inhibition of colony formation of hela cells by naturally occurring and synthetic agents.the present study compared the effects of naturally occurring extracts or compound in combination with synthetic selenium compounds on the colony formation and nucleic acid synthesis of cultured human cervical epitheloid carcinoma cells (hela). crude extract of bean (phaseolus vulgaris) or purified lectin from red kidney bean (phaseolus vulgaris) in combination with selenomethionine were more effective in inhibiting the colony formation of hela cells than when these cells were treated with these ...19958922269
protective effect of cysteine and vitamin e, crocus sativus and nigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in rats.cisplatin [cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (ii)] is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug that is toxic to the kidney. concurrent administration of cysteine together with vitamin e, crocus sativus and nigella sativa reduced the toxicity of cisplatin in rats. when administered i.p. for 5 alternate days with 3 mg/kg cisplatin, cysteine (20 mg/kg) together with vitamin e (2 mg/rat) an extract of crocus sativus stigmas (50 mg/kg) and nigella sativa seed (50 mg/kg) significantly reduced blood urea nitroge ...19989609969
effects of crocin analogs on ocular blood flow and retinal function.ischemic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration are the leading ocular diseases that cause blindness. the etiology of these diseases is due in part to the reduction of blood flow in the retina and/or choroid. crocin analogs isolated from crocus sativus l. were found to significantly increase the blood flow in the retina and choroid and to facilitate retinal function recovery. increased blood flow due to vasodilation presumably improves oxygenation and nutrient supply of retinal structu ...199910229492
production of a cytotoxic proteoglycan using callus culture of saffron corms (crocus sativus l.).saffron corms have been demonstrated to contain a proteoglycan that inhibits growth of human tumor cells. in this study, we show strong evidence indicating that callus cultures of saffron corm also synthesize such glycoconjugate. this compound is cytotoxic against human cervical epithelioid carcinoma cells (ic50 = 7 mg ml-1), and consists of approximately 90% carbohydrate and 10% protein. in order to optimize the glycoconjugate purification to complete functional and therapeutic studies, we have ...199910483114
antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of crocus sativus l. stigma and petal extracts in mice.crocus sativus l. (saffron) is used in folk medicine, for example as an antiedematogenic agent. we aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of saffron extracts in mice.200211914135
protective effects of saffron (crocus sativus linn.) on genotoxins-induced oxidative stress in swiss albino mice.the modifying effects of the aqueous extract of saffron (dried stigmas of crocus sativus linn.) on cisplatin (cis), cyclophosphamide (cph), mitomycin-c (mmc) and urethane (ure) induced alterations in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status were investigated in swiss albino mice. three doses of saffron (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight) were orally administered to mice for 5 consecutive days prior to administration of genotoxins. a significant reduction in the extent of lipid peroxidation with a ...200312820227
[studies on the pharmacological action of zang hong hua (crocus sativus l.). i. effects on uterus and estrus cycle]. 196414141441
saffron can prevent chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in swiss albino of the most promising strategies for cancer prevention today is chemoprevention using readily available natural substances from vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices. among the spices, saffron (crocus sativus, l) a member of the large family iridaceae, has drawn attention because apart from its use as a flavouring agent, pharmacological studies have demonstrated many health promoting properties including radical scavenging, anti- mutagenic and immuno-modulating effects. in the present study t ...200415075009
glucosylation of the saffron apocarotenoid crocetin by a glucosyltransferase isolated from crocus sativus stigmas.saffron, the dry stigma of crocus sativus l., is considered to be the world's most expensive spice. three major apocarotenoids--crocin, crocetin and picrocrocin--are responsible for the colour and bitter taste of saffron. the final step in the biosynthesis of the 20-carbon esterified carotenoid crocin is the transformation of the insoluble crocetin into a soluble and stable storage form by glucosylation. these glucosylation reactions are catalysed by glucosyltransferases (gtases) that play a cru ...200415605174
a modified, economic, sensitive method for measuring total antioxidant capacities of human plasma and natural compounds using indian saffron (crocus sativus).free radicals are involved in various human diseases that can possibly be prevented by antioxidants. there are many but rather expensive methods to determine total antioxidant capacity of human plasma (for endogenous antioxidant levels) or plant extracts/natural compounds (for antioxidant potential in terms of radical inhibiting or scavenging properties). we describe a simple, fast and economical 'crocin assay' using the indian spice saffron.200515653110
calcium antagonistic effects of chinese crude drugs: preliminary investigation and evaluation by 45 ca.coronary and other diseases in cardiac or brain blood vessels are considered to be due to the excessive influx of ca(2+) into cytoplasm. if ca(2+) channels in cell membrane are blocked by medicines or other substances with considerable calcium antagonistic effects, these diseases might be cured or controlled. the influence of some chinese crude drugs, including crocus sativus, carthamus tinctorius, ginkgo biloba and bulbus allii macrostemi on ca(2+) influx in isolated rat aortas was investigated ...200515919209
biomedical properties of saffron and its potential use in cancer therapy and chemoprevention trials.chemoprevention strategies are very attractive and have earned serious consideration as potential means of controlling the incidence of cancer. an important element of anticancer drug development using plants is the accumulation and analysis of pertinent experimental data and purported ethnomedical (folkloric) uses for plants. the aim of this review is to provide an updated overview of experimental in vitro and in vivo investigations focused on the anticancer activity of saffron (crocus sativus ...200415582266
anticonvulsant evaluation of safranal and crocin from crocus sativus in mice.the anticonvulsant activities of crocus sativus stigma constituents, safranal and crocin, were evaluated in mice using pentylenetetrazole (ptz)-induced convulsions in mice. safranal (0.15 and 0.35 ml/kg, i.p.) reduced the seizure duration, delayed the onset of tonic convulsions and protected mice from death. crocin (200 mg/kg, i.p.) did not show anticonvulsant activity.200516253437
comparison of crocus sativus l. and imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a pilot double-blind randomized trial [isrctn45683816].the morbidity and mortality associated with depression are considerable and continue to increase. depression currently ranks fourth among the major causes of disability worldwide, after lower respiratory infections, prenatal conditions, and hiv/aids. crocus sativus l. is used to treat depression. many medicinal plants textbooks refer to this indication whereas there is no evidence-based document. our objective was to compare the efficacy of stigmas of crocus sativus (saffron) with imipramine in ...200415341662
safranal, a constituent of crocus sativus (saffron), attenuated cerebral ischemia induced oxidative damage in rat hippocampus.increased oxidative stress has been implicated in the mechanisms of delayed neuronal cell death following cerebral ischemic insult. in this study, we investigated whether safranal, an active constituent of crocus sativus l. stigmas, may ameliorate ischemia-reperfusion injury (iri)-induced oxidative damage in rat hippocampus. male nmri rats were divided into six groups, namely, sham, control, ischemia and ischemia treated with safranal (four groups). the transient global cerebral ischemia was ind ...200516401389
crocetin from saffron: an active component of an ancient spice.the known properties of saffron (crocus sativus, l.) and its components have been examined. recently, hormone like effects in green algae and the anti-cancerogenic and anti-toxic effects, have been observed. in particular, the effects of crocetin, a carotenoids (8,8'-diapo-8,8'-carotenoic acid) present in saffron and characterized by a diterpenic and symmetrical structure with seven double bonds and four methyl groups, have been taken into consideration. it has been found that this compound enha ...200415239370
crocin prevents the death of rat pheochromyctoma (pc-12) cells by its antioxidant effects stronger than those of alpha-tocopherol.crocin is a pharmacologically active component of crocus sativus l. (saffron) used in traditional chinese medicine. we report here the effects of crocin on neuronally differentiated pheochromocytoma (pc-12) cells deprived of serum/glucose. depriving the pc-12 cells of serum/glucose caused peroxidation of their cell membrane lipids and decreased intercellular superoxide dismutase (sod) activity. treating the pc-12 cells with 10 microm crocin inhibited the formation of peroxidized lipids, partly r ...200415147781
inhibitory effects of aqueous crude extract of saffron (crocus sativus l.) on chemical-induced genotoxicity in mice.saffron (dried stigmas of crocus sativus l.), was evaluated in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test for its possible protective effects against chromosomal damage induced by cisplatin (cis), mitomycin-c (mmc) and urethane (ure). three doses of saffron (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight) were orally administered to mice for five consecutive days prior to administration of genotoxins under investigation. from the results obtained, it was evident that the administration of 50 and 100 mg saffron/k ...200314672873
use of in vitro assays to assess the potential antigenotoxic and cytotoxic effects of saffron (crocus sativus l.).saffron is harvested from the dried, dark red stigmas of crocus sativus l. flowers. it is used as a spice for flavoring and coloring food and as a perfume. it is often used for treating several diseases. we assessed the antimutagenic, comutagenic and cytotoxic effects of saffron and its main ingredients using the ames/salmonella test system, two well known mutagens (bp, 2aa), the in vitro colony formation assay and four different cultured human normal (ccd-18lu) and malignant (hela, a-204 and he ...200314599470
effects of crocus sativus petals' extract on rat blood pressure and on responses induced by electrical field stimulation in the rat isolated vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum.we have investigated the effects of crocus sativus petals' extract on blood pressure in anaesthetised rats and also on responses of the isolated rat vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum induced by electrical field stimulation (efs). aqueous and ethanol extracts of c. sativus petals reduced the blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. for example administration of 50 mg/100 g of aqueous extract changed the blood pressure from 133.5+/-3.9 to 117+/-2.1 (mmhg). efs of the isolated rat vas deferens an ...200312648816
[in vitro evaluation of the chemopreventive potential of saffron].cancer is a very important national health problem in mexico, while a significant increase in the total and childhood cancer mortality has been recorded during the last decades. chemoprevention, defined as the use of natural or synthetic agents to prevent or to block the development of cancer in human beings, is a new and promising strategy in the battle against cancer. saffron, obtained from the dried red-dark stigmas of crocus sativus l., an important spice rich in carotenoids, is commonly con ...200212587418
crocin suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cell death of neuronally differentiated pc-12 cells.crocus sativus l. is used in chinese traditional medicine to treat some disorders of the central nervous system. crocin is an ethanol-extractable component of crocus sativus l.; it is reported to prevent ethanol-induced impairment of learning and memory in mice. in this study, we demonstrate that crocin suppresses the effect of tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-alpha on neuronally differentiated pc-12 cells. pc-12 cells dead from exposure to tnf-alpha show apoptotic morphological changes and dna fragm ...200111720092
inhibition of genotoxicity by saffron (crocus sativus l.) in mice.experiments were carried out to ascertain whether or not saffron (dried stigmas of crocus sativus l.), a commonly used agent for flavoring and coloring food can exert modulatory effects on the in vivo genotoxicity of cisplatin (cis), cyclophosphamide (cph), mitomycin c (mmc) and urethane (ure). for this purpose, swiss albino mice were pretreated for five consecutive days with three doses (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight) of the aqueous extract of saffron. genotoxic effects were assessed in the m ...200111665650
authentic identification of stigma croci (stigma of crocus sativus) from its adulterants by molecular genetic analysis.stigma croci, stigma of crocus sativus l., is a precious traditional chinese medicine, which is commonly used to activate blood circulation and to dissipate blood stasis. three plant species, carthamus tinctorius l., hemerocallis fulva (l.) l. and hemerocallis citrina baroni, could carry the name stigma croci in the commercial markets of south east asia. however, c. sativus is the only one that has proven its effectiveness, while the others could act as adulterants. the authentic identification ...200111301875
a glycoconjugate from corms of saffron plant (crocus sativus l.) inhibits root growth and affects in vitro cell viability.a glycoconjugate has been characterized from saffron corms (crocus sativus l.) that inhibits the growth of roots of nicotiana tabacum and arabidopsis thaliana, at concentrations ranging from 1-100 micrograms m-3. roots of seedlings grown in the presence 0.1 microgram m-3 glycoconjugate showed bulging of epidermal cells, whereas at 10 micrograms m-3, roots were completely devoid of hairs. at 100 micrograms m-3 glycoconjugate the cell walls of the root vascular tissues were thicker and, overall, t ...200010938865
the cytolytic effect of a glycoconjugate extracted from corms of saffron plant (crocus sativus) on human cell lines in culture.corms of crocus sativus l. (iridaceae) contain a glycoconjugate that shows cytotoxic activity on tumoral cells in culture. studies of intracellular calcium fluctuations, and release of lactate dehydrogenase in human cervical epitheloid carcinoma cells, showed that this compound caused plasma membrane damage, allowing movements of both calcium and macromolecules, and leading to cell lysis. analysis of dna fragmentation showed that cell death was not mediated by apoptosis. this molecule is active ...200010763591
effects of long-term treatment of colon adenocarcinoma with crocin, a carotenoid from saffron (crocus sativus l.): an experimental study in the rat.we used an experimental model in the rat to examine the effects of long-term treatment with crocin, a glycosylated carotenoid from the stigmas of the saffron crocus, on colon cancer. bd-ix rats were divided into four groups: groups g1 and g2, designated "cancer groups," were used to study the effects of crocin on the progression of colon cancer, and groups g3 and g4, designated "toxicity groups," were used to study the effects of the treatment on metabolic processes and the parenchyma. dhd/k12-p ...199910693164
purification and characterization of a mannan-binding lectin specifically expressed in corms of saffron plant (crocus sativus l.).despite the economical interest of crocus sativus, its biochemistry has been poorly studied. herein, we have isolated a lectin present in saffron corm by gel-filtration, anion-exchange, and reversed-phase chromatography. one- and two-dimensional page, maldi-ms, and n-terminal amino acid sequence analyses indicated that the native protein forms noncovalently linked aggregates of about 80 kda apparent molecular mass, mainly composed of two charged heterogeneous (pi's, 6.69-6.93) basic subunits of ...200010691656
in vitro activation of macrophages by a novel proteoglycan isolated from corms of crocus sativus l.saffron corms contain a proteoglycan that is highly cytotoxic on human tumor cells. the present work was undertaken to study the possible immunomodulatory and anti-invasive properties of this compound. non-cytotoxic concentrations of this glycoconjugate promoted significant macrophage activation, detected by the release of nitric oxide. a rapid activation of protein kinase c and nf-kappab was obtained after proteoglycan treatment, which could explain the induction of nitric oxide synthase. prote ...199910503884
isolation and cytotoxic properties of a novel glycoconjugate from corms of saffron plant (crocus sativus l.).a novel glycoconjugate isolated from saffron corm extracts shows remarkable cytotoxic activity on cultured human cancer cells (hela). its polysaccharide part represents 94.5% of the molecule, and is dominated by a 36.4% of rhamnose. the protein backbone is composed mainly of aspartic acid/asparagine, alanine, glutamic acid/glutamine, glycine and serine. hela cells exposed to this glycoconjugate showed swelling and local plasma membrane evaginations, suggesting that cytotoxicity is mediated by ex ...19999878746
effect of safranal, a constituent of crocus sativus (saffron), on methyl methanesulfonate (mms)-induced dna damage in mouse organs: an alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay.the influence of safranal, a constituent of crocus sativus l. stigmas, on methyl methanesulfonate (mms)-induced dna damage was examined using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (scge), or comet, assay in multiple organs of mice (liver, lung, kidney, and spleen). nmri mice were divided into five groups, each of which contained five mice. the animals in different groups were received the following chemicals: physiological saline (10 ml/kg, ip), safranal (363.75 mg/kg, ip), mms (120 mg/kg, ip ...200717854266
crocin, safranal and picrocrocin from saffron (crocus sativus l.) inhibit the growth of human cancer cells in vitro.extracts of saffron (crocus sativus l.) have been reported to inhibit cell growth of human tumor cells. in order to study the cytotoxic effect of the characteristic compounds of saffron spice, we have isolated crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. doses inducing 50% cell growth inhibition (ld50) on hela cells were 2.3 mg/ml for an ethanolic extract of saffron dry stigmas, 3 mm for crocin, 0.8 mm for safranal and 3 mm for picrocrocin. crocetin did not show cytotoxic effect. cells treated wi ...19968620447
saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review.a growing body of evidence indicate that carotenoids possess anticarcinogenic, anti-mutagenic and immunomodulating effects. saffron obtained from the dried stigmas of crocus sativus l., is an important spice, rich in carotenoids, consumed commonly in different parts of the world. our laboratory first reported the anticancer activity of saffron extract (dimethyl-crocetin) against a wide spectrum of murine tumors and human leukemia cell lines. the present report reviews the role of saffron in serv ...19958590890
inhibitory effect of crocetin on intracellular nucleic acid and protein synthesis in malignant cells.the possibility that dietary intake of diverse naturally occurring compounds may influence the occurrence of cancer is receiving considerable scientific attention. previously, it was reported that an extract (crocus sativus), which contains carotenoids, had an antitumor effect and inhibited colony formation and nucleic acid synthesis by malignant human cells. epidemiological and experimental research has indicated that carotenoids might act as antitumor agents. we have studied crocetin, a carote ...19948296327
effects of crocus sativus on the fetal development of nmri mice. 200818246251
inhibitory effects of nigella sativa and saffron (crocus sativus) on chemical carcinogenesis in mice.topical application of nigella sativa and crocus sativus extracts (common food spices) inhibited two-stage initiation/promotion [dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (dmba)/croton oil] skin carcinogenesis in mice. a dose of 100 mg/kg body wt of these extracts delayed the onset of papilloma formation and reduced the mean number of papillomas per mouse, respectively. the possibility that these extracts could inhibit the action of 20-methylcholanthrene (mca)-induced soft tissue sarcomas was evaluated by study ...19911923908
neuroprotection by crocetin in a hemi-parkinsonian rat model.reactive oxygen species (ros) are implicated as the leading biochemical cause of neuronal death in various neurologic disorders, including parkinson's disease. in the present study, neuromodulatory effects of crocetin (active constituent of crocus sativus) in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-ohda) model of rat parkinsonism were investigated. male wistar rats were pre-treated with crocetin (25, 50 and 75 microg/kg body weight) for 7 days and subjected to unilateral intrastriatal injection of 10 microg 6-oh ...200516005057
protective effect of aqueous saffron extract (crocus sativus l.) and crocin, its active constituent, on renal ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative damage in rats.the generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation are associated with tissue injury following ischemic insult; therefore, the use of antioxidants appears rational in the improvement of kidney diseases therapy. the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of aqueous saffron extract (crocus sativus l.) and its active constituent, crocin, on oxidative stress following renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (iri) in rats.200516401388
effect of dietary saffron (crocus sativus l.) on the oxidative stability of egg yolk.1. the effects of dietary inclusion of red stigmas of greek saffron (crocus sativus l.) on the oxidative stability of shell eggs and liquid yolks were investigated and compared with those of dietary a-tocopherol. 2. ninety-six lohmann laying hens, 38 weeks old, distributed into 4 groups with 4 replicates each, were given either a control diet, diets enriched with 10 (saf10) or 20 (saf20) mg/kg saffron, or a diet enriched with 200 mg/kg a-tocopheryl acetate (ve200). 3. following 6 weeks of feedin ...200516428113
protective effect of saffron (crocus sativus l.) aqueous extract against genetic damage induced by anti-tumor agents in mice.the genotoxic potential of anti-tumor drugs limits their efficacy in the treatment of cancers. since ancient times, saffron (dried stigmas of crocus sativus l.) has been used as a spice and medicinal herb. saffron is a rich source of carotenoids and is known for its anti-cancer and anti-tumor properties. the present study was designed to ascertain the chemoprotective potential of saffron against the genotoxicity of three well-known anti-tumor drugs-cisplatin (cis), cyclophosphamide (cph) and mit ...200616539212
effects of crocetin on antioxidant enzymatic activities in cardiac hypertrophy induced by norepinephrine in rats.crocetin, a carotenoid isolated from the chinese herbal medicine crocus sativus l. (saffron), has been shown to have cardiovascular protective effects. the present study investigated the protective action of the antioxidant crocetin against cardiac hypertrophy induced by norepinephrine (ne). this was evaluated by assaying for pathological histological changes with an optical microscope and cell image analysis system. lipid peroxidation was quantified using thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances ...200616649553
protective effect of safranal on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in the rat: involvement of gabaergic and opioids systems.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of safranal, an active constituent of crocus sativus l. stigmas, on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol. intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) microinjection of safranal (4.84, 9.68 and 24.2 micromol) had no effects on tonic and clonic phases as well as mortality upon seizures induced by ptz (90mg/kg body wt., i.p.). peripheral administration of safranal (72.75, 145.5 and 291 mg/kg body wt., i.p.), however, induced a dose-dependent decrease i ...200716707256
evaluation of the antitussive effect of stigma and petals of saffron (crocus sativus) and its components, safranal and crocin in guinea pigs.the antitussive activity of crocus sativus stigma and petal extracts and its components, safranal and crocin, was evaluated using the nebolized solution of citric acid 20% in guinea pigs. the extract and agents were injected intraperitoneally. the ethanolic extract of c. sativus (100-800 mg/kg) and safranal (0.25-0.75 ml/kg) reduced the number of cough. the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of petal and crocin did not show antitussive activity.200616814486
study of cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of saffron extract in human cancer cell lines.saffron (dried stigmas of crocus sativus l.) has been used as a spice, food colorant and medicinal plant for millennia. in this study cytotoxic effect of saffron extract was evaluated in hepg2 and hela cell lines. meanwhile role of apoptosis and ros were explored. malignant and non-malignant cells (l929) were cultured in dmem medium and incubated with different concentrations of ethanolic saffron extract. cell viability was quantitated by mtt assay. apoptotic cells were determined using pi stain ...200818790714
effect of saffron (crocus sativus) on neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in cerebral ischemia in rats.the modifying effects of crocus sativus (cs) stigma extract on neurobehavioral activities, malondialdehyde (mda), reduced glutathione (gsh), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione s-transferase, superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase (cat), and na(+),k(+)-atpase activities, and glutamate (glu) and aspartate (asp) content were examined in the middle cerebral artery (mca) occlusion (mcao) model of acute cerebral ischemia in rats. the right mca of male wistar rats was occluded for ...200616822211
mechanism of hypolipidemic effect of crocin in rats: crocin inhibits pancreatic lipase.the hypolipidemic mechanism of crocin, an active ingredient in gardenia jasminoides ellis and crocus sativus l, was examined in rats. in diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats, a 10-day treatment with crocin significantly reduced serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (ldl) cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein (vldl) cholesterol level in the daily dose range of 25 to 100 mg/kg. results of the modified fat-loading method indicated that crocin inhibited the absorption of ...200616828739
crocus sativus l. extracts antagonize memory impairments in different behavioural tasks in the rat.the effects of extracts of crocus sativus l. (cse), on memory were investigated in the rat by using the object recognition and the step-through passive avoidance task. in the first study, post-training administration of cse (30 and 60 g/kg) successfully counteracted extinction of recognition memory in the normal rat, suggesting that cse modulates storage and/or retrieval of information. in a subsequent study, pre-training treatment with cse (30 and 60 mg/kg) significantly antagonized the scopola ...200616860406
relaxant effect of crocus sativus (saffron) on guinea-pig tracheal chains and its possible indicated in ancient iranian medical books, crocus sativus has therapeutic effects on respiratory diseases. the relaxant effect of this plant has been observed also on smooth muscles in previous studies. therefore, in this study the relaxant effects of aqueous-ethanolic extracts of c. sativus and one of its main constituents, safranal, were examined on guinea-pig tracheal chains. the relaxant effects of four cumulative concentrations of aqueous-ethanolic extract (0.15, 0.3, 0.45, and 0.60 g % ...200617034662
inhibitory activity on amyloid-beta aggregation and antioxidant properties of crocus sativus stigmas extract and its crocin constituents.crocus sativus stigmas are one of the widely known spices (saffron) and consist of unusually polar carotenoids. alzheimer's disease is characterized pathologically by deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (abeta) fibrils. oxidation is thought to promote abeta fibril formation and deposition. to identify agents inhibiting the pathogenesis of alzheimer's disease, we examined in vitro the antioxidant properties of extract of c. sativus stigmas and its effect on abeta(1-40) fibrillogenesis. the antioxi ...200617090119
protective effects of carotenoids from saffron on neuronal injury in vitro and in vivo.crocus sativus l. (saffron) has been used as a spice for flavoring and coloring food preparations, and in chinese traditional medicine as an anodyne or tranquilizer. our previous study demonstrated that crocin, a carotenoid pigment of saffron, can suppress the serum deprivation-induced death of pc12 cells by increasing glutathione (gsh) synthesis and thus inhibiting neutral sphingomyelinase (nsmase) activity and ceramide formation. the carotenoid pigments of saffron consist of crocetin di-(beta- ...200717215084
crocus sativus lectin recognizes man3glcnac in the n-glycan core structure.crocus sativus lectin (csl) is one of the truly mannose-specific plant lectins that has a unique binding specificity that sets it apart from others. we studied sugar-binding specificity of csl in detail by a solution phase method (fluorescence polarization) and three solid phase methods (flow injection, surface plasmon resonance, and microtiter plate), using a number of different glycopeptides and oligosaccharides. csl binds the branched mannotriose structure in the n-glycan core. substitution o ...200010837483
crocetin, dimethylcrocetin, and safranal bind human serum albumin: stability and antioxidative properties.crocetin (crt) and dimethylcrocetin (dmcrt) are derived from crocins which are found in the stigmas of saffron (crocus sativus l.), while safranal is the main component of saffron's essential oil. the aim of the present study was to examine their interaction with human serum albumin in aqueous solution at physiological conditions using constant protein concentration and various ligand contents. ft-ir and uv-visible spectroscopic methods were used to determine the ligands' binding mode, the bindi ...200717263501
cloning and expression of the allergen cro s 2 profilin from saffron (crocus sativus).profilin is a panallergen that is recognized by ige in allergic patients. allergy to saffron (crocus sativus) pollen has been described in people exposed to its pollen. saffron contains a profilin that may cause allergic reactions in atopic subjects. the aim of this study was to describe the cloning, expression and purification of saffron profilin from pollen.200919628979
effect of ethanol extract of saffron (crocus sativus l.) on the inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in c57bl/6 this study, effect of ethanol extract of saffron (crocus sativus l.) in the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (eae) in c57bl/6 mice was evaluated. eae was induced by immunization of 8 week old mice with mog(35-55) with complete freunds adjuvant. therapy with saffron was started on day the immunization. total antioxidant capacity (tac) was assessed by ferric reducing-antioxidant power (frap) method. nitric oxide (no) production was also estimated by griess reaction. for hi ...200919634472
dna interaction with saffron's secondary metabolites safranal, crocetin, and dimethylcrocetin.saffron comes from the dried red stigmas of the crocus sativus l. flower. except for its use in cooking and in traditional medicine, it has numerous applications as an antitoxic, antioxidant, and anticancer agent due to its secondary metabolites and their derivatives (safranal, crocins, crocetin, dimethylcrocetin). however, there has been no information on the interactions of these secondary metabolites with individual dna at molecular level. this study was designed to examine the interaction of ...200717263598
effects of crocin on reperfusion-induced oxidative/nitrative injury to cerebral microvessels after global cerebral ischemia.this paper studied the effects of crocin, a pharmacologically active component of crocus sativus l., on ischemia/reperfusion (i/r) injury in mice cerebral microvessels. transient global cerebral ischemia (20 min), followed by 24 h of reperfusion, significantly promoted the generation of nitric oxide (no) and malondialdehyde (mda) in cortical microvascular homogenates, as well as markedly reduced the activities of superoxide dismutase (sod) and glutathione peroxidase (gsh-px) and promoted the act ...200717274961
effects of the active constituents of crocus sativus l., crocins on recognition and spatial rats' memory.crocus sativus l. is a plant cultivated in various parts of the world. its involvement in learning and memory processes has been proposed. crocins are water-soluble carotenoids and are among the active components of c. sativus l. the present study was designed to investigate in the rat the effects of crocins on recognition and spatial memory. for this aim, the object recognition task which evaluates non-spatial working memory and a novel version of the radial water maze which assesses spatial re ...200717628713
hormone and microorganism treatments in the cultivation of saffron (crocus sativus l.) plants.the difficult cultivation of the saffron plant (crocus sativus l.) make the spice of the same name made from its dried stigmas very valuable. it is estimated that some 75,000 blossoms or 225,000 hand-picked stigmas are required to make a single pound of saffron, which explains why it is the world's most expensive spice. the aim of this study was to identify ways of increasing the fertility and production of saffron. for this purpose, the treatment of saffron bulbs with a synthetic growth hormone ...200818560333
cytosolic and plastoglobule-targeted carotenoid dioxygenases from crocus sativus are both involved in beta-ionone release.saffron, the processed stigma of crocus sativus, is characterized by the presence of several apocarotenoids that contribute to the color, flavor, and aroma of the spice. however, little is known about the synthesis of aroma compounds during the development of the c. sativus stigma. the developing stigma is nearly odorless, but before and at anthesis, the aromatic compound beta-ionone becomes the principal norisoprenoid volatile in the stigma. in this study, four carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase ( ...200818611853
bacillus subtilis fzb24 affects flower quantity and quality of saffron (crocus sativus).the effect of bacillus subtilis fzb24 on saffron ( crocus sativus l.) was studied using saffron corms from spain and the powdered form of b. subtilis fzb24(r). corms were soaked in water or in b. subtilis fzb24 spore solution for 15 min before sowing. some corms were further soil drenched with the spore solution 6, 10 or 14 weeks after sowing. growth and saffron stigma chemical composition were measured. compared to untreated controls, application of b. subtilis fzb24 significantly increased lea ...200818622904
effects of the active constituents of crocus sativus l., crocins, in an animal model of anxiety.crocus sativus l. is a plant cultivated in various parts of the world. crocins are among the active components of crocus sativus l. the present study was designed to investigate in the rat whether or not crocins possess anxiolytic properties. for this aim, the light/dark test was selected. either crocins, at a dose which did not influence animals' motor activity (50mg/kg), or diazepam (1.5 mg/kg), significantly increased the latency to enter the dark compartment and prolonged the time spent in t ...200818693098
stimulatory effect of crocus sativus (saffron) on beta2-adrenoceptors of guinea pig tracheal study the mechanism(s) of the relaxant effects of crocus sativus (iridaceae), the stimulatory effect of aqueous-ethanolic extracts of this plant and one of its constituent, safranal was examined on beta-adrenoceptors in tracheal chains of guinea pigs. the beta(2)-adrenergic stimulatory was tested by performing the cumulative concentration-response curves of isoprenaline-induced relaxation of pre-contracted isolated guinea pig tracheal chains. the studied solutions were included two concentrat ...200818771905
protective effect of crocus sativus stigma extract and crocin (trans-crocin 4) on methyl methanesulfonate-induced dna damage in mice organs.this study was designed to examine the effect of aqueous extract of crocus sativus stigmas (cse) and crocin (trans-crocin 4) on methyl methanesulfonate (mms)-induced dna damage in multiple mice organs using the comet assay. adult male nmri mice in different groups were treated with either physiological saline (10 ml/kg, intraperitoneal [ip]), cse (80 mg/kg, ip), crocin (400 mg/kg, ip), mms (120 mg/kg, ip), and cse (5, 20, and 80 mg/kg, ip) 45 min prior to mms administration or crocin (50, 200, a ...200818788978
crocin prevents the death of pc-12 cells through sphingomyelinase-ceramide signaling by increasing glutathione synthesis.crocin is a pharmacologically active component of crocus sativus l. (saffron) that has been used in traditional chinese medicine. in a previous study, we demonstrated that crocin inhibits apoptosis in pc-12 cells by affecting the function of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. in this study, we found that depriving cultured pc-12 cells of serum/glucose causes a rapid increase in cellular ceramide levels, followed by an increase in the phosphorylation of c-jun kinase (jnk). the accumulation of ceramide ...200414643749
production and characterization of monoclonal antibody against saffron pollen profilin, cro s 2.allergy to saffron (crocus sativus) pollen has been described in people involved in processing of saffron flower stamens. profilins have been identified as a pan-allergen in different plant pollens and foods. this molecule is an actin-binding protein with a molecular weight of 12-16 kda found in eukaryotic species.200818791282
antiabsence effects of safranal in acute experimental seizure models: eeg and autoradiography.we examined the effect of safranal, a constituent of crocus sativus, in acute experimental animal models of generalized absence seizures.200818801302
effect of safranal on extracellular hippocampal levels of glutamate and aspartate during kainic acid treatment in anesthetized this study, the effect of safranal, a constituent of crocus sativus l., pretreatment on concomitant changes in the extracellular hippocampal levels of eaa (glutamate and aspartate) following systemic administration of ka was investigated in anesthetized rats. safranal (72.75 mg/kg or 291 mg/kg, i. p.) was injected 40 min before ka (15 mg/kg, i. p.). a group of rats also received dzp (15 mg/kg, i. p.) 20 min prior to ka administration. the basal hippocampal concentrations of glutamate and aspa ...200818816431
crocus sativus l. (saffron) extract and its active constituents (crocin and safranal) on ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle.saffron and its constituents have been shown to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (i/r) injury in kidney or brain tissues. in this study, the effects of saffron ethanolic extract and its constituents, crocin and safranal, were evaluated in skeletal muscle during i/r injury. hind limb ischemia was induced using clamping the common femoral artery and vein. after 2 h ischemia, the clamp of the femoral vessels of animals was taken off and the animal underwent 1h reperfusion. muscle injuries were evaluat ...200918955256
the effect of saffron (crocus sativus) extract for healing of second-degree burn wounds in rats.the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pollen of saffron extract cream in the treatment of thermal induced burn wounds and to compare its results with silver sulfadiazine (ssd) in rats. animals were divided into four groups and administrated a topical cream including control, base, saffron (20%) or ssd (1%) at 24 hour after a burn injury that was induced by hot water. in special days, according to a pre-planned schedule, animal's weight, wound size, as well as skin histo-pathology ...200819110531
saffron in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate alzheimer's disease: a 16-week, randomized and placebo-controlled trial.what is known: herbal medicines have been used in the treatment of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia but with variable response. crocus sativus (saffron) may inhibit the aggregation and deposition of amyloid β in the human brain and may therefore be useful in alzheimer's disease (ad).201020831681
anxiolytic and hypnotic effect of crocus sativus aqueous extract and its constituents, crocin and safranal, in mice.saffron stigma (crocus sativus l.) is used for insomnia and anxiety in traditional medicine. in this study, the anxiolytic and hypnotic effects of saffron aqueous extract and its constituents, crocin and safranal, were studied in mice. agents were administered intraperitoneally in mice before the experiments for the evaluation of hypnotic activity (induced by sodium pentobarbital, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), anxiolytic activity (elevated plus maze test), locomotor activity (open field test) and motor coord ...200919142981
isolation of a new fungi and wound-induced chitinase class in corms of crocus plants, various chitinases have been identified and categorized into several groups based on the analysis of their sequences and domains. we have isolated safchia, a novel class of chitinase from saffron (crocus sativus l.). the cdna encoding safchia is mainly expressed in roots and corms, and its expression is induced by elicitor treatment, methyl jasmonate, wounding, and by the fungi fusarium oxysporum, beauveria and phoma sp., suggesting a defence role of the protein. furthermore, in vitro ...200919246207
further examination of antiradical properties of crocus sativus stigmas extract rich in for antiradical properties of saffron extract and its bioactive constituents (crocins, crocetin) are limited and poorly discussed in comparison with those of extracts containing potent scavengers. further examination was sought using the folin-ciocalteu (f-c) reagent and various free radical species produced in cell-free or cell model systems. oregano and turmeric methanol extracts, rich in well established scavengers, and also crocetin, rosmarinic acid, and curcumin, representing the major ...200919284715
potential of crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituent, crocin, as hypolipidemic and antioxidant in rats.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic and antioxidant potential of saffron and its active constituent, crocin, in hyperlipidemic rats. the animals fed either with normal fat diet or high fat diet were administered orally saffron (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) or crocin (4.84, 9.69, and 19.38 mg/kg) in their respective groups for five consecutive days. biochemical estimations of triglyceride (tg), total cholesterol (tc), high-density lipoprotein (hdl), low-density lipoprotein (l ...201019672721
protective effect of saffron extract and crocin on reactive oxygen species-mediated high glucose-induced toxicity in pc12 cells.diabetic neuropathy is one of the most frequent complications of diabetes. despite some studies, the exact mechanism of glucose neurotoxicity has not been fully elucidated. increased reactive oxygen species (ros) has proposed as a possible mechanism. crocus sativus l. (saffron) has been known as a source of antioxidants. therefore, neuroprotective effect of saffron extract, its active component crocin and gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycine (gsh) was studied in glucose-induced neurotoxicity, using pc ...201019711182
saffron extract prevents acetaldehyde-induced inhibition of long-term potentiation in the rat dentate gyrus in vivo.we have previously found that alcohol extract of crocus sativus l. (cse), commonly known as saffron, prevents ethanol-induced inhibition of hippocampal long-term potentiation (ltp). in the present study, cse (250 mg/kg, p.o.) was also effective in preventing acetaldehyde-induced inhibition of ltp in the dentate gyrus of anesthetized rats. these results suggest that cse can prevent aversive effects induced by ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde.199910642859
the effect of saffron, crocus sativus stigma, extract and its constituents, safranal and crocin on sexual behaviors in normal male this study, the aphrodisiac activities of crocus sativus stigma aqueous extract and its constituents, safranal and crocin, were evaluated in male rats. the aqueous extract (80, 160 and 320mg/kg body wt.), crocin (100, 200 and 400mg/kg body wt.), safranal (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4ml/kg), sildenafil (60mg/kg body wt., as a positive control) and saline were administered intraperitoneally to male rats. mounting frequency (mf), intromission frequency (if), erection frequency (ef), mount latency (ml), intr ...200817962007
crocin from crocus sativus possesses significant anti-proliferation effects on human colorectal cancer investigate the anti-proliferative effects of crocus sativus extract and its major constituent, crocin, on three colorectal cancer cell lines (hct-116, sw-480, and ht-29). the cell growth inhibition effect was compared to that of non-small cell lung cancer (nsclc) cells. in addition, crocus sativus' effect on non-cancer cells was evaluated.200718004240
use of in vitro assays to assess the potential antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of saffron (crocus sativus l.) in human lung cancer cell line.saffron is harvested from the dried, dark red stigmas of crocus sativus flowers. it is used as a spice for flavoring and coloring food as a perfume. it is often used for treating several diseases. we investigated the potential of the ethanolic extract of saffron to induce antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects in cultured carcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells in comparison with non-malignant (l929) cells.201021120034
effect of aqueous-ethanol extract from crocus sativus (saffron) on guinea-pig isolated this study, the effects of an aqueous-ethanol extract from crocus sativus on heart rate and contractility were examined. isolated guinea-pig hearts were perfused through the aorta in a langendorff mode. heart rate and contractility were determined in the presence of four concentrations of the extract (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mg%) and diltiazem (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 microm) in perfused heart with: (1) ordinary krebs solution (group 1, n = 9), (2) calcium-free krebs solution (group 2, n = 7). in gr ...200818058985
saffron supplement maintains morphology and function after exposure to damaging light in mammalian test whether the saffron extract (crocus sativus l.) given as a dietary supplement counteracts the effects of continuous light exposure in the albino rat retina.200818326756
traditional medicinal plants of cold desert ladakh-used against kidney and urinary disorders.traditional medicine of clod desert ladakh has large potential to treat various ailments among tribal communities inhabited in the remotest region of indian subcontinent. this study was conducted to document the new ethno-medico-botanical information and traditional use of medicinal plants against kidney and urinary disorders, and thus to conserve the rapidly disappearing traditional knowledge system of amchis of ladakh.200818550306
effect of crocus sativus l. (saffron) stigma and its constituents, crocin and safranal, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice.crocus sativus l. has been shown to interact with the opioid system. thus, the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of stigma and its constituents were evaluated on morphine-withdrawal syndrome in mice. dependence was induced using subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of morphine for 3 days. on day 4, morphine was injected 0.5 h prior the interaperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the extracts, crocin, safranal, clonidine (0.3 mg/kg) or normal saline. naloxone was injected (5 mg/kg i.p.) 2 h after the ...201019827024
hypotensive effect of aqueous saffron extract (crocus sativus l.) and its constituents, safranal and crocin, in normotensive and hypertensive this study, the effects of saffron (crocus sativus) stigma aqueous extract and two active constituents, crocin and safranal, were investigated on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate-induced hypertensive rats. three doses of crocin (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), safranal (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) and the aqueous extract (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) were administered intravenously in different groups of normotensive and hypertensive animals and their effects on mean arterial blood ...201020013822
crocin from kashmiri saffron (crocus sativus) induces in vitro and in vivo xenograft growth inhibition of dalton's lymphoma (dla) in this study we investigated in vitro and in vivo xenograft growth inhibition by crocin isolated from kashmiri saffron (crocus sativus). it was found that crocin decreased cell viability in dla cells, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. significant increase in the lifespan of dalton's lymphoma bearing animals was noted by 37% and 44%, respectively. furthermore, animals given treatment before induction of cancer showed 58% increase in lifespan and there was 95.6% reduction of solid tu ...200920104983
the effect of saffron consumption on biochemical and histopathological heart indices of rats with myocardial infarction.this study was designed to assess the effects of saffron (crocus sativus) on rats' heart with isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury. animals were divided randomly into four groups: vehicle-control group (ctl); iso group, administrated with isoproterenol 85 mg/kg s.c.; saffron group; and finally combined saffron + iso group. basal and final serum levels of heart troponin i, heart tissue antioxidants and histopathological indices were assessed in all groups. isoproterenol administration signific ...201020119744
changes of antioxidant enzyme activities and isoenzyme profiles during in vitro shoot formation in saffron (crocus sativus l.).among the different concentrations of thidiazuron (tdz) and between the two media gamborg (b5) and murashige and skoog (ms), the highest frequency of shoot formation could be seen in the ms medium with tdz concentration of 4.54 microm. among the different concentrations of naphtalene acetic acid (naa) and benzyl adenine (ba) in the two aforementioned media, the maximum proliferation and rooting of saffron shoots were obtained in a b5 medium containing 2.22 microm naa and 2.68 microm ba. peroxida ...201020194101
inhibitory effect of crocus sativus (saffron) on histamine (h1) receptors of guinea pig tracheal chains.the inhibitory effects of aqueous-ethanolic extracts of crocus sativus (iridaceae), on histamine (h1) receptors was examined on tracheal chains of guinea pigs. the effects of three concentrations of aqueous-ethanolic extract, 10 nm chlorpheniramine, and saline on histamine (h1) receptors were tested on three groups of guinea pig tracheal chains as follows; incubated trachea with: 1) indomethacin, 2) indomethacin, propranolol, and atropine and 3) indomethacin and propranolol. the ec50 (effective ...201020432629
fibrillation of alpha-lactalbumin: effect of crocin and safranal, two natural small molecules from crocus sativus.formation of toxic amyloid structures is believed to be associated with various late-onset neurodegenerative disorders such as alzheimer's and parkinson's diseases. the fact that many proteins in addition to those that are associated with clinical conditions have the potential to form amyloid fibrils in vitro provides opportunities for studying the fundamentals of protein aggregation and amyloid formation in model systems. accordingly, considerable interest and effort has been directed toward de ...201020564050
a study into the effectiveness of the application of saffron extract in ocular pathologies in experiment.the aim of the present research was to study the mechanism of the curative action of saffron extract (crocus sativus l.). we conducted a number of experiments on chinchilla rabbits with experimental models of retinal dystrophy. the obtained data indicates the antioxidative function plays a crucial role in the curative action of saffron extract and serves as a pathogenetic basis for its application in visual impairments of various origins. modern medicine is currently marked by a heightened inter ...201020587831
in vitro assay for the anti-brucella activity of medicinal plants against tetracycline-resistant brucella melitensis.brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. brucella melitensis is the main causative agent of brucellosis in both human and small ruminants. as an alternative to conventional antibiotics, medicinal plants are valuable resources for new agents against antibiotic-resistant strains. the aim of this study was to investigate the usage of native plants for brucellosis treatment. for this purpose, the anti-brucella activities of ethanolic and methanolic extracts o ...201020593515
effects of active constituents of crocus sativus l., crocin on streptozocin-induced model of sporadic alzheimer's disease in male rats.the involvement of water-soluble carotenoids, crocins, as the main and active components of crocus sativus l. extract in learning and memory processes has been proposed. in the present study, the effect of crocins on sporadic alzheimer's disease induced by intracerebroventricular (icv) streptozocin (stz) in male rats was investigated.201020683499
comparative analysis of pistil transcriptomes reveals conserved and novel genes expressed in dry, wet, and semidry stigmas.fertilization in angiosperms depends on a complex cellular "courtship" between haploid pollen and diploid pistil. these pollen-pistil interactions are regulated by a diversity of molecules, many of which remain to be identified and characterized. thus, it is unclear to what extent these processes are conserved among angiosperms, a fact confounded by limited sampling across taxa. here, we report the analysis of pistil-expressed genes in senecio squalidus (asteraceae), a species from euasterid ii, ...201020813907
the role of natural products in the discovery of new drug candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders ii: alzheimer's disease.the present review is part ii in a series (part i focuses on parkinson's disease) that addresses the value of natural product chemistry in the discovery of medicines for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. data reviewed document that a host of products from plant species and derivatives have neuroprotectant effects in vitro and in vivo. in addition, besides neuroprotection, natural products also demonstrate biological effects that target biochemical pathways underlying associated sympt ...201120874701
akt/gsk-3β/enos phosphorylation arbitrates safranal-induced myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.purpose: traditional medicine has been appropriately identified as the most productive soil for the cultivation and harvesting of modern medicines. herein, we postulate that safranal, an active constituent of crocus sativus, owing to its strong antioxidant and anti-apoptotic potential, could be a valuable molecule in alleviating myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (ir) injury. methods: to evaluate this hypothesis, sa ...201121983875
microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from four different spices.spices and herbs are known not only for their taste, aroma and flavour, but also for their medical properties and value. both spices and herbs have been used for centuries in traditional medical systems to cure various kinds of illnesses such as common cold, diabetes, cough and cancers. the aim of this work was the comparison between two different extractive techniques in order to get qualitative and quantitative data regarding bioactive compounds of four different spices (cinnamomum zeylanicum, ...201020877228
saffron (crocus sativus) ethanolic extract and its constituent, safranal, inhibits morphine-induced place preference in mice.the effects of saffron ethanolic extract and its constituent, safranal, on the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced place preference (cpp) in male swiss webster mice (20-25 g) were investigated in the present study. an unbiased place conditioning method was applied for assessment of morphine reward properties. the saffron extract and safranal were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) during (acquisition) or after induction (expression) of morphine cpp. in a pilot study, the extract an ...201122514895
hplc/pda/esi-ms evaluation of saffron (crocus sativus l.) adulteration.the present study evaluated the reliability of the iso/ts 3632-2 uv-vis spectrometric method for saffron classification, making experiments on saffron samples to which were added increasing concentrations of common saffron spice adulterants (safflower, marigold and turmeric). the results showed that the iso/ts 3632-2 method is not able to detect addition of up to 10-20%, w/w, of saffron adulterants. for additions from 20 to 50%, w/w, of the three adulterants, saffron was classified in a wrong ca ...201122312727
effects of saffron (crocus sativus l.) aqueous extract on in vitro maturation, fertilization and embryo development of mouse oocytes.lower pregnancy rates of in vitro matured oocytes compared to those of in vivo stimulated cycles indicate that optimization of in vitro maturation (ivm) remains a challenge. reduced developmental competence of in vitro matured oocytes shows that current culture systems for oocyte maturation do not adequately support nuclear and/or cytoplasmic maturation. therefore this study evaluates the effects of different concentrations of saffron (crocus sativus l.) aqueous extract (sae), as an antioxidant ...201123507933
crocetin prevents retinal degeneration induced by oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses via inhibition of caspase activity.crocetin is a carotenoid that is the aglicone of crocin, which are found in saffron stigmas (crocus sativus l.) and gardenia fruit (gardenia jasminoides ellis). in this study, we investigated the effects of crocetin on retinal damage. to examine whether crocetin affects stress pathways, we investigated intracellular oxidation induced by reactive oxygen species, expression of endoplasmic reticulum (er) stress-related proteins, disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (δψ(m)), and caspas ...201020951131
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