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the in-vitro activity of two new quinolones: rufloxacin and mf 961.the in-vitro activity of two new quinolone antimicrobials, rufloxacin and mf 961, together with the desmethylated metabolite of rufloxacin (mf 922) were compared with other orally administered agents against 622 bacterial strains. against enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonas aeruginosa rufloxacin was generally active (mic90 1-8 mg/l) with the exception of klebsiella and serratia spp. (mic90 32 mg/l and enterobacter spp. (mic90) 64 mg/l. the respiratory pathogens haemophilus influenzae and moraxell ...19921324239
chlamydia and complexes. 19921349943
prevalence of specific antibodies to chlamydia pneumoniae (twar) in swedish orienteers. 19921357445
identification of chlamydia pneumoniae by dna amplification of the 16s rrna gene.chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory disease in humans, but diagnosis of c. pneumoniae is hindered by difficulties in the in vitro growth of the organism. in order to improve detection and identification, we recently developed a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay which uses oligonucleotide primers specific for c. pneumoniae. the nucleic acid sequence was determined for the 16s rrna of c. pneumoniae, and regions in which c. pneumoniae differed from both chlamydia psittaci ...19921374077
prevalence of chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies in hungary.investigation of chlamydia pneumoniae (twar) antibodies in paired sera of 120 patients with various respiratory diseases revealed a prevalence of 4.2% of igg seroconversion. igg antibody without seroconversion was found in 83.3%. sera of ten patients showed titers as high as 512-1024 or above. children with no respiratory disease and blood donors in budapest had specific igg in 46.5% and 75.2% respectively. prevalence of igg antibody in children from the rural areas of hungary was about 50% lowe ...19921396727
[psittacosis, only in birds?]. 19921405806
seroprevalence of chlamydia pneumoniae in the normal population. 19921425723
[the pathogenic role of chlamydia trachomatis in otitis media with effusion].there are conflicting views concerning middle ear infections due to chlamydia trachomatis. to ascertain the etiological role of this agent in otitis media with effusion, middle ear effusions were cultured for c. trachomatis and other bacterial flora. a total of 102 patients with otitis media with effusion (ome) were recruited for this study. the study population included 66 patients with acute ome (aome) and 36 patients with chronic ome (come). as chlamydia pneumoniae, the third species of chlam ...19921464792
high prevalence of chlamydia pneumoniae infection in children and young adults in spain. 19921454443
clarithromycin. a review of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic potential.clarithromycin is an acid-stable orally administered macrolide antimicrobial drug, structurally related to erythromycin. it has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, similar to that of erythromycin and inhibits a range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, atypical pathogens and some anaerobes. significantly, clarithromycin demonstrates greater in vitro activity than erythromycin against certain pathogens including bacteroides melaninogenicus, chlamydia pneumoniae, chlamydia tracho ...19921379907
distinguishing chlamydia species by restriction analysis of the major outer membrane protein gene.clinical isolates of chlamydia pneumoniae from diverse geographic locations and strains of other chlamydia species were typed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification of the major outer membrane protein (momp) gene followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the product. use of synthetic primers corresponding to highly conserved regions of the momp gene resulted in amplification of a 1070 bp product in laboratory strains and clinical isolates of c. pneumoniae, c. tra ...19921361962
pcr detection and differentiation of chlamydia pneumoniae, chlamydia psittaci and chlamydia trachomatis.a pcr-based system was developed for the detection and differentiation of chlamydia trachomatis, chlamydia psittaci and chlamydia pneumoniae. a conserved 145 bp fragment of the chlamydial omp1 gene was amplified from all three species. the three species were then differentiated from each other by digestion of this pcr product with restriction enzymes eco ri and either hind iii or pst i. the system was shown to work for two strains of c. pneumoniae, 11 strains of c. psittaci and 10 serovars of c. ...19921361961
chlamydia pneumoniae infection and asthma. 19921349397
similarity of chlamydia pneumoniae strains in the variable domain iv region of the major outer membrane protein gene.dna was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the gene encoding the major outer membrane protein (momp) of chlamydia pneumoniae in order to examine the relatedness of strains isolated from diverse geographical regions. primers for this reaction were chosen to span a 207-bp region comparable to that of the fourth variable segment of the momp gene of chlamydia trachomatis. among c. trachomatis, sequence heterogeneity is characteristic within variable sequence domain iv (vdiv) and correlates ...19921339411
in vitro activities of azithromycin, clarithromycin, l-ofloxacin, and other antibiotics against chlamydia pneumoniae.the in vitro susceptibilities of 11 strains of chlamydia pneumoniae to azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, l-oflaxacin, and doxycycline were determined. clarithromycin was the most active agent tested, with an mic for 90% of strains and minimal chlamydiacidal concentration for 90% of strains of 0.03 microns/ml. the activity of azithromycin was similar to those of erythromycin and doxycycline, with mics for 90% of strains of 0.125 to 0.25 microns/ml. however, the prolonged half-life and e ...19921324650
in vitro evaluation of activities of azithromycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline against chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydia pneumoniae.the in vitro activities of azithromycin (cp-62,993; pfizer), erythromycin, and tetracycline were evaluated by inhibiting chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydia pneumoniae, formerly twar, propagation in vitro in mccoy cells, hela cells, and hl cells. eleven clinical isolates of c. trachomatis (serovars d, e, f, j, k, and l2) and four strains of c. pneumoniae were tested with an inoculum of 10(3) inclusion-forming units in a 96-well microtiter plate. the mic ranges of these antimicrobial agents again ...19921318677
detection of igm antibodies to chlamydia trachomatis, chlamydia pneumoniae, and chlamydia psittaci from japanese infants and children with pneumonia.chlamydia trachomatis (c. trachomatis) is now well established as a pathogen of neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis and infantile pneumonia. c. pneumoniae (twar) and c. psittaci also cause pneumonia and other respiratory infections. serum samples from 223 japanese infants and children with pneumonia were tested for igm antibodies to c. trachomatis, c. pneumoniae and c. psittaci. igm antibodies to c. trachomatis were measured by an enzyme immunoassay (eia) and by a microimmunofluorescence (mif) tes ...19921296808
isolation of chlamydia pneumoniae from the maxillary sinus of a patient with purulent sinusitis. 19921520822
changes in the spectrum of organisms causing respiratory tract infections: a review.over the last decade, the spectrum of organisms causing community-acquired acute lower respiratory tract infections has changed. streptococcus pneumoniae now causes approximately 30% of outpatient acute pneumonia-less than in former decades-whereas mycoplasma pneumoniae is found in both young and elderly patients. the enterobacteriaceae and staphylococcus aureus are now seen more frequently as respiratory tract pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia patients, and they are the major organisms ...19921287613
infections caused by chlamydia pneumoniae strain twar. 19921445972
the prevalence and regional distribution of antibodies against chlamydia pneumoniae (strain twar) in finland in 1958.the occurrence of nonavian 'ornithosis' was reported in scandinavia at the end of the 1950s. in order to find out whether chlamydia pneumoniae had been present in finland, we examined the igg antibody prevalence to c pneumoniae in samples representing the whole rural population of finland in 1958. the total number of sera studied using micro-immunofluorescence was 2000. trend-surface analysis was used to examine the regional patterns of antibody prevalence. c pneumoniae antibodies were present t ...19921428498
spread of subclinical chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a closed community.chlamydia pneumoniae infections may spread subclinically. the present investigation took place in a military setting. sera drawn when the conscripts had entered their military service 2 months previously had been kept frozen and were available. in a camp with 500 people, 35 (7%) developed clinical symptoms of pneumonia. the infection was serologically verified with c. pneumoniae-specific micro-immunofluorescence technique. of 40 healthy controls, 21 turned out to fulfil the serological criteria ...19921411308
[comparison of sensitivity of hep-2 cells with that of hl cells against chlamydia pneumoniae].we compared the growth of chlamydia pneumoniae, reference strain tw183 and an isolate from a japanese infant, ac43 in hela229, hl and hep-2 cells. the mean number of inclusion-forming units was significantly higher on hl cells than hela229 cells, when the cells were not pretreated with deae-dextran. when the cells were not pretreated with deae-dextran, hep-2 cells had a higher mean number of inclusion-forming units and a higher yield than other cell lines. iscove's modified dulbecco medium enhan ...19921402106
community-acquired pulmonary infection due to chlamydia in tropical queensland.by using enzyme immunoassay and immunofluorescence antigen detection techniques on sputum specimens, four of 260 patients with pulmonary infection resident in tropical queensland were found to be infected with chlamydia. all four chlamydial infections were community-acquired and there was no history of close contact with birds by any of the four patients. one woman was deemed to be suffering with chlamydia pneumonia, while the role of the organism in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease in th ...19921523467
[isolation of chlamydia pneumoniae from a patient with acute bronchitis].chlamydia was isolated from the throat of a 15-year-old male patient with acute bronchitis. the chlamydia isolate, yk-41, was stained with fitc-conjugated monoclonal antibodies specific to c. pneumoniae and the genus chlamydia, whereas staining of monoclonal antibody specific to c. trachomatis was negative. these results indicated that the strain yk-41 could be identified as c. pneumoniae. serum igm antibody against c. pneumoniae was detected in high titer in the patient in the acute phase using ...19921402098
[morphology and immunotyping of ac-43 strain of chlamydia pneumoniae isolated from a japanese child].a strain of chlamydia pneumoniae (c. pneumoniae) which had been isolated from a japanese child (ac-43) was examined morphologically and serologically using micro-immunofluorescent (micro-if) test. inclusions of ac-43 were stained by an indirect immunofluorescent method using c. pneumoniae specific monoclonal antibody. they were dense round inclusions which had been reported as a characteristic figure for c. pneumoniae. an elementary body (eb) of ac-43 was pear-shaped by electron micrograph, whic ...19921402097
[an isolation procedure of chlamydia pneumoniae and chlamydia trachomatis].the author devised a method which permits simultaneous isolation and identification of chlamydia using a slide chamber with 8 wells. contaminating bacteria were eliminated by filtration with the membrane filter. the procedure allowed isolation of chlamydia pneumoniae and chlamydia trachomatis from 11 (10.1%) out of 109 and 10 (9.2%) out of 109 otolaryngologic clinical specimens, respectively. the use of hl cells together with hela-229 cells had been considered essential to isolate chlamydia from ...19921402079
outbreak of chlamydia pneumoniae infection in four farm families.the epidemiology of chlamydia pneumoniae infection was studied in an outbreak in four farm families living close together in denmark. eleven of 20 members of the families studied had bronchitis or pneumonia characteristic of chlamydia pneumoniae infection. serologic evidence of chlamydia pneumoniae as causative agent was strengthened by a high incidence of epidemic infection. transmission within families and a high frequency of disease versus asymptomatic infection are two findings which deviate ...19921396769
[pneumopathies caused by chlamydia pneumoniae].among the atypical pneumonias observed between march 1990 and march 1991, 6 were diagnosed as being caused by chlamydia pneumoniae of the twar strain. the serological diagnosis was obtained by a microimmunofluorescence test. all 6 patients had anti-twar antibody levels higher than 512; they were treated with a macrolide administered by the oral route and were cured without sequelae or recurrences. four cases received a ten day course of roxithromycin 300 mg/day and one case received erythromycin ...19921326110
chlamydia pneumoniae respiratory infection in a child--a case report.a case of respiratory infection in a child due to chlamydia pneumoniae is reported. the diagnosis was made by the detection of chlamydial antigen in the tracheal secretion and a significant increase in c. pneumoniae antibody titre. the infection responded well to erythromycin therapy.19921303485
[antibiotic therapy in bronchopulmonary infections].because of difficulties in accurately determining an etiologic diagnosis, the ideal treatment for lower respiratory tract infections remains questionable. suggested regimens are made on the basis of clinical and epidemiological data. however, the single most common pathogen responsible for pneumonia remains streptococcus pneumoniae. atypical pneumonia in younger patients is best treated with macrolides. older patients without debility or immunodepression are best treated with amoxycillin-ampicil ...19921297403
proposal of chlamydia pecorum sp. nov. for chlamydia strains derived from ruminants.chlamydia pecorum sp. nov. is proposed as the fourth species of the genus chlamydia on the basis of the results of a genetic analysis of chlamydia strains that were isolated from cattle and sheep which had various diseases, including sporadic encephalitis, infectious polyarthritis, pneumonia, and diarrhea. the levels of dna-dna homology between c. pecorum and strains of c. psittaci, chlamydia pneumoniae, and chlamydia trachomatis were less than 10%. several dna probes were used to identify c. pe ...19921581191
establishment of a particle-counting method for purified elementary bodies of chlamydiae and evaluation of sensitivities of the ideia chlamydia kit and dna probe by using the purified elementary bodies.to evaluate the sensitivity of commercially available test kits for detection of chlamydiae, we established a method of purifying chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydia pneumoniae elementary bodies (ebs). we then subjected the purified ebs, together with the purified ebs of chlamydia psittaci, to the ideia chlamydia (ideia) and dna probe test kits to determine the eb numbers at the detection limits. the sensitivities of the test kits were thus compared. the results can be summarized as follows. (i) ...19921452662
regional differences of chlamydia pneumoniae as causative agent of pneumonia in sweden.a retrospective serological study was performed on sera from 1982-83 and 1989 to investigate the incidence of chlamydia pneumoniae infection in hospital treated patients with pneumonia in orebro county. paired sera from 231 patients were available and 3 cases (1.3%) of c. pneumoniae infection were documented by microimmunofluorescence. the results differ from those reported by others implying regional differences of c. pneumoniae as causative agent of pneumonia. the findings from orebro county d ...19921589717
pneumonia--a clinical or radiographic diagnosis? etiology and clinical features of lower respiratory tract infection in adults in general practice.etiology and clinical manifestations have been studied in 153 adult patients with lower respiratory tract infection, and the results are presented according to clinical and radiographic diagnosis. laboratory investigations revealed that bacterial infection, mycoplasma and chlamydia included, occurred as often in 22 patients whose clinical diagnoses of pneumonia were not evident radiographically, as in 20 patients with radiographic pneumonia. in the latter group significantly higher values of ery ...19921465584
pulmonary infections acquired in the workplace. a review of occupation-associated pneumonia.the risk of humans acquiring pneumonia as a result of their occupation appears to have declined during the twentieth century in developed countries, such as the united states. thus, some conditions that are traditionally associated with the workplace, such as woolsorters' disease, represent illnesses that are of historical interest only. nevertheless, the problem of occupation-associated pneumonia remains substantial. first, large outbreaks of zoonotic infections continue to occur, especially ps ...19921511559
[the ultrastructure of a new species of chlamydia--chlamydia pneumoniae].the dynamic study of a new chlamydia species, c. pneumoniae (strain twar, isolate tw-480), inoculated into the monolayer culture of cells l-929 was made 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after inoculation. when compared with c. trachomatis and c. psittaci, c. pneumoniae were found to stand between these two species with respect to the morphology of their intracytoplasmic microcolonies (inclusions): they were round, almost bubble-like, but more densely packed with chlamydiae, surrounded by an undulate memb ...19921466164
association of prior infection with chlamydia pneumoniae and angiographically demonstrated coronary artery disease.to evaluate the association between prior infection with chlamydia pneumoniae, as measured by igg antibody, and coronary artery disease.19921608116
chlamydia, smoking, and heart disease. 19921605436
specificity of the microimmunofluorescence assay for the serodiagnosis of chlamydia pneumoniae infections.chlamydia pneumoniae infections are mostly confirmed using an indirect microimmunofluorescence test for which potential cross-reactions between antigens from different chlamydial species are not well documented. using this assay, 928 sera (507 subjects) submitted for chlamydia pneumoniae serology were tested for specific igm and igg to this bacteria using the tw-183 antigen. igm and igg reactivities to chlamydia trachomatis serotypes c, d, e, and l2 and chlamydia psittaci strain 6bc antigens wer ...19921477792
chlamydial infections of the heart.chlamydiae are common human pathogens, causing a broad spectrum of infectious diseases. chlamydial infections involving the heart have been described in numerous previous reports. these organisms are documented to cause endocarditis, myocarditis and pericarditis. furthermore, chlamydia pneumoniae, the recently discovered respiratory pathogen, has also been implicated in coronary artery disease. for the first time the literature on involvement of the heart in chlamydial infections is reviewed. in ...19921486883
myocarditis caused by chlamydia pneumoniae (twar) and sudden unexpected death in a swedish elite orienteer. 19921353578
seroepidemiology of chlamydia pneumoniae twar infection in seattle families, 1966-1979.incidence rates of chlamydia pneumoniae infection and information on reinfection and transmission within families were obtained by serologic study of serum samples from prospective family studies conducted 1966-1979. specimens (n = 3671) from 343 subjects in 68 families were tested for twar antibody using the microimmunofluorescence assay. acute infection was defined as a fourfold rise in antibody titer between consecutive specimens. sixty-four episodes of infection were identified in 58 persons ...19921500751
hilar lymphadenopathy associated with chlamydia pneumoniae infection.a 27-year-old man with an acute chlamydia pneumoniae infection and hilar lymph node involvement is reported. further investigation gave no evidence of sarcoidosis or other known cause of enlarged hilar nodes. serological tests proved an acute infection with c. pneumoniae thus, an infection with c. pneumoniae may lead to enlargement of the hilar lymph nodes, and infection with this microorganism should be included in the differential diagnostic considerations in patients with hilar lymphadenopath ...19921509245
[current status on the epidemiology of acute pharyngitis and post-streptococcal syndromes].so far, no ideal study providing an exhaustive knowledge of acute pharyngitis epidemiology has been carried out. what is available now is a number of investigations, all with deficiencies, which concern the duration of the disease (there may be seasonal variations), its limits in space and, above all, the number of pathogens sought for. a well-organized investigation span over at least one year, involve a fairly wide range of age-groups and be repeated in several countries. bacterial epidemiolog ...19921579815
in vitro activities of five quinolones against chlamydia pneumoniae.the in vitro susceptibilities of 10 strains of chlamydia pneumoniae were determined for five quinolones, including ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, fleroxacin, temafloxacin, and sparfloxacin. sparfloxacin was the most active compound tested, followed by ofloxacin and temafloxacin. ciprofloxacin and fleroxacin were the least active. the use of hep-2 cells for testing c. pneumoniae resulted in larger inclusions but essentially the same endpoints as were seen with use of hela 229 cells.19921320366
detection of chlamydia pneumoniae in coronary arterial fatty streaks and atheromatous plaques.there is serological evidence that a recently described new strain of chlamydia, namely chlamydia pneumoniae twar, is associated with coronary artery disease. this study describes the detection of twar organisms in the coronary arterial fatty streaks and atheromatous plaques in 7 autopsy cases. twar-like organisms were observed ultrastructurally in the lipid-rich core area of fibrolipid plaques and in intimal smooth-muscle cells. in 5 cases, immunoperoxidase staining showed positive reactions to ...19921519134
detection of chlamydia pneumoniae. 19911672933
chlamydia pneumoniae, strain twar pneumonia.chlamydia pneumoniae, strain twar is a newly recognized third species of chlamydia. it is an important cause of pneumonia, bronchitis, sinusitis, and other acute respiratory infections. it is a human pathogen transmitted by the respiratory route. successful antibiotic treatment with tetracycline or erythromycin requires high dosage and a prolonged course.19921580592
prevalence of antibodies to chlamydia pneumoniae in a belgian population.to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies to chlamydia pneumoniae in a healthy adult belgian population a study group of 150 medical students was chosen. sera were collected in the period between march and october 1990 and assessed by the microimmunofluorescence test. sixty-one per cent were found to have igg antibodies to c. pneumoniae in a titre greater than or equal to 16, which showed evidence of past infection. twenty-one per cent had iga in a titre greater than or equal to 8. in none were a ...19921522343
a comparison of the seroepidemiology of chlamydial infection in pigeon fanciers and farmers in the u.k.a detailed comparative seroepidemiological study of antibody responses was performed in 271 pigeon fanciers and 100 farmers. overall 73% of pigeon fanciers had igg antibodies at a titre greater than or equal to 16 to chlamydia pneumoniae, 39% to chlamydia psittaci, and 6.6% to chlamydia trachomatis. the prevalence of chlamydial antibodies was significantly lower in the farmers at 47% for c. pneumoniae, 6% for c. psittaci, and 2% for c. trachomatis. both populations were exposed to complex microb ...19921522344
a family outbreak of chlamydia pneumoniae infection.chlamydia pneumoniae, a newly described chlamydia species, has been shown to be a cause of acute respiratory tract infection in both adults and children, but its role in human infection is still under investigation. here we present a family outbreak of c. pneumoniae infection where three members of a family presented with a 'flu-like illness' and acute upper respiratory tract infection which did not improve despite penicillin or septrin therapy. no history of exposure to birds, pets or animals w ...19921522345
use of hep-2 cells for improved isolation and passage of chlamydia pneumoniae.chlamydia pneumoniae has proved to be difficult to isolate and propagate in cell culture. we compared the growth of three strains of c. pneumoniae, tw-183 and two clinical isolates from brooklyn, n.y., in five cell lines, including hela 229, mccoy, hl, hep-2, and hted, an immortalized human tracheal cell line. hep-2 was the most sensitive cell line tested. when 10-fold dilutions of three c. pneumoniae strains at known titers were inoculated into the different cell lines, the mean number of inclu ...19921500500
age-related interference with chlamydia pneumoniae microimmunofluorescence serology due to circulating rheumatoid factor.microimmunofluorescence (mif) serology is commonly used in the diagnosis of chlamydial infections. in the mif assay, chlamydia pneumoniae elementary bodies were used to detect c. pneumoniae immunoglobulin g (igg) and igm antibodies in paired serum samples from 286 patients with respiratory illnesses. in 69 patients, mif serology was compared with c. pneumoniae cultures. all c. pneumoniae cultures remained negative. however, 205 (71%) of 286 patients were c. pneumoniae antibody positive and 64 (2 ...19921583133
the epidemiology and significance of chlamydia pneumoniae.chlamydia pneumoniae has recently been found to be a new chlamydial species transmitted directly from man to man, obviously through the respiratory tract. it is the commonest chlamydia of mankind but fortunately the overwhelming majority of infections are mild, it has been estimated that 10% of all pneumonias are caused by this species. since the most important chlamydial infections are chronic in nature, the question of possible chronic c. pneumoniae infections is of paramount importance. apart ...19921522335
chronic chlamydia pneumoniae infection as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in the helsinki heart study.to investigate in the prospective helsinki heart study, whether chronic chlamydia pneumoniae infection, indicated by elevated antibody titers against the pathogen, chlamydial lipopolysaccharide-containing immune complexes, or both, is a risk factor for coronary heart disease.19921733381
the differentiation of chlamydia species by antigen detection in sputum specimens from patients with community-acquired acute respiratory infections.an amplified enzyme immunoassay (ideia iii: dako diagnostics ltd) for detecting genus-specific chlamydia antigen was evaluated prospectively on 286 respiratory specimens from 275 patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia or persistent chest infection. nineteen patients had evidence of recent chlamydial infection, having two or more positive sputum or serological markers. sputa from two other patients were elisa-positive in the absence of other positive criteria and were regarded as f ...19921522342
chlamydial antibodies in children with lower respiratory disease.forty-nine of 255 (19.2%) argentinean children between the ages of 1 and 18 months without evidence of viral or bacterial infections, but with clinical and radiologic evidence of acute lower respiratory distress, had serologic evidence of recent chlamydia trachomatis infection by the demonstration of specific igm, seroconversion or 4-fold rise in titer or elevated titers by enzyme immunoassay and the microimmunofluorescence test. recent c. trachomatis infection was detected in 28 of 166 (16.9%) ...19921741201
seroprevalence of chlamydia pneumoniae infections in otolaryngeal diseases.we studied the seroprevalence of antibodies to chlamydia pneumoniae, the third species of chlamydia, in patients with acute infections in otolaryngeal sites. the patients were divided into five diagnostic groups, i.e. sinusitis, otitis media, tonsillitis, laryngitis and bronchitis group. antibodies were measured by the microimmunofluorescent method. antibodies confirming past infection with c. pneumoniae were found 46.2 per cent of the patients in the diagnostic groups and 44.7 per cent of the s ...19921564376
study: atypical pneumonias not as rare in elderly as believed. 19911743525
[a new respiratory tract pathogen].chlamydia pneumoniae strain twar, a newly described chlamydia organism is a common cause of pneumonia and other acute respiratory tract infections. most twar infections are mild or asymptomatic, but occasionally severe pneumonia in elderly patients or with on going chronic diseases has been observed. population antibody prevalence has shown that twar infection is world-wide infection and an important health problem since under-developing countries where the high rate of child death is predominan ...19911745154
[twar infection is a common diagnosis in outpatient clinics].infections caused by chlamydia pneumoniae were first described in 1985. the infection can cause common cold, sore throat, hoarseness, cough, headache, fatigue and sometimes influenza-like illness. examination can indicate serous otitis media, sinusitis, laryngitis, bronchitis and pneumonia. the course can be long and relapsing. the recommended drugs for treatment are tetracycline or erythromycin for at least two weeks. five verified cases are described in the article, four of them with symptoms ...19921573935
efficient culture of chlamydia pneumoniae with cell lines derived from the human respiratory tract.two established cell lines, h 292 and hep-2, originating from the human respiratory tract, were found to be significantly more efficient and practical than the currently used hela 229 cells for growth of chlamydia pneumoniae. six strains of c. pneumoniae recently isolated from patients with respiratory ailments were used as test cultures. the h 292 and hep-2 cells yielded much higher inclusion counts for all the test strains than did hela 229 cells. when they were compared with each other, h 292 ...19921629316
persistent infection with chlamydia pneumoniae following acute respiratory illness.chlamydia pneumoniae is emerging as a significant cause of respiratory disease, including pneumonia and bronchitis, in humans. in this recently completed study of infection due to c. pneumoniae in patients presenting with pneumonia to suny health science center at brooklyn, we identified two individuals for whom cultures were positive on multiple occasions over a 1-year period. to determine the frequency of persistent respiratory infection with c. pneumoniae, follow-up specimens were obtained fr ...19921571425
chlamydia pneumoniae (twar) in neonates. 19911766717
smoking is a potential confounder of the chlamydia pneumoniae-coronary artery disease association.two recent studies, which did not adequately control for smoking status, found associations between chlamydia pneumoniae serological titers and various manifestations of coronary artery disease (cad). the validity of c. pneumoniae-cad associations found in case-control studies has been criticized on the basis that smoking, known to be associated with cad and hypothesized to be associated with c. pneumoniae seroreactivity via an increased prevalence of respiratory infection in smokers, could be a ...19921637792
development of an enzyme immunoassay to detect antibody to chlamydia pneumoniae strain twar and its application in a limited seroepidemiological survey.a non-competitive enzyme immunoassay (eia) was developed to detect igg antibody to the recently-described species chlamydia pneumoniae strain twar. purified elementary bodies of the organism were used as capture antigen. cross-reacting antibody to chlamydia trachomatis was detected in the assay by running a parallel eia for igg antibody to c. trachomatis. the c. pneumoniae assay was validated by comparing the results on 60 selected sera with those obtained with the microimmunofluorescence test. ...19921641267
factors influencing the infectivity of chlamydia pneumoniae elementary bodies on hl cells.the influence of variations in the ph, nacl concentration, temperature, and concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions on the survival of chlamydia pneumoniae elementary bodies (ebs) outside the host cells was investigated. the survival was determined after various incubation periods by counting the inclusion-forming units after c. pneumoniae was cultured for 72 h on monolayers of hl cells. the normal physiological conditions were restored prior to infecting the hl cells with c. pneumoniae. de ...19921624553
[isolation of chlamydia pneumoniae and antibodies to the agent in patients with acute bronchitis].isolation of chlamydia pneumoniae and serologic tests were performed on 85 children and adults patients with acute bronchitis admitted to the kitasato institute hospital from january 1989 to may 1991. c. pneumoniae was isolated from sputa or tonsillar swabs in 11 of 57 (19%) patients examined. of these, 10 patients were tested serologically and 9 (90%) had 16 or higher titer of igg antibody. a total of 68 patients were tested serologically, and 17 (25%) revealed positive; 14 had a fourfold rise ...19921624841
recovery of chlamydia pneumoniae, in six patients with otitis media with effusion.six cases of otitis media with effusion associated with chlamydia pneumoniae, a currently recognized respiratory tract pathogen, are presented. the organism was isolated from the middle ear fluids and serological evidence confirmed it as the infectious agent. the study population is small; however, these reports suggest c. pneumoniae as a causative agent of middle ear diseases.19921624880
activity of temafloxacin and other fluoroquinolones against typical and atypical community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens.the microbiologic activities of temafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin against community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens are reviewed. the 90% minimal inhibitory concentrations (mic90s) of these fluoroquinolones for gram-negative pathogens were generally comparable, that is, less than 0.06 micrograms/ml. overall, the agents were less active against gram-positive pathogens, although temafloxacin was two- to fourfold more active than the other agents against staphylococci and streptococci ...19911662881
morphological studies of the association of mitochondria with chlamydial inclusions and the fusion of chlamydial inclusions.the association of mitochondria with the inclusions of five strains of chlamydia psittaci, two strains of c. trachomatis and one strain of c. pneumoniae was examined by electron microscopy. the results demonstrated that mitochondrial association occurred only with the c. psittaci inclusions, but not with the c. trachomatis and c. pneumoniae inclusions. multiple inclusions formed by infection with a single strain could fuse with each other during their expansion, but fusion never occurred between ...19911666645
typing chlamydia trachomatis by detection of restriction fragment length polymorphism in the gene encoding the major outer membrane protein.a method that avoids culture was devised to determine serovars of chlamydia trachomatis. polymerase chain reaction was used first to amplify a part of the chlamydial genome that included the leader sequence and all four variable domains of the major outer membrane protein (momp) of the 15 serovars of c. trachomatis. the amplified dna was then digested simultaneously with restriction endonucleases alui and mspi and the resulting fragments separated on 10% polyacrylamide gels. after silver stainin ...19911673464
detection of chlamydia pneumoniae. 19911677145
isolation and sequence analysis of the chlamydia pneumoniae groe operon.chlamydia pneumoniae has emerged as an important human respiratory pathogen. from a lambda gt11 gene bank constructed from c. pneumoniae isolate ar-39 dna, an immunoreactive plaque containing a 3.0-kb insert was purified. in immunoblots, a 60-kda protein was recognized by anti-c. pneumoniae rabbit immune serum. the recombinant protein was reactive with a chlamydia genus-specific monoclonal antibody recognizing a 60-kda protein found in the sarkosyl-soluble fraction and with rabbit immune serum p ...19911682266
erythromycin for treatment of ornithosis.patients with pneumonia not responding to treatment with betalactam drugs and patients where an "atypical" etiology is suspected from the beginning, are often given erythromycin to cover mycoplasma and legionella. erythromycin has also been effective for chlamydia pneumoniae. if, however, ornithosis is suspected the recommended drug has been tetracycline. since we noted that several patients had a favourable course on erythromycin despite a final serological diagnosis of ornithosis, we retrospec ...19911853163
demonstration of chlamydia pneumoniae in water used for gargling. 19921563814
pneumonia. patient profiles, choice of empiric therapy, and the place of third-generation cephalosporins.choosing appropriate antimicrobial therapy for patients with pneumonia requires knowledge of the etiologic agents seen in specific kinds of patients at specific times and places. for community-acquired pneumonia, there is an important difference in the agents seen in the normal and the compromised host. the normal host most often presents with viral, mycoplasmal, or pneumococcal pneumonia. the exact place of chlamydia pneumoniae is still under study. a normal host who aspirates is at risk of ana ...19921730186
culture-confirmed pneumonia due to chlamydia pneumoniae.diagnosis of infection caused by chlamydia pneumoniae, a newly recognized respiratory pathogen, has proved difficult. between july 1987 and april 1988, culture and serologic tests for c. pneumoniae were done on specimens from 49 patients with pneumonia seen at an atlanta hospital emergency room. cultures from 3 patients (6%) grew c. pneumoniae. genus-specific chlamydia complement fixation titers and microimmunofluorescence titers for c. pneumoniae were suggestive of acute infection in all 3 cult ...19911856489
community-acquired pneumonia: the clinical dilemma.community-acquired pneumonia (cap) is the sixth most common cause of death in the united states. despite its frequency and mortality, specific etiologic diagnosis remains a major clinical challenge. the organisms most commonly implicated in cap are streptococcus pneumoniae, mycoplasma pneumoniae, legionella pneumophila, haemophilus influenzae, chlamydia pneumoniae (twar), and viruses. clinical and radiographic criteria have proven to be of little value in determining the etiology of cap. laborat ...19911861271
[acute and chronic bronchitis].acute bronchitis and exacerbations of chronic bronchitis are important problems in clinical practice. acute bronchitis is frequently caused by viruses, and rarely by mycoplasma or chlamydia pneumoniae. antimicrobial therapy is generally not indicated. the causes of exacerbations in patients with chronic bronchitis are often not clear. beside environmental irritants and hypersensitivity with acute bronchospasm, viral infections are important. the role of bacterial infections is not established. n ...19921615456
[acute upper respiratory tract infections associated with chlamydia pneumoniae].from march 1990 to january 1991, a total of 46 outpatients with acute upper respiratory infections (urti) were studied to determine the etiological role of chlamydia pneumoniae. sera from 40 patients were tested by micro-if method for evidence of recent or past infections of this organism, and swab specimens from tonsilar crypt from 26 were cultured. sera from 20 patients without any evidence of acute infectious disease were selected as controls. the seroprevalence of antibodies to c. pneumoniae ...19911791337
lumbosacral meningoradiculitis associated with chlamydia pneumoniae infection. 19921619428
the future role and importance of macrolides.the new macrolides, notably clarithromycin and azithromycin, are significant advances over previous agents. with an extended antibacterial spectrum, increased activity, improved absorption and excellent tissue and intracellular penetration, they realize therapeutic aims which have been increasingly sought in the 1980s. they are likely to find an extended role in respiratory tract infections, especially in community-acquired pneumonia, where the activity against beta-lactam-resistant bacteria and ...19911684983
infection as a risk factor for infarction and atherosclerosis.a growing amount of clinical and experimental evidence suggests a link between infection and atherosclerotic diseases including both myocardial and cerebral infarction. a prime example is a greatly increased risk of stroke in septicaemic patients with and without endocarditis. controlled clinical studies have recently shown, however, that certain other milder bacterial infections are also a risk factor for infarction. a preceding febrile respiratory infection was a major risk factor for stroke i ...19911756023
chlamydia pneumoniae elementary body antigenic reactivity with fluorescent antibody is destroyed by methanol.methanol, used for fixing chlamydia organisms to microscopic slides, was shown to eliminate the antigenic reactivity of chlamydia pneumoniae elementary bodies with fluorescent antibodies. acetone fixation had no adverse effect. chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydia psittaci were not affected by methanol fixation. the effect of methanol on c. pneumoniae is another characteristic that differentiates this species from the other two chlamydia species.19911885752
guillain-barré syndrome after chlamydia pneumoniae infection. 19921732807
detection of chlamydia pneumoniae by polymerase chain reaction.while criteria for serodiagnosis of chlamydia pneumoniae infection are well established, isolation of the organism is often difficult. to increase detection of this organism, c. pneumoniae-specific sequences were identified to permit amplification of c. pneumoniae by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). a cloned c. pneumoniae 474-bp psti fragment was shown by dot blot and southern hybridization to differentiate c. pneumoniae from the other chlamydia spp., react with all c. pneumoniae isolates tested ...19921537913
[detection of chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction].a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) procedure was developed for detection of chlamydia trachomatis. two oligonucleotide primers based on sequences within the major outer membrane protein gene from c. trachomatis serovar l2 were used. a single dna fragment was amplified, when c. trachomatis dna was template for the pcr. no amplified product was detected in chlamydia psittaci dna, chlamydia pneumoniae dna or other bacterial dnas. the amplified dna fragment was detected, when dna of greater than or e ...19911761897
molecular biology in diagnostic microbiology. pcr on mycobacterium leprae.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) has already produced several hundreds of papers. alternative procedures for diagnostic purposes based on nucleic acid detection do exist but have until now found less application. problems with the pcr are discussed. it is proposed that the diagnostic microbiology laboratory has a section devoted to pcr for the diagnosis of diseases whose etiologic agent can "almost not" be cultured such as (for flanders) mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia pneumoniae, toxoplasma ...19921636320
the incidence of chlamydia pneumoniae lower respiratory tract infections among university students in northern california.chlamydia pneumoniae has recently been identified as a cause of lower respiratory tract infections. from march 1987 to march 1988, 259 university students-151 students with lower respiratory tract infections and 108 controls-from the university of california, berkeley, were studied to determine the incidence and pattern of c pneumoniae lower respiratory tract infections. serologic evidence of a recent c pneumoniae infection was found in less than 2%, and the organism was not isolated from any of ...19911926842
ultrastructure of chlamydia pneumoniae in cell culture.the electron microscopic appearance of chlamydia pneumoniae elementary bodies with pear-shaped, loose outer membrane has been suggested as one criterion of its classification as a new chlamydial species. the study of the original strain tw 183 in lcl 929 and hl cells and a low-passage isolate of kajaani-6 isolate in hl cells revealed spherical compact elementary bodies common to other chlamydia.19911778435
the in-vitro activity of clarithromycin and other macrolides against the type strain of chlamydia pneumoniae (twar).the activity of oxytetracycline and seven macrolide antibiotics was investigated against a prototype strain of chlamydia pneumoniae in cell culture. following incubation, inoculated cell monolayers were fixed in methanol and stained with a genus specific immunofluorescent monoclonal antibody before examination for inhibition of inclusion formation. the most active agent was clarithromycin (mic 0.007 mg/l), followed by erythromycin (0.06 mg/l). other macrolides were less active; josamycin and rox ...19911827101
[chlamydia pneumoniae]. 19911954266
chlamydia pneumoniae, strain twar, infection in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.twar, the only known serovar of chlamydia pneumoniae, is a newly described bacterium that has been identified as a cause of both epidemics and endemic cases of pneumonia. the role of twar infection in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) is not known. we conducted a prospective study to establish whether twar infection is a common cause of acute exacerbations of copd. we studied two groups of patients: 44 patients admitted to the hospital with acute exacerbations of copd, a ...19911741558
chlamydia pneumoniae respiratory tract infection: the interpretation of high titres in the complement fixation test.sera from 5 acute respiratory disease patients from northern norway presenting with high chlamydia complement fixation (cf) titres, were analyzed for chlamydia pneumoniae-specific igg and igm in a micro-immunofluorescence (micro-if) test that included antigens from the prototype strain tw 183, and a norwegian isolate, fml 10. the patients were confirmed to have had c. pneumoniae infection based on serologic findings. this establishes the clinical significance of early cf results in this geograph ...19911882196
endemic prevalence of chlamydia pneumoniae in subjectively healthy persons.subjectively healthy persons were investigated for the presence of chlamydia pneumoniae (twar) with throat cultures using the hl (human lung) cell line. c. pneumoniae was isolated from 11/234 investigated persons.19911882203
treatment of lower respiratory infections in outpatients with ofloxacin compared with erythromycin.to assess the safety and efficacy of a ten-day oral course of ofloxacin (400 mg 12 hourly) as compared with erythromycin (400 mg every 6 hours) for treatment of lower respiratory tract infections, fifty-two adult outpatients with pulmonary infiltrates (pneumonia) or with a cough and purulent sputum (bronchitis) were evaluated. expectorated sputum specimens were gram-stained and cultured, and antibody titres to mycoplasma pneumoniae, legionella pneumophilia, and in most cases chlamydia pneumoniae ...19911756688
etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections in gambian children: ii. acute lower respiratory tract infection in children ages one to nine years presenting at the hospital.seventy-four children ages 1 to 9 years hospitalized because of severe pneumonia were investigated using blood cultures, lung aspirates, nasopharyngeal aspirates, serology and antigen detection procedures. a bacterial infection was identified in 57 (77%), a viral infection was seen in 25 (34%) and 18 (24%) had mixed viral-bacterial infections. the bacterial pathogens most frequently identified were streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae found in 61 and 15% of patients, respectively. ...19912003054
chlamydia pneumoniae infections in norway 1981-87 earlier diagnosed as ornithosis.ornithosis has been a notifiable disease in norway since 1957. during an outbreak of respiratory disease in 1981-82, described as ornithosis, contact with birds was stated in only 50% of the cases, suggesting that the infection was spread by interhuman transmission. a similar outbreak occurred in the western part of norway in 1987. serum specimens from altogether 260 patients, collected during the outbreaks in 1981-82 and in 1987, were investigated for antibodies against chlamydia pneumoniae (st ...19911882195
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