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some corrections of coccidian (apicomplexa: protozoa) nomenclature.the following nomenclatural corrections and changes are introduced for the coccidia. new species: cryptosporidium rhesi from the rhesus monkey macaca mulatta; cryptosporidium serpentis from the snakes elaphe guttata, elapha subocularis, crotalus horridus, and sanzinia madagascarensis; eimeria perazae from the lizard cnemidophorus l. lemniscatus; and eimeria tarichae from the salamander taricha toirosa. new combinations: orcheobius carinii for cariniella carinii from the frog leptodactylus ocella ...19807463253
experimental infection of elaphid snakes with cryptosporidium serpentis (apicomplexa: cryptosporidiidae).the shedding pattern of fecal cryptosporidium serpentis oocysts, histopathologic changes in the gastric region, and the effect of spiramycin treatment were investigated in 6 experimentally infected, captive black rat (elaphe obsoleta obsoleta), 4 yellow rat (elaphe obsoleta quadrivittata), and 2 corn snakes (elaphe guttata guttata). feces were monitored for up to 2 years postinfection (pi). no significant (p > 0.07) differences were observed between expected and observed numbers of pi oocyst-pos ...19947931919
diagnosis of subclinical cryptosporidiosis in captive snakes based on stomach lavage and cloacal sampling.the applicability of stomach lavage and cloacal swab techniques for diagnosis of subclinical cryptosporidiosis were tested in eight captive snakes subclinically infected with cryptosporidium serpentis. two feeding regimes were employed. the snakes were first fed 7 days prior to stomach and cloaca sampling, and then 3 days prior to sampling, and the oocysts were detected by fluorescein labeled monoclonal antibody (mab) and by acid-fast stained (afs) direct wet smear (dws). the overall sensitivity ...19969017862
therapeutic efficacy of hyperimmune bovine colostrum treatment against clinical and subclinical cryptosporidium serpentis infections in captive snakes.therapy based on the protective passive immunity of hyperimmune bovine colostrum (hbc) (raised against cryptosporidium parvum in dairy cows immunized during gestation) was tested for heterologous efficacy in subclinical and clinical infections of 12 captive snakes with c. serpentis. six gastric hbc treatments of 1% snake weight at 1-week intervals each, have histologically cleared c. serpentis in three subclinically infected snakes, and regressed gastric histopathological changes in one of these ...19989561700
oocysts of cryptosporidium from snakes are not infectious to ducklings but retain viability after intestinal passage through a refractory host.six 2-week-old cryptosporidium-free peking ducklings (anas platyrhynchos) each received 2.0 x 10(6) viable cryptosporidium serpentis oocysts from 6 naturally infected captive snakes. histological sections of digestive (stomach, jejunum, ileum, cloaca, and cecum) and respiratory tract tissues (larynx, trachea, and lungs) did not contain life-cycle stages of cryptosporidium in any of the inoculated ducklings. because ducklings were refractory to infection, c. serpentis transmission via a diet of p ...19989652381
multiple cryptosporidium serpentis oocyst isolates from captive snakes are not transmissible to amphibians.viable cryptosporidium serpentis oocysts originating from 6 captive snakes were gastrically delivered to 12 cryptosporidium-free african clawed frogs and 9 tadpoles and 3 recently metamorphosed adults of cryptosporidium-free wood frogs. on days 7 and 14 postinoculation, no life-cycle stage of cryptosporidium was observed in any of the histological sections of stomach, jejunum, ileum, cloaca, and cecum. however, viable inoculum-derived c. serpentis oocysts were recovered from the water in which t ...19989920337
phylogenetic analysis of cryptosporidium parasites based on the small-subunit rrna gene locus.biological data support the hypothesis that there are multiple species in the genus cryptosporidium, but a recent analysis of the available genetic data suggested that there is insufficient evidence for species differentiation. in order to resolve the controversy in the taxonomy of this parasite genus, we characterized the small-subunit rrna genes of cryptosporidium parvum, cryptosporidium baileyi, cryptosporidium muris, and cryptosporidium serpentis and performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ...199910103253
biallelic polymorphism in the intron region of beta-tubulin gene of cryptosporidium parasites.nucleotide sequencing of polymerase chain reaction amplified intron region of the cryptosporidium parvum beta-tubulin gene in 26 human and 15 animal isolates revealed distinct genetic polymorphism between the human and bovine genotypes. the separation of 2 genotypes of c. parvum is in agreement with our previous genotyping data based on the thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (trap-c2) gene, indicating these genotype characteristics are linked at 2 genetic loci. characterization of cryptospo ...199910207387
phylogenetic analysis of cryptosporidium isolates from captive reptiles using 18s rdna sequence data and random amplified polymorphic dna analysis.sequence alignment of a polymerase chain reaction-amplified 713-base pair region of the cryptosporidium 18s rdna gene was carried out on 15 captive reptile isolates from different geographic locations and compared to both cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium muris isolates. random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis was also performed on a smaller number of these samples. the data generated by both techniques were significantly correlated (p < 0.002), providing additional evidence to ...199910386447
molecular analysis of the 18s rrna gene of cryptosporidium serpentis in a wild-caught corn snake (elaphe guttata guttata) and a five-species restriction fragment length polymorphism- based assay that can additionally discern c. parvum from c. wrairi.an adult wild-caught corn snake (elaphe guttata guttata) was presented for humane euthanasia and necropsy because of severe cryptosporidiosis. the animal was lethargic and >5% dehydrated but in good flesh. gastric lavage was performed prior to euthanasia. histopathologic findings included gastric mucosal hypertrophy and a hemorrhagic erosive gastritis. numerous 5- to 7-microm-diameter round extracellular organisms were associated with the mucosal hypertrophy. a pcr, acid-fast stains, giemsa stai ...199910583987
morphologic, host specificity, and genetic characterization of a european cryptosporidium andersoni isolate.this study was undertaken in order to characterize a cryptosporidium muris-like parasite isolated from cattle in hungary and to compare this strain with other cryptosporidium species. to date, the large-type oocysts isolated from cattle were considered as c. muris described from several mammals. the size, form, and structure of the oocysts of the hungarian strain were identical with those described by others from cattle. an apparent difference between the morphometric data of c. muris-like paras ...200011191899
species-specific, nested pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism detection of single cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.concurrent with recent advances seen with cryptosporidium parvum detection in both treated and untreated water is the need to properly evaluate these advances. a micromanipulation method by which known numbers of c. parvum oocysts, even a single oocyst, can be delivered to a test matrix for detection sensitivity is presented. using newly developed nested pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism primers, pcr sensitivity was evaluated with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, or 10 oocysts. pcr detection rates ( ...200111375178
new species of cryptosporidium tyzzer, 1907 (apicomplexa) from amphibian host: morphology, biology and phylogeny.cryptosporidium fragile sp. n. (apicomplexa) is described from black-spined toads, duttaphrynus melanostictus (schneider) (amphibia, anura, bufonidae) from the malay peninsula. the parasitized animals were directly imported from malaysia and harboured c. fragile at the time of arrival. oocysts were subspherical to elliptical with irregular contour in optical section, measuring 6.2 (5.5-7.0) x 5.5 (5.0-6.5) microm. oocyst wall was smooth and colourless in light microscopy. the endogenous developm ...200818666410
cloaca prolapse and cystitis in green iguana (iguana iguana) caused by a novel cryptosporidium species.cryptosporidium infection was associated with colitis and cystitis in 2 green iguanas (iguana iguana). the disease was characterized by a chronic clinical course of cloacal prolapses and cystitis. histological examination of the gut and urinary bladder showed numerous cryptosporidium developmental stages on the surface of the epithelium with mixed inflammatory response in the lamina propria. cryptosporidium oocysts were visualised in a cytological preparation of the faeces. based on the small su ...201021036480
Detection of Cryptosporidium species in feces or gastric contents from snakes and lizards as determined by polymerase chain reaction analysis and partial sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene.Cryptosporidiosis is a well-known gastrointestinal disease of snakes and lizards. In the current study, 672 samples (feces and/or gastric contents or regurgitated food items) of various snakes and lizards were examined for the presence of cryptosporidia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting a part of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. A consecutive sequencing reaction was used to identify the cryptosporidian species present in PCR-positive samples. Cryptosporidium varanii (saurophilum) was ...201121908271
real-time pcr assay targeting the actin gene for the detection of cryptosporidium parvum in calf fecal samples.cryptosporidium parvum infection is very important with respect to public health, owing to foodborne and waterborne outbreaks and gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons. in cattle, infection with this species manifests either as a subclinical disease or with diarrheal illness, which occurs more often in the presence of other infectious agents than when alone. the aim of this study was to develop a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay for the detectio ...201122042503
Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in calf fecal samples by direct immunofluorescence assay.The aim of this study was to produce a conjugate containing anti-Cryptosporidium parvum polyclonal antibodies and standardize a Direct Immunofluorescence Assay (DIF) for detecting C. parvum oocysts in fecal samples from calves. In order to obtain anti-C. parvum polyclonal antibodies, two New Zealand rabbits were immunized with a purified solution of C. parvum oocysts and Freund's adjuvant. Purification of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) fraction was performed by means of precipitation in ammonium sul ...201122166379
influence of prolonged formalin fixation of tissue samples on the sensitivity of chromogenic in situ hybridization.chromogenic in situ hybridization (ish) is a commonly used tool in diagnostic pathology to detect pathogens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (ffpe) tissue sections. prolonged formalin fixation time was identified to be a limiting factor for the successful detection of nucleic acid from different pathogens, most probably due to the cross-linking activity of formalin between rna, dna, and proteins. therefore, in the current study, the influence of formalin fixation time on ish signal intensity ...201122362804
occurrence and molecular diagnosis of cryptosporidium serpentis in captive snakes in são paulo, brazil.the present study aimed to determine whether cryptosporidium oocysts were present in stools from captive snakes at fundação parque zoológico (zoological park foundation) in são paulo, brazil. two collections were performed; the first in july 2008 and the second in february 2009. fecal samples were collected from 74 enclosures that housed 101 individuals of 23 snake species. the stool specimens collected from 16 out of the 74 enclosures (21.6%) contained cryptosporidium spp. oocysts; all of them ...201122946415
molecular identification of cryptosporidium species from pet snakes in thailand.cryptosporidium is an important pathogen causing gastrointestinal disease in snakes and is distributed worldwide. the main objectives of this study were to detect and identify cryptosporidium species in captive snakes from exotic pet shops and snake farms in thailand. in total, 165 fecal samples were examined from 8 snake species, boa constrictor (boa constrictor constrictor), corn snake (elaphe guttata), ball python (python regius), milk snake (lampropeltis triangulum), king snake (lampropeltis ...201627658593
first molecular characterization of enteric protozoa and the human pathogenic microsporidian, enterocytozoon bieneusi, in captive snakes in china.enteric protozoa are frequently found in snakes. nevertheless, few studies regarding genetic characterization of these parasites have been carried out. we describe here the first molecular survey of protozoan pathogens from snakes in china and the first report on enterocytozoon bieneusi genotyping in snakes in the world. here, 240 fecal specimens were collected from two species of captive snakes, naja naja (indian cobra) and ptyas mucosus (oriental rat snake), in guangxi province, china, and exa ...201424906991
clinical, serological, and parasitological analysis of snakes naturally infected with cryptosporidium serpentis.infection by cryptosporidium serpentis is one of the most important diseases in reptiles and is characterized by chronic clinical or subclinical infection and the presence of hypertrophic gastritis, food regurgitation, progressive weight loss, mortality, and intermittent or continuous shedding of oocysts in the feces. the objectives of this study were to standardize an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to detect antibodies against c. serpentis and to evaluate the clinical, paras ...201324041484
cryptosporidium in pet snakes from italy: molecular characterization and zoonotic implications.to provide information on the occurrence of cryptosporidium species and genotypes in captive snakes from italy, faecal specimens from 120 snakes belonging to 13 different genera of the families boidae, colubridae and pythonidae were collected. faecal samples were taken from the ground of the terrarium when available; otherwise cloacal cotton swabs were used. no clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis were observed in any animal at the time of sampling. samples were examined for the presence of crypt ...201323706770
prevalence and molecular identification of cryptosporidium isolates from pet lizards and snakes in italy.in order to acquire prevalence and genetic data on cryptosporidium infections in captive lizards and snakes kept as pets, a survey was conducted on 150 individual reptiles from southern italy. fecal samples were preserved in 5% formalin and analyzed using a commercial immunofluorescence assay (ifa) for the detection of cryptosporidium oocysts and giardia cysts. ifa revealed the presence of cryptosporidium oocysts in nine of the 150 samples examined (6.0%), precisely in 6/125 snakes (4.8%) and in ...201223193530
identification and characterization of a chinese isolate of cryptosporidium serpentis from dairy cattle.cryptosporidium serpentis, a protozoan observed first in snakes, has also been found in lizards and other reptiles. however, there are few reports of the characteristics of c. serpentis isolated from humans and other animals. the present study was undertaken to characterize a c. serpentis isolate from a calf in terms of morphology, host specificity, and small-subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna) and heat shock protein 70 (hsp 70) gene sequences. oocysts of the isolate measured 6.32 × 5.18 μm, and th ...201222782475
molecular identification of cryptosporidium isolates from exotic pet animals in japan.the cryptosporidium horse genotype, a zoonotic protozoan parasite first found in a prezewalski wild horse, has not been found in any other mammal but calves, horses, and humans. hedgehogs, popular exotic pet animals in japan, are a reservoir of two zoonotic cryptosporidum: c. parvum and c. erinacei (previously known as the hedgehog genotype). recently, after finding cryptosporidium infection in a four-toed hedgehog (atelerix albiventris), we identified the isolate genetically as the cryptosporid ...201525801359
molecular and morphological characterization of a haemogregarine in the alligator snapping turtle, macrochelys temminckii (testudines: chelydridae).a severely underweight alligator snapping turtle macrochelys temminckii troost in harlan, 1835, was found near tyler, texas, and taken to the caldwell zoo. blood films were submitted to texas a&m university, college station, texas, for morphological and molecular identification of haemogregarine-like inclusions in the red blood cells. intraerythrocytic haemogregarina sp. forms were found on microscopic examination at a parasitemia of <1 %. the morphology and morphometric data for the forms indic ...201727807618
genetic diversity of cryptosporidium spp. in captive reptiles.the genetic diversity of cryptosporidium in reptiles was analyzed by pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis of the small subunit rrna gene. a total of 123 samples were analyzed, of which 48 snake samples, 24 lizard samples, and 3 tortoise samples were positive for cryptosporidium: nine different types of cryptosporidium were found, including cryptosporidium serpentis, cryptosporidium desert monitor genotype, cryptosporidium muris, cryptosporidium parvum bovine and mou ...200414766569
cryptosporidium serpentis oocysts and microsporidian spores in feces of captive snakes.fecal smears of 90 snakes, 29 lizards, and 8 turtles and tortoises were tested for cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and microsporidian spores. microsporidian spores measured mean = 3.7 microm in length and mean = 2.3 microm in width and were present in feces of 19 snakes and 1 lizard (16%); 13 of these snakes also shed cryptosporidium serpentis oocysts. the oocysts were numerous in all positive samples, whereas microsporidian spores were always sparse, irrespective if whether fecal samples contained ...200010780564
therapeutic efficacy of halofuginone and spiramycin treatment against cryptosporidium serpentis (apicomplexa: cryptosporidiidae) infections in captive snakes.the therapeutic effect of halofuginone hydrobromide (steronol) and spiramycin solubilized (spirasol) applied to clinical cryptosporidium serpentis infections in captive snakes was investigated. pathological changes induced by c. serpentis were typical for snake cryptosporidiosis. spiramycin induced no significant change in the pattern of shedding of fecal cryptosporidium oocysts; biopsies and necropsies revealed cryptosporidiosis in gastric mucosa of all spiramycin-treated animals. in all, 8 of ...19968825209
the detection of cryptosporidium serpentis in snake fecal samples by real-time pcr.infection by cryptosporidium serpentis occurs in reptiles, particularly in snakes. this disease is characterized by chronic infection with the presence of hypertrophic gastritis. the objectives of this study were to use real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) targeting the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene for the detection of c. serpentis in fecal samples from snakes and to determine the analytical and epidemiological specificity and sensitivity of this approach relative to the gold standard ...201424880646
assessment of the conventional detection of fecal cryptosporidium serpentis oocysts in subclinically infected captive snakes.fecal specimens of seven captive snakes naturally subclinically infected with cryptosporidium serpentis were monitored for 131 days for the presence and concentration of oocysts. thirty-three of 81 (41%) of the monoclonal antibody positive stools were read as negative (sensitivity 59%) by the acid-fast-stained (afs) fecal smears. oocyst concentrations in the false-negative stools ranged between 6.0 x 10(3)/g to 2.5 x 10(4)/g. the experimentally determined concentration-threshold of oocyst detect ...19968721298
multiple heterogenous isolates of cryptosporidium serpentis from captive snakes are not transmissible to neonatal balb/c mice (mus musculus).oral inoculations of 9 litter-groups of 3 5-day-old suckling balb/c mouse pups (mus musculus) with 6.7 x 10(3) to 1.2 x 10(5) per pup of viable, cryptosporidium serpentis oocysts from snakes resulted in no transmission. mice showed normal development; the litter-group weight gain was not altered significantly (p > 0.05) relative to the total number of c. serpentis oocysts inoculated or to the initial group weight (p > 0.05). histological sections of stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and ...19957776138
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