vulgaris l.), red-winged blackbirds (agelaius phoeniceus l.) and common grackles (quiscalus quiscula l.) to determine whether baseline values remain sufficiently stable throughout the year for general clinical use in the absence of concurrent control specimens. 2. variables included whole blood hematocrit and hemoglobin, plasma lactate dehydrogenase, ...19873665439
habitat selection and ranges of tolerance: how do species differ beyond critical thresholds?sensitivity to habitat fragmentation often has been examined in terms of thresholds in landscape composition at which a species is likely to occur. observed thresholds often have been low or absent, however, leaving much unexplained about habitat selection beyond initial thresholds of occurrence, even for species with strong habitat preferences. we examined responses to varying amounts of tree cover, a widely influential measure of habitat loss, for 40 woodland bird species in a mixed woodland/g ...201223170216
the chronic toxicity of methiocarb to grackles, doves, and quail and reproductive effect in quail.methiocarb (4-methylthio-3, 5-xylyl n-methyl carbamate, mesurol, bay (3744), a bird repellent, was fed in concentrations of 100 to 1,000 ppm to common grackles (quiscalus quiscula), mourning doves (zenaida macroura), and breeding pairs of coturnix quail (coturnix coturnix) to investigate the possibility of cumulative intoxication. although aversion to treated diets was readily apparent in most of the tests, the 28- to 30-day median lethal concentration (lc50) was determined to be greater than 10 ...19751203576
pre-existing microfilarial infections of american robins (passeriformes: turdidae) and common grackles (passeriformes: icteridae) have limited impact on enhancing dissemination of west nile virus in culex pipiens mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).microfilariae (mf) are the immature stages of filarial nematode parasites and inhabit the blood and dermis of all classes of vertebrates, except fish. concurrent ingestion of mf and arboviruses by mosquitoes can enhance mosquito transmission of virus compared to when virus is ingested alone. shortly after being ingested, mf penetrate the mosquito's midgut and may introduce virus into the mosquito's hemocoel, creating a disseminated viral infection much sooner than normal. this phenomenon is know ...202033257996
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