seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild dolphins from the spanish mediterranean coast.although toxoplasma gondii infection has been found occasionally in cetaceans, little is known of the prevalence of antibodies to t. gondii in wild dolphins. antibodies to t. gondii were determined in serum samples from 58 dolphins stranded in the spanish mediterranean coast. modified agglutination test was used to determine t. gondii antibodies, and a titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of t. gondii infection. antibodies to t. gondii were found in 4 of 36 striped dolphins (stenella coeruleo ...200415270114
distributive and phagocytic characteristics of hepatic macrophages in five cetaceans belonging to delphinidae and ziphiidae.details of morphology and distribution of hepatic macrophages in cetaceans were investigated using the immunohistochemistry with an antibody (sra-e5) generated against human macrophage scavenger receptor antigen. liver samples were obtained from five species of cetaceans (baird's beaked whales, short-finned pilot whales, risso's dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, and pantropical spotted dolphins). except for two species of whales, the number of sra-e5-positive kupffer cells was greatest in the periv ...200415240942
immunohistochemical detection of macrophages in the short-finned pilot whale (globicephala macrorhynchus) and risso's dolphin (grampus griseus).macrophages play a central role in the immune system, but few markers are available for their detection in cetaceans. the purpose of the present study, therefore, was to examine the cross-reactivity for two cetacean species (short-finned pilot whale and risso's dolphin) of four anti-human antibodies (sra-e5, am-3k, ebm11 and anti-human lysozyme). the distribution of sra-e5- and am-3k-positive cells was similar, both antibodies labelling (1) many resident macrophages in the spleen, lymph nodes, l ...200414693122
sequence analysis of dolphin ferritin h and l subunits and possible iron-dependent translational control of dolphin ferritin gene.iron-storage protein, ferritin plays a central role in iron metabolism. ferritin has dual function to store iron and segregate iron for protection of iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species. tissue ferritin is composed of two kinds of subunits (h: heavy chain or heart-type subunit; l: light chain or liver-type subunit). ferritin gene expression is controlled at translational level in iron-dependent manner or at transcriptional level in iron-independent manner. however, sequencing analysis of mari ...200818954429
comparative histological study of the mammalian facial nucleus.we performed comparative nissl, klüver-barrera and golgi staining studies of the mammalian facial nucleus to classify the morphologically distinct subdivisions and the neuronal types in the rat, rabbit, ferret, japanese monkey (macaca fuscata), pig, horse, risso's dolphin (grampus griseus), and bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus). the medial subnucleus was observed in all examined species; however, that of the risso's and bottlenose dolphins was a poorly-developed structure comprised of scat ...200818460831
static inflation and deflation pressure-volume curves from excised lungs of marine mammals.excised lungs from eight marine mammal species [harp seal (pagophilus groenlandicus), harbor seal (phoca vitulina), gray seal (halichoerus grypush), atlantic white-sided dolphin (lagenorhynchus acutus), common dolphin (delphinus delphis), risso's dolphin (grampus griseus), long-finned pilot whale (globicephala melas) and harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena)] were used to determine the minimum air volume of the relaxed lung (mav, n=15), the elastic properties (pressure-volume curves, n=24) of the ...201122031747
bartonella species detection in captive, stranded and free-ranging cetaceans.we present prevalence of bartonella spp. for multiple cohorts of wild and captive cetaceans. one hundred and six cetaceans including 86 bottlenose dolphins (71 free-ranging, 14 captive in a facility with a dolphin experiencing debility of unknown origin, 1 stranded), 11 striped dolphins, 4 harbor porpoises, 3 risso's dolphins, 1 dwarf sperm whale and 1 pygmy sperm whale (all stranded) were sampled. whole blood (n = 95 live animals) and tissues (n = 15 freshly dead animals) were screened by pcr ( ...200818721502
historical and current records of aquarium cetaceans in china.the number of cetaceans housed in aquariums in china is increasing. detailed information on the historical and current population status has not been reported, despite its importance for successful breeding and population management. questionnaires were conducted between december 2006 and may 2009, and the information was used to construct studbooks. our survey showed that 10 species had been introduced to aquariums since 1978, including 26 (with 15 in the current population) finless porpoises ( ...201121674602
aeromonas dhakensis pneumonia and sepsis in a neonate risso's dolphin grampus griseus from the mediterranean sea.a neonate risso's dolphin grampus griseus was found stranded alive on a beach in catalonia, spain. rehabilitation attempts were unsuccessful and it died 2 d later, showing pneumonia and sepsis. a pure bacterial culture was obtained from all tissues and blood and identified as aeromonas hydrophila using the api 20ne. however, sequencing the rpod gene showed that the strain in fact belongs to a. dhakensis, making this the first report of fatal haemorrhagic-necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis due to t ...201526378409
pulmonary fungal infection caused by neoscytalidium dimidiatum in a risso's dolphin (grampus griseus)--update. 201121410320
identification of novel alpha- and gammaherpesviruses from cutaneous and mucosal lesions of dolphins and dna extracted from mucosal and skin lesions of captive and stranded cetaceans was analyzed for herpesvirus dna by nested and direct polymerase chain reactions (pcr). the targeted sequences corresponded to a region of the dna polymerase gene containing multiple conserved amino acid motifs. herpesvirus genomic dna fragments (222-244 bp) were amplified from 11 lesions by nested pcr and from eight lesions ( approximately 730 bp) using direct pcr from us cetaceans. fragments of various sizes we ...200616784784
pulmonary fungal infection caused by neoscytalidium dimidiatum in a risso's dolphin (grampus griseus).neoscytalidium dimidiatum was isolated from two 12-18 cm abscesses in the lung and the mediastinal lymph nodes of a stranded risso's dolphin (grampus griseus). histopathologic examination of samples of these organs revealed the presence of hyphae and sclerotic body-like fungal elements. photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae was recovered from the dolphin's organs which also were found to contain numerous monorygma grimaldii cysts. no histopathological signs of morbillivirus infection were seen ...201021174494
characteristic metabolism of free amino acids in cetacean plasma: cluster analysis and comparison with mice.from an evolutionary perspective, the ancestors of cetaceans first lived in terrestrial environments prior to adapting to aquatic environments. whereas anatomical and morphological adaptations to aquatic environments have been well studied, few studies have focused on physiological changes. we focused on plasma amino acid concentrations (aminograms) since they show distinct patterns under various physiological conditions. plasma and urine aminograms were obtained from bottlenose dolphins, pacifi ...201021072195
tetraphyllidean plerocercoids from western mediterranean cetaceans and other marine mammals around the world: a comprehensive morphological analysis.tetraphyllidean plerocercoids have occasionally been reported in marine mammals, but they have rarely been described in detail, and the ecological significance of these infections is unclear. we described plerocercoids collected from the mucosa of the terminal colon and rectum, the anal crypts, and the hepatopancreatic ducts of 7 striped dolphins stenella coeruleoalba, 1 cuvier's beaked whale ziphius cavirostris, and 3 risso's dolphins grampus griseus from the spanish mediterranean. we also exam ...200515856877
host specificity of oschmarinella rochebruni and brachycladium atlanticum (digenea: brachycladiidae) in five cetacean species from western mediterranean waters.we investigated patterns of specificity of liver flukes (fam. brachycladiidae) in a community of cetaceans from the western mediterranean. the liver and pancreas of 103 striped dolphins, stenella coeruleoalba, 18 risso's dolphins, grampus griseus, 14 bottlenose dolphins, tursiops truncatus, 8 common dolphins, delphinus delphis, and 5 long-finned pilot whales, globicephala melas, were analysed for brachycladiid species. two species were found: oschmarinella rochebruni in striped dolphins (prevale ...201120359374
gastrointestinal helminths of risso's dolphin grampus griseus from the western mediterranean.the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of 17 risso's dolphins grampus griseus (cuvier, 1812) from the western mediterranean was analysed. five helminth species were found. adults and juveniles of hadwenius delamurei were collected from the duodenum of 7 animals. adults were located significantly more anteriorly than juveniles, which is compatible with a previous hypothesis that species of hadwenius undergo an ontogenetic migration towards the anterior duodenum. eggs from pholeter gastrophilus appea ...200312887258
classification of risso's and pacific white-sided dolphins using spectral properties of echolocation clicks.the spectral and temporal properties of echolocation clicks and the use of clicks for species classification are investigated for five species of free-ranging dolphins found offshore of southern california: short-beaked common (delphinus delphis), long-beaked common (d. capensis), risso's (grampus griseus), pacific white-sided (lagenorhynchus obliquidens), and bottlenose (tursiops truncatus) dolphins. spectral properties are compared among the five species and unique spectral peak and notch patt ...200818647003
identification of highly brominated analogues of q1 in marine mammals.three novel halogenated organic compounds (hocs) have been identified in the blubber of marine mammals from coastal new england with the molecular formulae c(9)h(3)n(2)br(6)cl, c(9)h(3)n(2)br(7), and c(9)h(4)n(2)br(5)cl. they were identified using high and low resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry (gcms) and appear to be highly brominated analogues of q1, a heptachlorinated hoc suspected to be naturally produced. these compounds were found in atlantic white sided dolphin (lagenorhynchu ...200616517037
an insight into the epidemiology of dolphin morbillivirus worldwide.serum samples from 288 cetaceans representing 25 species and originating from 11 different countries were collected between 1995 and 1999 and examined for the presence of dolphin morbillivirus (dmv)-specific antibodies by an indirect elisa (ielisa) (n = 267) or a plaque reduction assay (n = 21). a total of 35 odontocetes were seropositive: three harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) and a common dolphin (delphinus delphis) from the northeastern (ne) atlantic, a bottlenose dolphin (tursiops trunc ...200111390111
total mercury, methyl mercury, and selenium levels in the red meat of small cetaceans sold for human consumption in japan.we surveyed the total mercury (t-hg) and methyl mercury (m-hg) levels in red meat products (n = 160) from small cetacean species sold for human consumption in markets throughout japan from 2000 to 2003. genetic identification showed that the red meat products originated from nine species: false killer whale, bottlenose dolphin, short-finned pilot whale, striped dolphin, rough-toothed dolphin, risso's dolphin, pantropical spotted dolphin, baird's beaked whale, and dall's porpoise. t-hg and m-hg c ...200516124305
acute and chronic gas bubble lesions in cetaceans stranded in the united kingdom.the first evidence suggestive of in vivo gas bubble formation in cetacea, including eight animals stranded in the uk, has recently been reported. this article presents the pathologic findings from these eight uk-stranded cetaceans and two additional uk-stranded cetacean cases in detail. hepatic gas-filled cavitary lesions (0.2-6.0 cm diameter) involving approximately 5-90% of the liver volume were found in four (two juvenile, two adult) risso's dolphins (grampus griseus), three (two adult, one j ...200515872375
fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay for anti-erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae antibody detection in cetaceans.a fluorescent microbead-based immunoassay (fmia) for detection of anti-erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae antibodies in pigs was adapted for use in cetaceans. the fmia was validated and adjusted using serum samples from 10 vaccinated captive bottlenose dolphins tursiops truncatus collected between 1 and 13 mo after immunization. the technique was then used to analyze specimens from 15 free-ranging cetaceans stranded alive on the valencian mediterranean coast between 2006 and 2014: 11 striped dolphins ...201626758657
three anisakis spp. isolated from toothed whales stranded along the eastern adriatic sea coast.knowledge concerning cetacean ecology in the mediterranean is limited but important for sustainable planning and enforcement of appropriate conservation measures. any information that might help to elucidate their ecology is essential. we explored the population and genetic structures of anisakis spp. nematodes isolated from four toothed whale species - bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba), risso's dolphins (grampus griseus) and cuvier's beaked whale ...201525449948
macroparasites in cetaceans stranded on the northwestern spanish atlantic extensive parasitological survey was carried out during autopsy of 80 cetaceans representing 8 species within 4 families (delphinus delphis, stenella coeruleoalba, tursiops truncatus, grampus griseus, globicephala melas, kogia breviceps, phocoena phocoena and megaptera novaeangliae) collected on the northwestern spanish atlantic coast from february 1991 to october 1996. two species of tetraphyllidean cestodes (phyllobothrium delphini and monorygma grimaldii), 2 ascaridoid nematodes (anisakis ...19989676247
disseminated toxoplasmosis in a mediterranean pregnant risso's dolphin (grampus griseus) with transplacental fetal infection.fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a risso's dolphin (grampus griseus) dam and its fetus on the basis of pathologic findings, immunohistochemistry, and structure of the parasite. the dolphin was stranded alive on the spanish mediterranean coast and died a few hours later. at necropsy the dam was in good condition. from the standpoint of pathology, however, it had generalized lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly, enlargement of and multifocal hemorrhage in the adrenal glands, diffuse ...200212435153
histopathological and immunohistochemical studies on cetaceans found stranded on the coast of italy between 1990 and 1997.detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical studies were carried out on 24 cetaceans, 17 of which were striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba), four bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) and three risso's dolphins (grampus griseus), all found stranded on the italian coast between 1990 and 1997. the most frequently detected lesions were chronic pneumonia (73.7% of the examined lungs), focal chronic pancreatitis (71.4%), non-purulent encephalitis (50%), chronic hepatitis (42.1%), and ch ...200010842462
post mortem investigations on cetaceans found stranded on the coasts of italy between 1990 and 1993.detailed pathological and virological examinations were carried out on 25 cetaceans found stranded between 1990 and 1993 on the coasts of six italian regions (latium, tuscany, apulia, abruzzo, veneto and sicily). there were 16 striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba), three bottlenosed dolphins (tursiops truncatus), three risso's dolphins (grampus griseus), one rough-toothed dolphin (steno bredanensis), one fin whale pup (balaenoptera physalus), and one minke whale (balaenoptera acutorostrata). ...19957631479
haematological findings in captive dolphins and examine haematological features in five species of healthy, captive marine mammals.19979258426
insights using a molecular approach into the life cycle of a tapeworm infecting great white sharks.the great white shark carcharodon carcharias linnaeus, 1758 is a versatile and fierce predator (and responsible for many shark attacks on humans). this apex predator feeds on a wide range of organisms including teleosts, other elasmobranchs, cephalopods, pinnipeds, and cetaceans. although much is known about its diet, no trophic links have been empirically identified as being involved in the transmission of its tapeworm parasites. recently, the use of molecular tools combined with phylogenetics ...201121506792
comparative anatomy of the foramen ovale in the hearts of cetaceans.the structure of the cardiac foramen ovale from 17 species representing six cetacean families, the monodontidae, phocoenidae, delphinidae, ziphiidae, balaenidae and the balaenopteridae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. eight white whale fetuses (delphinapterus leucas) and a narwhal fetus (monodon monoceros) represented the monodontidae; one fetal and nine neonatal harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) and a finless porpoise fetus (neophocoena phocoenoides) represented the phoc ...200717532800
the use of non destructive biomarkers in the study of marine mammals.marine mammals have been subject to heavy anthropogenic pressure by direct killing and chemical pollution all over the world. most studies of contamination and biomarker responses in marine mammals have been conducted using animals killed by hunting out of a total of 12 cetacean species studied, 45 of the specimens were obtained by sacrificing the animal; out of a total of eight pinniped species studied, 40 of the specimens were obtained by killing. the development of a series of non destructive ...199723899212
chemical forms of mercury and cadmium accumulated in marine mammals and seabirds as determined by xafs analysis.marine mammals and seabirds tend to exhibit high accumulations of mercury, cadmium, and selenium in their livers and kidneys. in this study, chemical forms of mercury, cadmium, and selenium accumulated in the livers and kidneys of northern fur seal (callorhinus ursinus), risso's dolphin (grampus griseus), and black-footed albatross (diomedea nigripes) were studied by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (exafs) spectroscopy to reveal the detoxification mechanisms of these metals. it was foun ...200415669301
the upper respiratory tract of dolphins.the functional anatomy of the respiratory system of dolphins has been scarcely studied. specifically, the capacity of the system to resist pressure changes during diving has not been fully understood. here we shortly describe the upper respiratory tract of dolphins based on three common species, the bottlenose dolphin tursiops truncatus, the risso's dolphin grampus griseus, and the striped dolphin stenella coeruleoalba. we emphasize the keymorphological features that represent evolutionary adapt ...201122852446
diversity and distribution patterns of cetaceans in the subtropical southwestern atlantic outer continental shelf and slope.temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern brazil (~23°s to ~34°s). the survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. the overall number of species was similar between ...201627243455
marine mammals in the mediterranean sea: an overview.despite being a small part of the world's oceans, the mediterranean sea hosts a diverse marine mammal fauna, with a total of 28 different species known to occur, or to have occurred, in the region. species currently recognised as regular in the mediterranean-the mediterranean monk seal (monachus monachus) and 11 cetaceans (fin whale, balaenoptera physalus; sperm whale, physeter macrocephalus; cuvier's beaked whale, ziphius cavirostris; short-beaked common dolphin, delphinus delphis; long-finned ...201727770981
distribution of mercury in the organs and tissues of five toothed-whale species of the mediterranean.mercury levels were determined in the tissues and organs (lung, liver, kidney, skin, muscle, bone) of five toothed-whales stranded along the corsican coast between november 1993 and february 1996. the species taken into consideration were the bottlenose dolphin tursiops truncatus, the common dolphin delphinus delphis, the striped dolphin stenella coeruleoalba, the pilot whale globicephala melas and the risso's dolphin grampus griseus. the variation in mercury levels between the different tissues ...200015092940
methyl sulphone metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) in cetaceans from the irish and the aegean seas.the levels of pcbs and pcb methyl sulphone metabolites were determined in the blubber of six species of cetaceans that originated from the irish sea and the aegean sea (mediterranean). burdens ranging from 2.80 to 27.80 microg g-1 (lipid weight) total pcbs and 0.03 to 0.58 microg g-1 (lipid weight) total methyl sulphones were recorded. the highest cetacean methyl sulphone burden (0.58 microg g-1) was in an irish sea harbor porpoise (phocoena phocoena). methyl sulphone isomer formation capacity, ...19989601929
automatic classification of delphinids based on the representative frequencies of whistles.classification of odontocete species remains a challenging task for passive acoustic monitoring. classifiers that have been developed use spectral features extracted from echolocation clicks and whistle contours. most of these contour-based classifiers require complete contours to reduce measurement errors. therefore, overlapping contours and partially detected contours in an automatic detection algorithm may increase the bias for contour-based classifiers. in this study, classification was cond ...201526328716
the use of dna barcoding to monitor the marine mammal biodiversity along the french atlantic the last ten years, 14 species of cetaceans and five species of pinnipeds stranded along the atlantic coast of brittany in the north west of france. all species included, an average of 150 animals strand each year in this area. based on reports from the stranding network operating along this coast, the most common stranding events comprise six cetacean species (delphinus delphis, tursiops truncatus, stenella coeruleoalba, globicephala melas, grampus griseus, phocoena phocoena)and one pinniped ...201324453548
postmortem evidence of interactions of bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) with other dolphin species in south-west england.reports of violent interactions between bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) and harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) in the coastal waters of the uk are well documented. examination of stranded cetaceans by the cornwall wildlife trust marine strandings network and the uk cetacean strandings investigation programme has indicated that seven animals, of four other species, found stranded in south-west england, had pathology consistent with bottlenose dolphin interaction, including two juvenil ...200919820259
dolphins in a scaled-down mediterranean: the gulf of corinth's odontocetes.the gulf of corinth is a 2400-km(2) semi-enclosed inland system (a mediterraneus) in central greece. its continental shelf areas, steep bottom relief, and waters up to 500-900m deep offer suitable habitat to neritic and pelagic species. we used photographic capture-recapture, distribution modelling, and direct observations to investigate the abundance, status, habitat preferences, movements, and group size of four odontocete species regularly observed in the gulf, based on five years (2011-2015) ...201727770988
acoustic detection of biosonar activity of deep diving odontocetes at josephine seamount high seas marine protected area.the temporal occurrence of deep diving cetaceans in the josephine seamount high seas marine protected area (jshsmpa), south-west portugal, was monitored using a passive acoustic recorder. the recorder was deployed on 13 may 2010 at a depth of 814 m during the north atlantic treaty organization centre for maritime research and experimentation cruise "sirena10" and recovered on 6 june 2010. the recorder was programmed to record 40 s of data every 2 min. acoustic data analysis, for the detection an ...201525994682
cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in five toothed whale species of the mediterranean sea.the cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc levels were measured in six organs (lung, liver, kidney, skin, muscle, and bone) from 18 specimens of toothed whales, belonging to five species, found stranded along the corsican coast between november 1993 and december 1998. the five species examined were the bottlenose dolphin tursiops truncatus, the common dolphin delphinus delphis, the striped dolphin stenella coeruleoalba, the pilot whale globicephala melas, and the risso's dolphin grampus griseus. the va ...201711797815
total number and volume of von economo neurons in the cerebral cortex of cetaceans.von economo neurons (vens) are a type of large, layer v spindle-shaped neurons that were previously described in humans, great apes, elephants, and some large-brained cetaceans. here we report the presence of von economo neurons in the anterior cingulate (acc), anterior insular (ai), and frontopolar (fp) cortices of small odontocetes, including the bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus), the risso's dolphin (grampus griseus), and the beluga whale (delphinapterus leucas). the total number and vo ...200919412956
discrimination of fast click-series produced by tagged risso's dolphins (grampus griseus) for echolocation or communication.early studies that categorized odontocete pulsed sounds had few means of discriminating signals used for biosonar-based foraging from those used for communication. this capability to identify the function of sounds is important for understanding and interpreting behavior; it is also essential for monitoring and mitigating potential disturbance from human activities. archival tags were placed on free-ranging grampus griseus to quantify and discriminate between pulsed sounds used for echolocation- ...201627401759
multicentric benign epithelial inclusions in a free-ranging risso's dolphin (grampus griseus).this report describes the histological and immunohistochemical features of multicentric, benign, epithelial inclusions (beis) in a free-ranging, adult, female risso's dolphin (grampus griseus). the differential diagnoses included ectopic hamartomatous epithelial inclusions, non-müllerian choristoma, müllerian choristoma and low-grade metastatic carcinoma/mesothelioma. the most likely diagnosis of such beis was multicentric, embolic, reactive mesothelium, as suggested by cytomorphological and imm ...201727392421
copper levels in tissues of dolphins tursiops truncatus, stenella coeruleoalba and grampus griseus from the croatian adriatic coast.copper concentrations were determined in muscle, liver, kidney, spleen and lung tissues of three dolphin species. dolphins of tursiops truncatus (young and adult), stenella coeruleoalba and grampus griseus were stranded along the croatian coast. concentrations in tissues of all three dolphin species were highest in the liver (4.92-16.5 μg/g) followed by kidney (2.85-5.29 μg/g). similar levels were measured in muscle, spleen and lung in range 1.13-3.67 μg/g. statistics analysis showed significant ...201627246724
delphinid echolocation click detection probability on near-seafloor sensors.the probability of detecting echolocating delphinids on a near-seafloor sensor was estimated using two monte carlo simulation methods. one method estimated the probability of detecting a single click (cue counting); the other estimated the probability of detecting a group of delphinids (group counting). echolocation click beam pattern and source level assumptions strongly influenced detectability predictions by the cue counting model. group detectability was also influenced by assumptions about ...201627914405
risso's dolphin, grampus griseus, in the western ligurian sea: trends in population size and habitat use.this paper provides a summary of 25 years of research on risso's dolphins (grampus griseus) in the western ligurian sea. seasonal variations in abundance, distribution and habitat use were observed. photographic mark-recapture methods provided a population size estimate for the period from 1998 to 2012, of about 100 individuals (95% ci of 60-220 individuals). the same methods detected a decline in population size from an average of about 120-150 from 2000 to 2005, to an average of 70-100 during ...201727770985
hearing abilities and sound reception of broadband sounds in an adult risso's dolphin (grampus griseus).while odontocetes do not have an external pinna that guides sound to the middle ear, they are considered to receive sound through specialized regions of the head and lower jaw. yet odontocetes differ in the shape of the lower jaw suggesting that hearing pathways may vary between species, potentially influencing hearing directionality and noise impacts. this work measured the audiogram and received sensitivity of a risso's dolphin (grampus griseus) in an effort to comparatively examine how this s ...201525925434
spatial and temporal patterns of risso's dolphin echolocation in the southern california bight.geographical and temporal trends in echolocation clicking activity can lead to insights into the foraging and migratory behaviors of pelagic dolphins. using autonomous acoustic recording packages, the geographical, diel, and seasonal patterns of risso's dolphin (grampus griseus) echolocation click activity are described for six locations in the southern california bight between 2005 and 2007. risso's dolphin echolocation click bouts are identified based on their unique spectral characteristics. ...201020058956
geographic variation in risso's dolphin echolocation click spectra.discrimination of bioacoustic signals to the species or population level is critical for using passive acoustic monitoring to study cetacean ecology. risso's dolphins off southern california have distinctive peaks and notches in their echolocation clicks, but it was unknown whether risso's dolphins from other geographic areas have similarly distinctive click spectra and whether populations are acoustically distinct. this study investigates using clicks for species and population identification b ...201728863585
the influence of topographic and dynamic cyclic variables on the distribution of small cetaceans in a shallow coastal system.the influence of topographic and temporal variables on cetacean distribution at a fine-scale is still poorly understood. to study the spatial and temporal distribution of harbour porpoise phocoena phocoena and the poorly known risso's dolphin grampus griseus we carried out land-based observations from bardsey island (wales, uk) in summer (2001-2007). using kernel analysis and generalized additive models it was shown that porpoises and risso's appeared to be linked to topographic and dynamic cycl ...201424466031
characterization of alpha-fetoprotein levels in three dolphin species: development of sensitive immunoassays for analysis of the pregnancy-associated variations.a single radial immunodiffusion (srid) assay and a chemiluminescent immunoassay (clia) were initially developed for alpha-fetoprotein (afp) of the striped dolphin. utilizing these developed assays, we investigated pregnancy-associated changes in the levels of afp in the sera of fetuses and pregnant females of three dolphin species; samples were either collected from captive individuals or obtained as fishery by-products. the concentrations of afp in the fetal serum ranged from 419.0 to 2026.3 μg ...201323656975
nighttime foraging by deep diving echolocating odontocetes off the hawaiian islands of kauai and ni'ihau as determined by passive acoustic monitors.remote autonomous ecological acoustic recorders (ears) were deployed in deep waters at five locations around the island of kauai and one in waters off ni'ihau in the main hawaiian island chain. the ears were moored to the bottom at depths between 400 and 800 m. the data acquisition sampling rate was 80 khz and acoustic signals were recorded for 30 s every 5 min to conserve battery power and disk space. the acoustic data were analyzed with the m3r (marine mammal monitoring on navy ranges) softwar ...201323654414
prion search and cellular prion protein expression in stranded dolphins.the recent description of a prion disease (pd) case in a free-ranging bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus) prompted us to carry out an extensive search for the disease-associated isoform (prpsc) of the cellular prion protein (prpc) in the brain and in a range of lymphoid tissues from 23 striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba), 5 bottlenose dolphins and 2 risso s dolphins (grampus griseus) found stranded between 2007 and 2012 along the italian coastline. three striped dolphins and one bottlen ...201223034277
use of computer tomography for imaging of crassicauda grampicola in a risso's dolphin (grampus griseus).a mature male risso's dolphin (grampus griseus) stranded along the coasts of friuli venezia giulia, northeast italy, in may 2001. parasitic infection with crassicauda grampicola is often found in the tympanic bullae and pterygoid sinuses in many of the risso's dolphins examined from the same area. for this reason, it was decided to perform computed tomography of the head to assess this imaging technique for the diagnosis of crassicaudosis in dolphins. a full postmortem examination confirmed the ...200415526896
solubility of nitrogen in marine mammal blubber depends on its lipid composition.understanding the solubility of nitrogen gas in tissues is a crucial aspect of diving physiology, especially for air-breathing tetrapods. adipose tissue is of particular interest because of the high solubility of nitrogen in lipids. surprisingly, nothing is known about nitrogen solubility in the blubber of any marine mammal. we tested the hypothesis that n(2) solubility is dependent on the lipid composition of blubber; most blubber is composed of triacylglycerols, but some toothed whales deposit ...201222811247
distribution of cd and as in organs and tissues of four marine mammal species stranded along the italian coasts.concentrations of cd and as were determined in organs and tissues (muscle, heart, kidney, lung and liver) of four cetacean species (stenella coeruleoalba, truncatus truncatus, grampus griseus and ziphius cavirostris) stranded along the italian coasts during the period 2000-2009. significant differences were found between cd concentrations in the different analysed tissues. particularly, the kidney shows the highest concentrations of cd in all analysed specimens, followed by the liver. no systema ...201222797766
unilateral luteoma of the ovary in a pregnant risso's dolphin (grampus griseus).a white, lobular mass was found in the right ovary of a pregnant risso's dolphin (grampus griseus) at necropsy. the mass was unilateral and occupied most of the pre-existing ovarian tissue. histologically, the mass was composed of diffuse sheets of polyhedral cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and oval nuclei, separated by fibrous connective tissue. only a few ovarian follicles were observed at the periphery of the mass. immunohistochemically, the large eosinophilic cells were positive f ...201728845023
toxic element concentrations in the bottlenose (tursiops truncatus), striped (stenella coeruleoalba) and risso's (grampus griseus) dolphins stranded in eastern adriatic sea.concentrations of cadmium (cd), arsenic (as), mercury (hg) and lead (pb) were measured in muscle, liver and kidney of three cetacean species, the bottlenose (tursiops truncatus), striped (stenella coeruleoalba) and risso's (grampus griseus) dolphins from the croatian waters of the adriatic sea. in all three dolphin species cd levels decreased in tissues in the order: kidney > liver > muscle, while as and pb decreased in the order: liver > kidney > muscle for striped and risso's dolphins, but wit ...201222752195
tissue concentrations of four taiwanese toothed cetaceans indicating the silver and cadmium pollution in the western pacific ocean.muscle, lung, kidney and liver tissues of 45 bycatch and stranded cetaceans, including 14 grampus griseus (gg), 7 kogia simus (ks), 10 lagenodelphis hosei (lh), and 14 stenella attenuata (sa), were collected in the waters off taiwan from 1994 to 1995, and from 2001 to 2012. baseline concentrations (in μgg(-1) dry weight) of the cetaceans were lung (<0.05)=muscle (<0.05)<kidney (0.08±0.04)<liver (0.43±0.28) for ag, and muscle (0.03±0.03)=lung (0.22±0.19)<liver (3.82±3.50)<kidney (16.22±18.81) for ...201728442199
the energy ratio mapping algorithm: a tool to improve the energy-based detection of odontocete echolocation clicks.the energy ratio mapping algorithm (erma) was developed to improve the performance of energy-based detection of odontocete echolocation clicks, especially for application in environments with limited computational power and energy such as acoustic gliders. erma systematically evaluates many frequency bands for energy ratio-based detection of echolocation clicks produced by a target species in the presence of the species mix in a given geographic area. to evaluate the performance of erma, a teage ...201121476637
heavy metals and methylmercury in tissues of risso's dolphin (grampus griseus) and cuvier's beaked whale (ziphius cavirostris) stranded in italy (south adriatic sea). 199910594143
toothed whales in the northwestern mediterranean: insight into their feeding ecology using chemical tracers.risso's dolphins, pilot whales and sperm whales rarely strand in the northwestern mediterranean. thus, their feeding ecology, through the analysis of stomach contents, is poorly known. the aim of this study was to gain further insight into the segregation/superposition of the diet and habitat of risso's dolphins, pilot whales and sperm whales using chemical tracers, namely, stable isotopes (δ(13)c, δ(15)n) and organochlorines. significantly different δ(15)n values were obtained in risso's dolphi ...201121435669
mitogenomic phylogenetic analyses of the delphinidae with an emphasis on the globicephalinae.previous dna-based phylogenetic studies of the delphinidae family suggest it has undergone rapid diversification, as characterised by unresolved and poorly supported taxonomic relationships (polytomies) for some of the species within this group. using an increased amount of sequence data we test between alternative hypotheses of soft polytomies caused by rapid speciation, slow evolutionary rate and/or insufficient sequence data, and hard polytomies caused by simultaneous speciation within this f ...201121392378
compensating for the effects of site and equipment variation on delphinid species identification from their echolocation clicks.a concern for applications of machine learning techniques to bioacoustics is whether or not classifiers learn the categories for which they were trained. unfortunately, information such as characteristics of specific recording equipment or noise environments can also be learned. this question is examined in the context of identifying delphinid species by their echolocation clicks. to reduce the ambiguity between species classification performance and other confounding factors, species whose clic ...201525618035
transmission beam characteristics of a risso's dolphin (grampus griseus).the echolocation system of the risso's dolphin (grampus griseus) remains poorly studied compared to other odontocete species. in this study, echolocation signals were recorded from a stationary risso's dolphin with an array of 16 hydrophones and the two-dimensional beam shape was explored using frequency-dependent amplitude plots. click source parameters were similar to those already described for this species. centroid frequency of click signals increased with increasing sound pressure level, w ...201626827004
characterization of the temporomandibular joint of the harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena) and risso's dolphin (grampus griseus).the temporomandibular joint (tmj) in cetaceans is largely uncharacterized. this study aims to describe the macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical and biomechanical features of the tmj of two species of the suborder odontoceti: the harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena) and risso's dolphin (grampus griseus). furthermore, we aim to elucidate the structure-function relationship of their tmjs and their possible role in echolocation.201525617743
notes on some of the viscera of risso's dolphin (grampus griseus). 189217231973
evidence suggests vocal production learning in a cross-fostered risso's dolphin (grampus griseus).vocal learning is a rare skill in mammals, and we have limited information about the contexts in which they use it. previous studies suggested that cetaceans in general are skilled at imitating sounds, but only few species have been studied to date. to expand this investigation to another species and to investigate the possible influence of the social environment on vocal learning, we studied the whistle repertoire of a female risso's dolphin (grampus griseus) that was stranded at an early age a ...201626874843
[determination of trace elements in marine cetaceans by icp-ms and health risk assessment].the liver, kidney and muscle samples from seven cetaceans were digested by microwave digestion, and trace elements amounts of v, cd, cu, zn, as, cr, ni, mn, se, hg and pb were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (icp-ms), and the health risk assessment for zn, cu, cd, hg, se in the liver was conducted. the results of international lobster hepatopancreas standard (tort-2) showed acceptable agreement with the certified values, and the relative standard deviation (rsd) of ele ...201526669139
hearing loss in stranded odontocete dolphins and whales.the causes of dolphin and whale stranding can often be difficult to determine. because toothed whales rely on echolocation for orientation and feeding, hearing deficits could lead to stranding. we report on the results of auditory evoked potential measurements from eight species of odontocete cetaceans that were found stranded or severely entangled in fishing gear during the period 2004 through 2009. approximately 57% of the bottlenose dolphins and 36% of the rough-toothed dolphins had significa ...201021072206
metazoan parasites from odontocetes off new zealand: new records.information about the parasite fauna of spectacled porpoises and cetaceans from new zealand waters in general is scarce. this study takes advantage of material archived in collections of the otago museum in dunedin and massey university in auckland, sampled from cetacean species found stranded along the new zealand coastline between 2007 and 2014. parasites from seven species of cetaceans (spectacled porpoise, phocoena dioptrica (n = 2 individuals examined); pygmy sperm whale (n = 1); long-finne ...201728799088
mercury speciation and selenium in toothed-whale muscles.mercury accumulates at high levels in marine mammal tissues. however, its speciation is poorly understood. the main goal of this investigation was to establish the relationships among mercury species and selenium (se) concentrations in toothed-whale muscles at different mercury levels. the concentrations of total mercury (t-hg), methylmercury (mehg), inorganic mercury (i-hg) and se were determined in the muscles of four toothed-whale species: bottlenose dolphins (n=31), risso's dolphins (n=30), ...201526436307
presence and seasonal variation of deep diving foraging odontocetes around kauai, hawaii using remote autonomous acoustic recorders.ecological acoustic recorders (ears) were moored off the bottom in relatively deep depths (609-710 m) at five locations around the island of kauai. initially, the ears had an analog-to-digital sample rate of 64 khz with 30-s recordings every 5 min. after the second deployment the sampling rate was increased to 80 khz in order to better record beaked whale biosonar signals. the results of the 80 khz recording are discussed in this manuscript and are the results of three deployments over a year's ...201424437792
a false killer whale adjusts its hearing when it echolocates.the use of auditory evoked potential (aep) measurements has added considerably to knowledge of the hearing mechanisms of marine mammals. we have recently measured the hearing of a stranded infant risso's dolphin, the audiograms of white-beaked dolphins temporarily caught and released, and the hearing of anaesthetized polar bears. most small toothed whales echolocate and hear very high frequency sounds underwater. while much has previously been learned about the echolocation performance and chara ...200818490386
temporal resolution of the risso's dolphin, grampus griseus, auditory system.toothed whales and dolphins (odontocetes) are known to echolocate, producing short, broadband clicks and receiving the corresponding echoes, at extremely rapid rates. auditory evoked potentials (aep) and broadband click stimuli were used to determine the modulation rate transfer function (mrtf) of a neonate risso's dolphin, grampus griseus, thus estimating the dolphin's temporal resolution, and quantifying its physiological delay to sound stimuli. the risso's dolphin followed sound stimuli up to ...200616317559
causes of stranding in four risso's dolphins (grampus griseus) found beached along the north adriatic sea coast. 200516244970
hearing measurements from a stranded infant risso's dolphin, grampus infant risso's dolphin (grampus griseus) was rescued from the beach in southern portugal, and an audiogram was measured using auditory evoked potentials (aep) and envelope following response (efr) techniques for frequencies from 4 to 150 khz. the stimuli used were custom sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (sam) tone-bursts, and the aep responses were collected, averaged and analyzed to quantify the animal's physiological response and, thereby, hearing thresholds. the infant animal showed a wide ...200516244176
congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls in cetaceans from taiwan waters.during 2000 to 2001, a total of 73 blubber samples from 13 species of stranded or accidentally captured cetaceans were collected from taiwan coastal waters for polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) analysis. after homogenization, saponification, liquid-liquid extraction, and silica-gel solid-phase extraction, pcb concentrations were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. total concentrations of 19 pcb congeners (sigmapcbs) were between 0.23 microg/g lipid weight of risso's dolphin to 33.73 ...200415499506
echolocation clicks of two free-ranging, oceanic delphinids with different food preferences: false killer whales pseudorca crassidens and risso's dolphins grampus griseus.toothed whales (odontoceti, cetacea) navigate and locate prey by means of active echolocation. studies on captive animals have accumulated a large body of knowledge concerning the production, reception and processing of sound in odontocete biosonars, but there is little information about the properties and use of biosonar clicks of free-ranging animals in offshore habitats. this study presents the first source parameter estimates of biosonar clicks from two free-ranging oceanic delphinids, the o ...200415107437
echolocation in the risso's dolphin, grampus griseus.the risso's dolphin (grampus griseus) is an exclusively cephalopod-consuming delphinid with a distinctive vertical indentation along its forehead. to investigate whether or not the species echolocates, a female risso's dolphin was trained to discriminate an aluminum cylinder from a nylon sphere (experiment 1) or an aluminum sphere (experiment 2) while wearing eyecups and free swimming in an open-water pen in kaneohe bay, hawaii. the dolphin completed the task with little difficulty despite being ...200312558296
mercury, organic-mercury and selenium in small cetaceans in taiwanese hg (sigmahg), organic-hg (o-hg) and se bioaccumulations in small cetaceans distributed in taiwanese waters of the taiwan strait and the southwestern pacific have been investigated for the first time. the results could represent the baseline metal concentrations of marine mammals in the southwestern pacific, where volcanic activities are possibly the major source of mercury to the environments. muscle samples of four species of small cetaceans were collected from animals accidentally caught ...200212398391
risso's dolphin (grampus griseus) stranding on the coast of israel (eastern mediterranean). autopsy results and trace metal concentrations.the stranding of risso's dolphin (grampus griseus) on the mediterranean coast of israel is reported in this study. high concentrations of trace metals (hg, cd, zn, fe and se) were found in the various tissues analyzed, while cu and mn concentrations were naturally low. the specimen was found alive, but died a day later. the cause of death was attributed to bacterial bronchopneumonia in combination with endotoxemia, resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation. plastic bags found in its st ...200212186284
a morphological study of the thyroid gland in risso's dolphin, grampus accumulate histological information of cetaceans and basic information about metabolic systems of marine mammals, the thyroid gland of risso's dolphins was examined by gross anatomical and light and electron microscopic observations. gross anatomically, right and left lobes of the thyroid were not clearly discriminated, and no isthmus was observed. by light microscopy, irregular or oval follicular lumens were seen, and surrounded by follicular epithelial cells. by electron microscopy, the rou ...200212130836
anatomy of the cranial nerve foramina in the risso's dolphin (grampus griseus).in the present study, we examined the cranial nerve foramina of risso's dolphin (grampus griseus). there were two distinguishable characters in the cranial nerve foramina compared with terrestrial mammals. one was that the foramen infraorbitale was composed of several holes, but not a single hole. they should therefore be termed foramina infraorbitales. the infraorbital nerves ran through these foramina, went into the 'melon' and then branched in a complicated fashion. the facial nerve innervate ...199910363112
the parathyroid glands of two species of dolphin--risso's dolphin, grampus griseus, and bottlenose dolphin, tursiops truncatus.although there have been many reports regarding the structure of the parathyroid glands of various terrestrial mammals, little is known about the parathyroid glands of marine mammals including cetacea. the morphology of the parathyroid glands of three risso's dolphins, grampus griseus (about 3 m in length and 300 kg in weight), and three bottlenose dolphins, tursiops truncatus (about 3 m in length and 300 kg in weight), was examined macroscopically and microscopically. the dolphins examined in t ...19989514847
acoustic effects of the atoc signal (75 hz, 195 db) on dolphins and whales.the acoustic thermometry of ocean climate (atoc) program of scripps institution of oceanography and the applied physics laboratory, university of washington, will broadcast a low-frequency 75-hz phase modulated acoustic signal over ocean basins in order to study ocean temperatures on a global scale and examine the effects of global warming. one of the major concerns is the possible effect of the atoc signal on marine life, especially on dolphins and whales. in order to address this issue, the he ...19979165743
laminar and cytoarchitectonic features of the cerebral cortex in the risso's dolphin (grampus griseus), striped dolphin (stenella coeruleoalba), and bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus).the present investigation carried out nissl, klüver-barrera, and golgi studies of the cerebral cortex in three distinct genera of oceanic dolphins (risso's dolphin, striped dolphin and bottlenose dolphin) to identify and classify cortical laminar and cytoarchitectonic structures in four distinct functional areas, including primary motor (m1), primary sensory (s1), primary visual (v1), and primary auditory (a1) cortices. the laminar and cytoarchitectonic organization of each of these cortical are ...200818625031
histopathology of eighth cranial nerve of mass stranded dolphins at goto islands, japan.we examined four dolphins (grampus griseus) of 582 mass-stranded. almost no contents were found in the alimentary canal. nasitrema gondo and crassicauda grampicola were found in the tympanic cavity. severe degeneration of the eighth cranial nerve was observed microscopically in all animals and an egg of nasitrema was found in a tissue crevice of the nerve. we propose that the nerves were damaged directly by nasitrema.19921474668
abnormalities in the axial skeleton of a risso's dolphin, grampus griseus. 198816031450
morphologic characteristics of pulmonary macrophages in cetaceans: particular reference to pulmonary intravascular macrophages as a newly identified type.we examined the morphologic characteristics of pulmonary macrophages in 42 specimens of odontoceti (globicephala macrorhynchus, grampus griseus, tursiops truncatus, stenella attenuata, stenella coeruleoalba, berardius bairdii), using light and electron microscopes as well as immunohistochemistry with sra-e5. sra-e5-positive alveolar macrophages and pulmonary interstitial macrophages contained graphitic soots, indicating the clearance of airborne, aspirated foreign bodies. pulmonary intravascular ...200415557077
histological, immunohistochemical and pathological features of the pituitary gland of odontocete cetaceans from the western gulf of mexico.pituitary glands were recovered from dolphins and small whales found stranded along the texas coast of the gulf of mexico over a 15-year period (1991-2006). one hundred animals of 14 species were found to be suitable for inclusion in this study. of these, 72 were atlantic bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus). other species included were the melon-headed whale (peponocephala electra), spinner dolphin (stenella longirostris), striped dolphin (stenella coeruleoalba), pantropical spotted dolphin ...200818621384
classification of echolocation clicks from odontocetes in the southern california bight.this study presents a system for classifying echolocation clicks of six species of odontocetes in the southern california bight: visually confirmed bottlenose dolphins, short- and long-beaked common dolphins, pacific white-sided dolphins, risso's dolphins, and presumed cuvier's beaked whales. echolocation clicks are represented by cepstral feature vectors that are classified by gaussian mixture models. a randomized cross-validation experiment is designed to provide conditions similar to those fo ...201121303026
categorizing click trains to increase taxonomic precision in echolocation click loggers.passive acoustic monitoring is an efficient way to study acoustically active animals but species identification remains a major challenge. c-pods are popular logging devices that automatically detect odontocete echolocation clicks. however, the accompanying analysis software does not distinguish between delphinid species. click train features logged by c-pods were compared to frequency spectra from adjacently deployed continuous recorders. a generalized additive model was then used to categorize ...201728863550
trophic relationships and habitat preferences of delphinids from the southeastern brazilian coast determined by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ(13)c) and nitrogen (δ(15)n) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: sotalia guianensis, stenella frontalis, tursiops truncatus, steno bredanensis, pseudorca crassidens, delphinus sp., lagenodelphis hosei, stenella attenuata, stenella longirostris and grampus griseus. we also compared the δ(13)c and δ(15)n values among four populations of s. guianensis. variation in ca ...201324358155
trace elements in tissues of cetacean species rarely stranded along the israeli mediterranean this paper we present the concentrations of hg, cd, se, pb, cu, mn, zn and fe in organs of 6 non-common specimens of cetaceans that were stranded along the israeli mediterranean coast (imc), during 2002-2010: two fin whales, one minke whale, one cuvier's beaked whale, one rough-toothed dolphin, and one risso's dolphin. most of the specimens were calves stranded by accident. concentrations of hg and cd were low in tissues of the baleen whales and higher in the toothed whales, with maximum conc ...201424680714
investigation of trophic level and niche partitioning of 7 cetacean species by stable isotopes, and cadmium and arsenic tissue concentrations in the western pacific ocean.a total of 24 stranded or bycatch cetaceans, including balaenoptera omurai, lagenodelphis hosei, kogia sima, stenella attenuata, grampus griseus, neophocaena phocaenoides, and sousa chinensis, were collected from 2001 to 2011 in taiwan. using the muscular δ(13)c and δ(15)n data, three ecological groups were identified as the oceanic baleen whale, the neritic, and the coastal toothed whale groups, coinciding with their taxonomy, feeding habits and geographical distribution. a horizontal inshore t ...201525684592
the utility of diversity profiling using illumina 18s rrna gene amplicon deep sequencing to detect and discriminate toxoplasma gondii among the cyst-forming sequencing (ngs) has the capacity to screen a single dna sample and detect pathogen dna from thousands of host dna sequence reads, making it a versatile and informative tool for investigation of pathogens in diseased animals. the technique is effective and labor saving in the initial identification of pathogens, and will complement conventional diagnostic tests to associate the candidate pathogen with a disease process. in this report, we investigated the utility of the diversity ...201626801593
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