retrovirus infections in non-domestic felids: serological studies and attempts to isolate a african lioness from the zoo of zurich had to be euthanized because of an inoperable tumor. the serum tested negative for feline leukemia virus (felv) p27 antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) but was strongly positive for feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) antibodies by elisa and western blot. when her only offspring and mate were tested for fiv, high antibody titers to fiv were also found in their serum. lymphocytes were prepared from these two lions on different occasions a ...19921337398
dna variation of the mammalian major histocompatibility complex reflects genomic diversity and population history.the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) is a multigene complex of tightly linked homologous genes that encode cell surface antigens that play a key role in immune regulation and response to foreign antigens. in most species, mhc gene products display extreme antigenic polymorphism, and their variability has been interpreted to reflect an adaptive strategy for accommodating rapidly evolving infectious agents that periodically afflict natural populations. determination of the extent of mhc vari ...19901967831
comparative genome organization of the major histocompatibility complex: lessons from the felidae.the mammalian major histocompatibility complex (mhc) has taught both immunologists and evolutionary biologists a great deal about the patterns and processes that have led to immune defenses. driven principally by human and mouse studies, comparative mhc projects among other mammalian species offer certain advantages in connecting mhc genome characters to natural situations. we have studied the mhc in the domestic cat and in several wild species of felidae. our observations affirm class i and cla ...199910319256
genomic microsatellites as evolutionary chronometers: a test in wild cats.nuclear microsatellite loci (2- to 5-bp tandem repeats) would seem to be ideal markers for population genetic monitoring because of their abundant polymorphism, wide dispersal in vertebrate genomes, near selective neutrality, and ease of assessment; however, questions about their mode of generation, mutation rates and ascertainment bias have limited interpretation considerably. we have assessed the patterns of genomic diversity for ninety feline microsatellite loci among previously characterized ...200211875029
estrus behavior and fecal steroid profiles in the asiatic lion (panthera leo persica) during natural and gonadotropin-induced this paper the behavior of the asiatic lion was studied during natural and gonadotropin-induced estrus in relation to fecal estradiol and progesterone concentration. the average length of estrus was 5.4 days and no significant difference was observed between natural and gonadotropin-induced estrus. vocalization and rolling were the major estrus behavioral activities of asiatic lions and the frequency of these activities were similar in both natural and gonadotropin-induced estrus and treatmen ...200717029836
ancient papillomavirus-host co-speciation in felidae.estimating evolutionary rates for slowly evolving viruses such as papillomaviruses (pvs) is not possible using fossil calibrations directly or sequences sampled over a time-scale of decades. an ability to correlate their divergence with a host species, however, can provide a means to estimate evolutionary rates for these viruses accurately. to determine whether such an approach is feasible, we sequenced complete feline pv genomes, previously available only for the domestic cat (felis domesticus, ...200717430578
characterization of cauxin in the urine of domestic and big cats.cauxin is an abundant protein in feline urine. we have used proteomics strategies to characterize cauxin from the urine of domestic cats and a number of big cat species. proteins were resolved by gel-based electrophoretic purification and subjected to in-gel digestion with trypsin. the resultant tryptic peptides were mass-measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. peptides were also resolved by liquid chromatography and analyzed by electrospray ioni ...200717924168
seroepizootiological survey for selected viral infections in captive asiatic lions (panthera leo persica) from western india.infectious diseases have been responsible for large-scale declines in many endangered animals. disease outbreaks in small populations have probably led to the eventual extinction of such endangered animals in the wild. the endangered asiatic lion (panthera leo persica) population may also face such threats. this was evident from this study on captive asiatic lions from western india, which were sampled from december 1998 to march 1999. fifty-six asiatic lions, including 17 hybrid lions (afro-asi ...200717939348
yohimbine antagonizes the anaesthetic effects of ketamine-xylazine in captive indian wild determine the effectiveness of yohimbine as an antagonist of ketamine-xylazine anaesthesia in captive asiatic lions (panthera leo persica), tigers (panthera tigris) and leopards (panthera pardus).200919121157
molecular characterization of hepatozoon spp. infection in endangered indian wild felids and canids.hepatozoon species are parasites that infect a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. the objective of this study was to perform the molecular detection and characterization of hepatozoon spp. in asiatic lion, indian tiger, indian leopard, indian wild dog, indian domestic dog and cat based on partial 18s rrna gene sequences from hepatozoon spp. in the naturally infected animals. hepatozoon spp. could be detected in blood samples of 5 out of 9 asiatic lions, 2 out of 5 indian tigers, 2 out of ...201122154254
living with lions: the economics of coexistence in the gir forests, india.rarely human communities coexist in harmony with large predators. most often communities suffer due to predation on their stock while large carnivores suffer losses and at times extirpation due to retaliation. we examine the mechanisms permitting the coexistence of asiatic lions (panthera leo persica) and pastoral communities (maldharis) in the gir forests, india. we monitored six maldhari settlements between 2005 and 2007 to quantify seasonal livestock holding, density and losses due to predati ...201323341871
schrodinger's scat: a critical review of the currently available tiger (panthera tigris) and leopard (panthera pardus) specific primers in india, and a novel leopard specific primer.non-invasive sampling has opened avenues for the genetic study of elusive species, which has contributed significantly to their conservation. where field based identity of non-invasive sample is ambiguous (e.g. carnivore scats), it is essential to establish identity of the species through molecular approaches. a cost effective procedure to ascertain species identity is to use species specific primers (ssp) for pcr amplification and subsequent resolution through agarose gel electrophoresis. howev ...201626860950
recent host range expansion of canine distemper virus and variation in its receptor, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule, in carnivores.the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (slam) is a receptor for morbilliviruses. to understand the recent host range expansion of canine distemper virus (cdv) in carnivores, we determined the nucleotide sequences of slams of various carnivores and generated three-dimensional homology slam models. thirty-four amino acid residues were found for the candidates binding to cdv on the interface of the carnivore slams. slam of the domestic dog (canis lupus familiaris) were similar to those of oth ...201424807184
peste des petits ruminants virus detected in tissues from an asiatic lion (panthera leo persica) belongs to asian lineage this study, peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) was detected in frozen pooled tissue samples from a dead asiatic lion (panthera leo persica). the samples were negative for canine distemper virus and positive for pprv nucleic acids when tested with one-step rt-pcr using the appropriate virus-specific primers. subsequent amplification, cloning, and sequencing of the partial nucleocapsid, matrix, and fusion genes confirmed the presence of pprv nucleic acid. comparative sequence and phylogene ...201222705744
detection and molecular characterization of ascarid nematode infection (toxascaris leonina and toxocara cati) in captive asiatic lions (panthera leo persica).the objective of this study was to investigate the ascarid infection in asiatic lions using scat samples, based on microscopic analysis, pcr amplification of the its-2 region of ribosomal dna and sequence analysis of the amplicons. microscopic analysis indicated the presence of eggs of toxascaris leonina in eleven of the sixteen scat samples analysed and in one of these eleven scats eggs of toxocara cati were also detected. in five of the scats eggs were not detectable. the presence of t. leonin ...201222807016
giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) buccal mucosa tissue as a source of multipotent progenitor cells.since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. however, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. ips cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by ...201526398672
can rare positive interactions become common when large carnivores consume livestock?livestock populations in protected areas are viewed negatively because of their interaction with native ungulates through direct competition for food resources. however, livestock and native prey can also interact indirectly through their shared predator. indirect interactions between two prey species occur when one prey modifies either the functional or numerical responses of a shared predator. this interaction is often manifested as negative effects (apparent competition) on one or both prey s ...201222624309
role of personality in behavioral responses to new environments in captive asiatic lions (panthera leo persica).studying personality in captive animals may enable the development of individual-based management decisions, which may improve animal welfare. asiatic lions at london zoo represent an opportunity to research an understudied species' response to new environments since they have experienced social and physical changes, such as new enclosures and increased social interaction with humans. this project aimed to investigate the role of personality in behavioral responses to these changes. lion persona ...201728638674
retrospective study of mortality in asiatic lions (panthera leo persica) in the european breeding population between 2000 and 2014.although the european population of asiatic lions (panthera leo persica) has been managed under the european endangered species program (eep) since 1990, little is known about the health status of the population. this study was designed to characterize mortality for this population through examination of the studbook and other records on 392 asiatic lions living in the eep between 2000 and 2014. a total of 270 animals died during the period with 80% of them being under 1 year old. the mortality ...201728186700
phylogeographic patterns in africa and high resolution delineation of genetic clades in the lion (panthera leo).comparative phylogeography of african savannah mammals shows a congruent pattern in which populations in west/central africa are distinct from populations in east/southern africa. however, for the lion, all african populations are currently classified as a single subspecies (panthera leo leo), while the only remaining population in asia is considered to be distinct (panthera leo persica). this distinction is disputed both by morphological and genetic data. in this study we introduce the lion as ...201627488946
non-invasive pregnancy diagnosis in big cats using the pgfm (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-pgf2α) assay.non-invasive monitoring of hormones using feces has become a vital tool for reproductive management and reliable pregnancy diagnosis in big cats. previous studies described the pgf2α metabolite (pgfm) as an indicator of pregnancy in various feline species. the present study aimed to standardize pregnancy detection in big cats like the tiger (panthera tigris), jaguar (panthera onca) and lion (panthera leo) using fecal samples. high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) and liquid chromatograph ...201526633886
haemangiosarcoma in a captive asiatic lion (panthera leo persica).a 2.7-year-old male captive asiatic lion (panthera leo persica) died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death. haemangiosarcomas are rare in domestic and exotic felids, occurring in skin, thoracic-abdominal cavity and bones. although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, they ...201526623366
stress and telomere shortening among central indian conservation refugees.research links psychosocial stress to premature telomere shortening and accelerated human aging; however, this association has only been demonstrated in so-called "weird" societies (western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic), where stress is typically lower and life expectancies longer. by contrast, we examine stress and telomere shortening in a non-western setting among a highly stressed population with overall lower life expectancies: poor indigenous people--the sahariya--who wer ...201525730846
panel of polymorphic heterologous microsatellite loci to genotype critically endangered bengal tiger: a pilot india, six landscapes and source populations that are important for long-term conservation of bengal tigers (panthera tigris tigris) have been identified. except for a few studies, nothing is known regarding the genetic structure and extent of gene flow among most of the tiger populations across india as the majority of them are small, fragmented and isolated. thus, individual-based relationships are required to understand the species ecology and biology for planning effective conservation an ...201424455462
complete mitogenome of asiatic lion resolves phylogenetic status within panthera.the origin, evolution and speciation of the lion, has been subject of interest, debate and study. the present surviving lions of the genus panthera comprise of eight sub-species inclusive of asiatic lion panthera leo persica of india's gir forest. except for the asiatic lion, the other seven subspecies are found in different parts of africa. there have been different opinions regarding the phylogenetic status of panthera leo, as well as classifying lions of different geographic regions into subs ...201323968279
major histocompatibility complex class i polymorphism in asiatic lions.asiatic lions (panthera leo persica), whose only natural habitat in the world is the gir forest sanctuary of gujarat state in india, are highly endangered and are considered to be highly inbred with narrow genetic diversity. an objective assessment of genetic diversity in their immune loci will help in assessing their survivability and may provide vital clues in designing strategies for their scientific management and conservation. we analyzed the comparative sequence polymorphism at exon 2 and ...200515982252
conservation genetics of the far eastern leopard (panthera pardus orientalis).the far eastern or amur leopard (panthera pardus orientalis) survives today as a tiny relict population of 25-40 individuals in the russian far east. the population descends from a 19th-century northeastern asian subspecies whose range extended over southeastern russia, the korean peninsula, and northeastern china. a molecular genetic survey of nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial dna (mtdna) sequence variation validates subspecies distinctiveness but also reveals a markedly reduced level of ...200812547918
genetic variation in asiatic lions and indian tigers.previous reports have suggested that asiatic lions and tigers are highly inbred and exhibit very low levels of genetic variation. our analyses on these species have shown much higher degrees of polymorphism than reported. randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis of 38 asiatic lions, which exist as a single population in the gir forest sanctuary in india, shows an average heterozygosity of 25.82% with four primers. sperm motility studies by our colleagues corroborate this data. in india ...19979378147
chronic exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in 2 indian lions (panthera leo persica). 19817320249
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