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cache valley virus: isolations from mosquitoes in saskatchewan, 1972-1974.eighteen isolations of cache valley virus (bunyaviridae) were obtained from a total of 113,694 mosquitoes collected in saskatchewan during the summers of 1972 to 1974. most of the isolations were from mosquitoes collected during august. culiseta inornata, the most abundant mosquito (38% of total collected), had the highest minimum vector-infection rate (0.83 isolations per 1000 mosquitoes). the virus was also isolated from culex tarsalis and aedes vexans. it is indicated in the isolations that t ...197938897
serologic survey for selected arboviruses and other potential pathogens in wildlife from mexico.during 1988 and 1989, a serologic survey of wildlife was conducted in northeastern mexico to determine the presence, prevalence, and distribution of arboviruses and other selected disease agents. eighty mammal specimens were tested. antibodies to vesicular stomatitis-indiana, venezuelan equine encephalitis-mena ii, rio grande virus, and vesicular stomatitis-new jersey were detected predominantly in small mammals. deer and mouflon (ovis musimon) had antibodies to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrha ...19921512876
serological evidence of california group and cache valley virus infection in minnesota white-tailed deer.blood samples were obtained from 138 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) harvested at three sites surrounding the greater minneapolis-st. paul, minnesota, metropolitan area (usa) and tested for neutralizing antibody to cache valley virus and three california serogroup (jamestown canyon, la crosse, trivittatus) viruses (bunyaviridae). deer at each site had neutralizing antibody to one or more california serogroup viruses and/or cache valley virus. the majority of adult deer (85%) had antib ...19911906113
evidence that cache valley virus induces congenital malformations in sheep.an outbreak of congenital abnormalities occurred in sheep at san angelo, texas, between december 1986 and february 1987. of 360 lambs born, 19.2% had arthrogryposis or other musculo-skeletal problems and hydranencephaly (agh), and the total neonatal loss was 25.6%. in 1987, all ewes that were tested with agh lambs had antibody to cache valley virus (cvv), whereas 62% of the ewes with normal lambs had cvv-specific antibody. pre-colostral serum samples from agh lambs had neutralizing antibody to c ...19902107620
laboratory investigation of a naturally occurring outbreak of arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly in texas sheep.an epizootic of abortions, weak lambs, stillbirths, and congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly occurred in a sheep flock in west texas. the outbreak began during the first week of january 1987 and continued through the third week of february 1987. lambs born after february 1987 were not affected. a high incidence of antibodies to cache valley virus (texas 7856 isolate) was demonstrated in the ewes' serum and in precolostral serum from affected lambs. no virus was isolated from tissues and bod ...19892488650
distribution of bunyamwera serogroup viruses in north america, 1956-1984.we attempted to tabulate all bunyamwera serogroup (family bunyaviridae, genus bunyavirus) isolates from north america. by summarizing information from the laboratories of the centers for disease control, data generously shared by other laboratories, and the published literature, we were able to accumulate data regarding 1,372 bunyamwera serogroup viruses. these were: tensaw (664, including 8 from vertebrates), cache valley (396, including 6 from vertebrates), main drain (160, including 14 from v ...19862869708
isolations of cache valley virus in texas, 1981.two strains of the same virus (isolates ar 168 and 7856), were isolated in 1981 from an apparently healthy cow and a sick sheep in tx, u.s.a. these isolates were shown to be members of the bunyamwera serogroup (family bunyaviridae, genus bunyavirus) by complement-fixation tests. serum dilution-plaque reduction neutralization test results indicated that the isolates are closely related to cache valley virus. the virus isolates were characterized by sensitivity to lipid solvent, size (50-100 nm by ...19873101276
isolation of a newly recognized bunyamwera serogroup virus from a febrile human in panama.a virus, strain 86msp18, was isolated from the acute phase serum of a u.s. soldier with a febrile illness. he was stationed at fort sherman in the republic of panama when the onset of his illness occurred. a rise in neutralizing antibody to the viral isolate was observed between the patient's acute and convalescent-phase serum samples. virus strain 86msp18 has been shown by plaque reduction neutralization to be closely related to but distinct from cache valley virus and known subtypes. it appear ...19883144921
cache valley virus from aedes sollicitans in new jersey. 19863507480
cache valley virus in the del mar va peninsula. 3. serologic evidence for natural infection of dairy cattle. 19704192339
the isolation of cache valley virus from mosquitoes in jamaica. 19664382516
isolation of turlock virus and a member of the bunyamwera group, probably cache valley virus, from alberta mosquitoes. 19684385087
cache valley virus in the del mar va peninsula. i. virologic and serologic evidence of infection. 19704392807
cache valley virus in the del mar va peninsula. ii. identity of virus recovered from mosquitoes. 19704392808
cache valley virus in the del mar va peninsula. iv. biological transmission of the virus by aedes sollicitans and aedes taeniorhynchus. 19704392809
arbovirus studies in the ohio-mississippi basin, 1964-1967. iv. cache valley virus. 19695817892
cache valley virus: experimental infection in culiseta inornata.experiments were conducted to examine the dynamics of cache valley virus in culiseta inornata, the probable chief vector of the virus. of about 1500 laboratory reared c. inornata exposed to viraemic suckling mice, 72 took a blood meal. a relatively high precentage (93%) of the latter mosquitoes became infected. the virus increased more than 100-fold in the experimentally infected mosquitoes. the increasing viral titres were noticed after 7 days and after 15 days. peak titres averaged 105.0 (mean ...19806105910
epidemiological investigation for arboviruses in jamaica, west indies.arbovirus investigation in jamaica was undertaken between 1960 and 1975. serological studies showed that antibodies to dengue type virus and st. louis encephalitis virus (sle) were prevalent throughout the island for several years. in urban communities, the incidence of dengue antibody was higher than for sle; however, in children under 10 years of age antibody to both viruses was rarely present. in rural areas, sle was prevalent in adults and children. this virus was isolated fom culex nigripal ...19807406115
cache valley virus.cache valley virus (cvv) is a causative agent of a mosquito-borne disease syndrome of sheep and, possibly, of all ruminants, characterized by embryonic and fetal death, stillbirths, and multiple congenital malformations. cvv is endemic in canada, mexico, and the united states. several related bunyaviruses also may play a role in syndromes of congenital malformations and embryonic losses in north america.19947728634
the infectious bronchitis virus nucleocapsid protein binds rna sequences in the 3' terminus of the genome.the infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) nucleocapsid protein was expressed as a bacterial fusion protein which differed from the native protein only in the addition of six amino terminus histidine residues. using rna overlay protein blot assays, the recombinant protein was shown to bind to rna fragments specific for the positive sense 3' noncoding end of the ibv genome. at greater concentrations of sodium chloride, the native and fusion nucleocapsid proteins similarly bound to g rna, representing ...19968599203
isolation of la crosse, cache valley, and potosi viruses from aedes mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) collected at used-tire sites in illinois during 1994-1995.prospective studies were conducted at used-tire sites in illinois during 1994-1995 in an effort to isolate arboviruses from mosquitoes, particularly aedes albopictus (skuse) and aedes triseriatus (say). three isolates of potosi virus were obtained from ae. albopictus collected at a waste tire site in jasper county during 1994 and 1995. also, a single isolate of cache valley virus was obtained from ae. albopictus collected at the jasper county site during 1995. these are the first records of arbo ...19989701947
cache valley and potosi viruses (bunyaviridae) in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus): experimental infections and antibody prevalence in natural populations.cache valley virus (cvv) and potosi virus (potv) are two closely related mosquito-borne viruses (bunyaviridae: bunyamwera group) that appear to circulate in several regions of the united states, especially the midwest. we determined the prevalence of specific neutralizing antibodies to both viruses in indiana white-tailed deer and conducted infection experiments to assess whether deer could serve as an vertebrate-amplifying host. cross-infection experiments also were carried out to investigate t ...19989840585
sequence analysis of the medium (m) segment of cache valley virus, with comparison to other bunyaviridae.the complete sequence of the medium (m) segment of cache valley virus (cvv), a human neuropathogen, has been determined using a series of overlapping cdna clones. the viral complementary-sense rna is comprised of 4463 nucleotides which encodes a polyprotein precursor of 1435 amino acids, starting at aug at bases 49-51 to a uga stop codon at bases 4351-4353. this polyprotein-encoding sequence is arranged as g2-nsm-g1. the base composition of the segment is 34.9% a, 17.0% c, 19.4% g and 28.7% u. c ...199910499453
the amino and carboxyl domains of the infectious bronchitis virus nucleocapsid protein interact with 3' genomic rna.previous studies indicated that the nucleocapsid (n) protein of infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) interacted with specific sequences in the 3' non-coding region of ibv rna. in order to identify domains in the n protein that bind to rna, the whole protein (409 amino acids) and six overlapping fragments were expressed as fusion polypeptides with six histidine-tags. using gel shift assays, the intact n protein and amino polypeptides, from residues 1 to 171 and residues 1 to 274, and carboxyl polype ...200010773316
serologic survey for selected infectious disease agents in swift and kit foxes from the western united states.a serologic survey of swift fox (vulpes velox) and kit fox (v. macrotis) from the western usa was conducted for 12 infectious diseases. samples from swift fox were collected between 1987 and 1992 from colorado (n = 44), kansas (n = 10), and wyoming (n = 9). samples from kit fox were collected in california (n = 86), new mexico (n = 18), utah (n = 9), and arizona (n = 6). overall antibody prevalence rates were 33 of 110 (30%) for canine parvovirus (cpv), 9 of 72 (13%) for canine distemper virus ( ...200011085448
cache valley virus, isolated from a trinidadian mosquito, aedes scapularis. 196113724163
virus transmission studies with trinidadian mosquitoes. iii. cache valley virus. 196314011452
cache valley virus, a previously undescribed mosquito-borne agent.cache valley virus was isolated from culiseta inornata mosquitoes collected in utah. the newly isolated agent causes signs of encephalitis in mice inoculated intracerebrally. it has been classified with the bunyamwera group of anthropod-borne (arbor) viruses.195914402567
detection of adventitious viruses in biologicals--a rare occurrence.adventitious virus assays are performed as part of raw materials testing, cell-line characterization, and lot-release testing of biologicals such as monoclonal antibodies, gene therapy vectors, recombinant proteins, and vaccines. the testing methods follow guidance provided in the 9 cfr (bovine and porcine raw materials testing, and certain vaccine products) or points to consider documents (cell line characterization and evaluation of the majority of biologicals). the methodologies used and the ...200616566443
second human case of cache valley virus disease.we document the second known case of cache valley virus disease in a human. cache valley virus disease is rarely diagnosed in north america, in part because laboratories rarely test for it. its true incidence, effect on public health, and full clinical spectrum remain to be determined.200616704854
isolation of bunyamwera serogroup viruses (bunyaviridae, orthobunyavirus) in new york state.during routine arbovirus surveillance from 2000 to 2004 in new york state (nys), 14,788 mosquito pools making up 36 species and nine genera were inoculated onto vero cell cultures to test for abroad spectrum of viruses. forty-six percent of viruses isolated in cell culture from species, excluding culex pipiens l. and culex restuans theobald, were identified as bunyamwera serogroup viruses. here, we report the distribution and level of bunyamwera activity in nys detected during this period. we de ...200617017240
evaluation of the eastern cottontail sylvilagus floridanus as an amplifying vertebrate host for cache valley virus (bunyaviridae) in indiana.to evaluate the importance of eastern cottontails (sylvilagus floridanus) as amplifying hosts for cache valley virus (cvv), we tested hunter-provided blood samples from northern indiana for specific neutralizing (n) antibodies against this mosquito-borne bunya-virus. samples were collected during the winter of 1994-95. two seronegative eastern cottontails, captured in july 1995, were also infected with cvv by subcutaneous inoculation, and two others were infected by allowing cvv-infected mosquit ...200818263839
detection of rna from a novel west nile-like virus and high prevalence of an insect-specific flavivirus in mosquitoes in the yucatan peninsula of mexico.as part of our ongoing surveillance efforts for west nile virus (wnv) in the yucatan peninsula of mexico, 96,687 mosquitoes collected from january through december 2007 were assayed by virus isolation in mammalian cells. three mosquito pools caused cytopathic effect. two isolates were orthobunyaviruses (cache valley virus and kairi virus) and the identity of the third infectious agent was not determined. a subset of mosquitoes was also tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (r ...200919141845
a duplex real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of california serogroup and cache valley viruses.a duplex taqman real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay was developed for the detection of california (cal) serogroup viruses and cache valley virus (cvv), for use in human surveillance. the targets selected for the assay were the sequences encoding the nucleocapsid protein of cal and the g1 glycoprotein of cvv. conserved regions were selected by aligning genetic sequences from various strains available in the genbank database. primers and probes were selected in co ...200919748425
detection of flaviviruses and orthobunyaviruses in mosquitoes in the yucatan peninsula of mexico in 2008.a total of 191,244 mosquitoes from 24 species were collected in the yucatan peninsula of mexico from january to december 2008, and tested for the presence of cytopathic virus by virus isolation in vero cells. eighteen virus isolates were obtained, all of which were orthobunyaviruses. these were identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and nucleotide sequencing as cache valley virus (n=17) and south river virus (n=1). a subset (n=20,124) of culex quinquefasciatus col ...201020370430
gamma-irradiation of serum for the inactivation of adventitious contaminants.assurance of viral and mycoplasma safety in biopharmaceuticals is best achieved through elimination of animal-derived materials from the manufacturing process. where this is not possible, the risk of introducing a contaminant through use of the material must be assessed and mitigated. bovine-sourced serum represents an animal-derived material that is required for certain biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. gamma-irradiation of frozen bovine serum was investigated as an approach for mitiga ...201021502047
adventitious viruses detected in biopharmaceutical bulk harvest samples over a 10 year period.while viral safety is a major concern for biologics manufactured using mammalian cells, the numbers of viral contamination events reported in the literature are quite low. during a 10-year period during which biologics derived from a variety of mammalian cell culture processes were evaluated using the in vitro virus screening assay, only reovirus type 2 and cache valley virus were detected, and these only in biologics manufactured in chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells. from the literature, we kno ...201021502056
major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in canada.in canada, the emergence of vector-borne diseases may occur via international movement and subsequent establishment of vectors and pathogens, or via northward spread from endemic areas in the usa. re-emergence of endemic vector-borne diseases may occur due to climate-driven changes to their geographic range and ecology. lyme disease, west nile virus (wnv), and other vector-borne diseases were identified as priority emerging non-enteric zoonoses in canada in a prioritization exercise conducted by ...201526954882
arboviruses in north dakota, 2003-2006.to investigate arbovirus transmission in north dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by vero cell culture assay. seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of west nile virus (wnv), cache valley virus, jamestown canyon virus (jcv), and trivittatus virus are reported. snowshoe hare virus, potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. the risks of culex tarsalis and aede ...201425487728
cell culture and electron microscopy for identifying viruses in diseases of unknown cause.during outbreaks of infectious diseases or in cases of severely ill patients, it is imperative to identify the causative agent. this report describes several events in which virus isolation and identification by electron microscopy were critical to initial recognition of the etiologic agent, which was further analyzed by additional laboratory diagnostic assays. examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and nipah, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, west nile, cache valley, and he ...023731788
spatial-temporal analysis of cache valley virus (bunyaviridae: orthobunyavirus) infection in anopheline and culicine mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in the northeastern united states, 1997-2012.cache valley virus (cvv) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus (family bunyaviridae, genus orthobunyavirus) that is enzootic throughout much of north and central america. white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) have been incriminated as important reservoir and amplification hosts. cvv has been found in a diverse array of mosquito species, but the principal vectors are unknown. a 16-year study was undertaken to identify the primary mosquito vectors in connecticut, quantify seasonal prevalence rates o ...025325321
monitoring sheep and culicoides midges in montana for evidence of bunyamwera serogroup virus infection.a serological and entomological investigation was performed to monitor for potential bunyamwera (bun) serogroup virus activity in montana.201426392881
orthobunyaviruses, a common cause of infection of livestock in the yucatan peninsula of mexico.to determine the seroprevalence of selected orthobunyaviruses in livestock in the yucatan peninsula of mexico, a serologic investigation was performed using serum samples from 256 domestic animals (182 horses, 31 sheep, 1 dog, 37 chickens, and 5 turkeys). all serum samples were examined by plaque reduction neutralization test using cache valley virus (cvv), cholul virus (chlv), south river virus (sourv), kairi virus, maguari virus, and wyeomyia virus. of the 182 horses, 60 (33.0%) were seroposit ...201223045250
what can akabane disease teach us about other arboviral diseases.viruses of the simbu serogroup cause lesions to foetuses that are seen at birth and that correlate with the stage of pregnancy at which the dam first contracts the virus. the simbu serogroup comprises arboviruses known to cause outbreaks of abnormal parturitions in domestic ruminants; these abnormalities include abortion, stillbirth, and congenitally deformed neonates. simbu serogroup members include: akabane virus (akav), aino virus, cache valley virus, and schmallenberg virus. lately, dairy he ...201627723047
serological survey for antibodies to mosquito-borne bunyaviruses among us national park service and us forest service employees.serum samples from 295 employees of great smoky mountains national park (grsm), rocky mountain national park (romo), and grand teton national park with adjacent bridger-teton national forest (grte-btnf) were subjected to serological analysis for mosquito-borne bunyaviruses. the sera were analyzed for neutralizing antibodies against six orthobunyaviruses: la crosse virus (lacv), jamestown canyon virus (jcv), snowshoe hare virus (sshv), california encephalitis virus, and trivittatus virus (tvtv) b ...201626855300
management factors associated with operation-level prevalence of antibodies to cache valley virus and other bunyamwera serogroup viruses in sheep in the united states.a cross-sectional study was performed to identify operation-level risk factors associated with prevalence of antibody to bunyamwera (bun) serogroup viruses in sheep in the united states. sera were obtained from 5150 sheep in 270 operations located in 22 states (three in the west, nine central states, and 10 in the east) and tested at a dilution of 1:20 by a plaque reduction neutralization test (prnt) using cache valley virus (cvv). antibodies that neutralized cvv were identified in 1455 (28%) sh ...201526565774
isolations of cache valley virus from aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae) in new jersey and evaluation of its role as a regional arbovirus vector.the asian tiger mosquito, aedes albopictus (skuse), is an invasive species and a major pest problem in urban and suburban locales in new jersey. to assess its potential role as an arbovirus vector, we sampled ae. albopictus from two new jersey counties over a 3-yr period and estimated the prevalence of virus infection by vero cell culture and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. three virus isolates were obtained from 34,567 field-collected ae. albopictus, and all were identif ...201324843937
evaluation of mosquito responses to pyrethroid insecticides topically applied to sheep.a rise in the incidence of mosquito-transmitted cache valley virus (cvv) in lambs in 2011 prompted a study to evaluate on-animal pyrethroid insecticides to reduce mosquito attacks on sheep. using enclosure traps for 1 night per wk for 6 wk, we compared engorgement rates of mosquitoes given the opportunity to feed on untreated sheep and sheep treated with 1 python insecticide ear tag (containing 10% zeta-cypermethrin and 20% piperonyl butoxide) per animal or 2 synergized permethrin body spray tre ...201323923329
nucleotide sequencing and serologic analysis of cache valley virus isolates from the yucatan peninsula of mexico.nucleotide sequencing was performed on part of the medium and large genome segments of 17 cache valley virus (cvv) isolates from the yucatan peninsula of mexico. alignment of these sequences to all other sequences in the genbank database revealed that they have greatest nucleotide identity (97-98 %) with the equivalent regions of tlacotalpan virus (tlav), which is considered to be a variety of cvv. next, cross-plaque reduction neutralization tests (prnts) were performed using sera from mice that ...201222467180
sequence and phylogenetic data indicate that an orthobunyavirus recently detected in the yucatan peninsula of mexico is a novel reassortant of potosi and cache valley viruses.we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the small (s) and medium (m) rna segments of an orthobunyavirus isolated from mosquitoes in the yucatan peninsula of mexico. a 528-nt region of the large (l) rna segment was also sequenced. the s rna segment has greatest nucleotide identity to the homologous region of cache valley virus (cvv; 98%) followed by potosi virus (potv; 89%) and northway virus (86%). the m rna segment has 96% nucleotide identity to the homologous region of potv, and les ...201222407405
identification of the target cells and sequence of infection during experimental infection of ovine fetuses with cache valley virus.cache valley virus-induced malformations have been previously reproduced in ovine fetuses; however, no studies have established the course of infection of cells and tissues with cache valley virus. to address these questions, ovine fetuses at 35 days of gestation were inoculated in utero with cache valley virus and euthanized at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days postinfection. on postmortem examination, arthrogryposis and oligohydramnios were observed in some infected fetuses. morphological studies sho ...201222379096
a novel cause of chronic viral meningoencephalitis: cache valley virus.immunodeficient patients are particularly vulnerable to neuroinvasive infections that can be challenging to diagnose. metagenomic next generation sequencing can identify unusual or novel microbes and is therefore well suited for investigating the etiology of chronic meningoencephalitis in immunodeficient patients.201728628941
northern range expansion of the asian tiger mosquito (aedes albopictus): analysis of mosquito data from connecticut, usa.the asian tiger mosquito (aedes albopictus) is an invasive species and important arbovirus vector that was introduced into the u.s. in the 1980's where it continues to expand its range. winter temperature is an important constraint to its northward expansion, with potential range limits located between the 0° and -5°c mean cold month isotherm. connecticut is located within this climatic zone and therefore, ae. albopictus was monitored statewide to assess its northern range expansion and to delin ...201728545111
maguari virus associated with human disease.despite the lack of evidence for symptomatic human infection with maguari virus (magv), its close relation to cache valley virus (cvv), which does infect humans, remains a concern. we sequenced the complete genome of a magv-like isolate (obs6657) obtained from a febrile patient in pucallpa, ucayali, peru, in 1998. to facilitate its classification, we generated additional full-length sequences for the magv prototype strain, 3 additional magv-like isolates, and the closely related cvv (7 strains), ...201728726602
seasonal distribution, blood-feeding habits, and viruses of mosquitoes in an open-faced quarry in connecticut, 2010 and 2011.seasonal abundance of mosquitoes, their viruses, and blood-feeding habits were determined at an open-faced quarry in north branford, ct, in 2010 and 2011. this unique habitat had not previously been sampled for mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses. thirty species of mosquitoes were identified from 41,719 specimens collected. coquillettidia perturbans, aedes trivittatus, and ae. vexans were the most abundant species and represented 34.5%, 17.7%, and 14.8% of the totals, respectively. jamestown c ...201831442119
neuropathological microscopic features of abortions induced by bunyavirus / or flavivirus infections.the present study describes the pathologic changes in the brain and the spinal cord of aborted, stillbirth and deformities of newborn lambs infected with viral agents.201425425524
laboratory validation of the sand fly fever virus antigen assay.sandfly fever group viruses in the genus phlebovirus (family bunyaviridae) are widely distributed across the globe and are a cause of disease in military troops and indigenous peoples. we assessed the laboratory sensitivity and specificity of the sand fly fever virus antigen assay, a rapid dipstick assay designed to detect sandfly fever naples virus (sfnv) and toscana virus (tosv) against a panel of phleboviruses. the assay detected sfnv and tosv, as well as other phleboviruses including aguacat ...201526675463
emergence of a new lineage of cache valley virus (bunyaviridae: orthobunyavirus) in the northeastern united states.cache valley virus (cvv; family bunyavidae, genus orthobunyavirus) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis that frequently infects humans and livestock in north and central america. in the northeastern united states, cvv transmission is unpredictable from year-to-year and may derive from the periodic extinction and reintroduction of new virus strains into this region. to evaluate this possibility, we sequenced and analyzed numerous cvv isolates sampled in connecticut during an 18-year period to determine h ...201525962774
role of anopheles quadrimaculatus and coquillettidia perturbans (diptera: culicidae) in the transmission cycle of cache valley virus (bunyaviridae: bunyavirus) in the midwest, usa.midwestern populations of coquillettidia perturbans (walker) and anopheles quadrimaculatus (say) were tested for their ability to transmit cache valley virus (cv), a recognized human and animal pathogen. field-collected mosquitoes were fed artificial blood meals containing 5.2-6.2 log10 pfu/ml of cv. after 9-23 d at 28 degrees c, 75-93% of blood-fed cq. perturbans had disseminated infections and 6-62% transmitted the virus to suckling mice. however, when infected with a lower virus titer (3.3 lo ...19989775588
lack of serologic evidence for an association between cache valley virus infection and anencephaly and other neural tube defects in texas.we tested the hypothesis that cache valley virus (cvv), an endemic north american bunyavirus, may be involved in the pathogenesis of human neural tube defects. this investigation followed a 1990 and 1991 south texas outbreak of neural tube defects with a high prevalence of anencephaly and the demonstration in 1987 that in utero infection by cvv was the cause of outbreaks of central nervous system and musculoskeletal defects in north american ruminants. sera from 74 women who gave birth to infant ...19979204303
life-threatening cache valley virus infection. 19979023091
interactions between the ibv nucleocapsid protein and rna sequences specific for the 3' end of the genome.the infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) nucleocapsid protein was expressed as a fusion protein in bacteria. the coding sequence differed from the native protein only in the addition of six histidine residues at the amino terminus which were used for enrichment with a nickel affinity column. in gel shift assays, the mobility of labelled g rna was decreased with increasing concentrations of the fusion protein. competitive gel shift assays with labelled g rna indicated that the protein interacted wit ...19958830535
virus isolations from mosquitoes in southern ontario, 1976 and 1977.following the 1975 epidemic of st. louis encephalitis (sle) in ontario, programs were instituted to monitor virus activity in mosquito populations during 1976 and 1977. mosquitoes were trapped with cdc light traps and co2 cone traps, pooled by species, and tested for virus by intracerebral inoculation of suckling mice. in 1976, 51 175 mosquitoes were tested. sle virus was isolated from two mixed pools of culex pipiens--c. restuans mosquitoes. five isolations of california serogroup viruses were ...19806103747
isolation of cache valley virus and detection of antibody for selected arboviruses in michigan horses in 1980.blood samples collected in september and november 1980 from 87 horses in southwestern michigan were examined for virus isolation and for plaque-reduction neutralizing antibody against selected arboviruses. cache valley virus was isolated from the blood of a clinically normal horse in st joseph county in september. the age-specific antibody prevalence for cache valley virus indicated enzootic transmission in the study area. the high antibody prevalence and the lack of age-specific antibody preval ...19873631684
cross-neutralization tests among cache valley virus isolates revealing the existence of multiple subtypes.maguari virus has been classified as a subtype of cache valley virus. seven bunyamwera serogroup viruses (including prototypes cache valley and maguari viruses), 4 viruses shown in previous tests as close antigenic relatives of maguari or cache valley viruses, and xingu virus were cross-tested by serum dilution-plaque reduction neutralization. all viruses were distinguishable from prototypes cache valley and maguari viruses. the close antigenic relationships of the cache valley-like viruses demo ...19883407840
investigations of the vertebrate hosts of eastern equine encephalitis during an epizootic in michigan, 1980.a study was undertaken to investigate an increase in reported cases of clinical encephalitis due to eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus in horses and to determine the natural vertebrate hosts of that virus. horses, birds, and small mammals were sampled at sites in a contiguous area in st. joseph and kalamazoo counties, michigan, from 25 august to 5 september 1980. serum samples from four horses acutely ill with encephalitis and 16 of 39 pasture mates of ill horses had neutralizing (n) antibo ...19853010751
ovine arthrogryposis and central nervous system malformations associated with in utero cache valley virus infection: spontaneous disease.gross appearance and histologic lesions seen in 15 newborn lambs in an outbreak of congenital arthrogryposis with hydrocephalus or hydranencephaly (cah) in texas are described. severe arthrogryposis with skeletal muscle hypoplasia was seen in limbs of affected lambs. spinal column deformities were also present. multiple central nervous system (cns) malformations were present in cah lambs including micrencephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, micromelia, hydrocephalus, hydranencephaly, and porencephaly. ...19892492399
congenital malformations in sheep resulting from in utero inoculation of cache valley virus.serologic evidence indicated that an episode of congenital abnormalities in sheep was caused by cache valley virus (cvv), a bunyavirus indigenous to the united states. to determine the teratogenic potential of cvv in sheep, fetuses were infected in utero between 27 and 54 days of gestation with an isolate (ck-102) obtained in 1987 from a sentinel sheep in san angelo, texas. the dams of these fetuses were euthanatized between 28 and 75 days after inoculation, and the fetuses were examined for mal ...19902122779
cache valley virus infection in texas sheep flocks.cache valley virus (cvv), an arbovirus indigenous to the united states, has been implicated as an important teratogenic agent in sheep. the prevalence and distribution of texas sheep with cvv-specific antibody were investigated. in 1981, 19.1% of 366 sheep located in 22 counties of texas had antibodies specific for cvv. of 50 flocks examined in the major sheep-producing counties in texas, 34 had sheep with antibodies that reacted with cvv, including all sheep tested in 6 flocks that were seropos ...19911917638
ovine fetal immune response to cache valley virus infection.cache valley virus (cvv)-induced malformations have been previously reproduced in ovine fetuses. to evaluate the development of the antiviral response by the early, infected fetus, before the development of immunocompetency, ovine fetuses at 35 days of gestation were inoculated in utero with cvv and euthanized at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days postinfection. the antiviral immune response in immature fetuses infected with cvv was evaluated. gene expression associated with an innate, immune response w ...201323468505
cache valley virus in a patient diagnosed with aseptic meningitis.cache valley virus was initially isolated from mosquitoes and had been linked to central nervous system-associated diseases. a case of cache valley virus infection is described. the virus was cultured from a patient's cerebrospinal fluid and identified with real-time reverse transcription-pcr and sequencing, which also yielded the complete viral coding sequences.201323515536
culicoides sonorensis (diptera: ceratopogonidae) is not a competent vector of cache valley virus (family bunyaviridae, genus orthobunyavirus).we investigated the susceptibility of culicoides sonorensis to cache valley virus (cvv) (family bunyaviridae, genus orthobunyavirus) infection and the potential that it could be a vector or site of virus reassortment. cvv is native to the new world and causes disease in livestock. infected blood meals were fed to both a competent vector, anopheles quadrimaculatus, and culicoides sonorensis. all anopheles mosquitoes were infected as expected, but only 21 % of the c. sonorensis insects were suscep ...201323636406
mosquito feeding-induced enhancement of cache valley virus (bunyaviridae) infection in mice.cache-valley (cv) virus, an arthropod-borne bunyavirus, recently has emerged as a significant veterinary pathogen causing infertility and congenital malformations in north american ruminants. to investigate the role of vector feeding on cv infection, adult mice were injected subcutaneously with cv, cv and vector thorax extract (a source of vector saliva), or cv into the site of intense, noninfected-mosquito feeding. mice did not become infected after injection of cv or cv and vector saliva, nor ...19989615544
cache valley virus in aedes japonicus japonicus mosquitoes, appalachian region, united states.we detected cache valley virus in aedes japonicus, a widely distributed invasive mosquito species, in an appalachian forest in the united states. the forest contained abundant white-tailed deer, a major host of the mosquito and virus. vector competence trials indicated that ae. j. japonicus mosquitoes can transmit this virus in this region.201829460762
seroprevalence of cache valley virus and related viruses in sheep and other livestock from saskatchewan, canada.cache valley virus, an orthobunyavirus, is an important cause of ovine neonatal malformations. information on the seroprevalence of this virus in saskatchewan livestock populations is lacking. the objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of cache valley virus and closely related viruses in sheep, cattle, goats, horses, and mule deer in saskatchewan by performing a plaque-reduction neutralization test using cache valley virus. in total, sera from 130 sheep from 50 flocks were ...201829606729
skeletal muscle hypoplasia represents the only significant lesion in peripheral organs of ruminants infected with schmallenberg virus during gestation.schmallenberg virus (sbv), an arbovirus within the family bunyaviridae, represents a ruminant pathogen that has caused epidemic abortion and birth of malformed or stillborn animals in many european countries since august 2011. histological and immunohistochemical analysis of peripheral tissues of sbv-infected animals, including lymphoid tissues, endocrine organs and tissues of the gastrointestinal, urogenital and respiratory system, were analyzed in order to elucidate the occurrence of sbv-assoc ...201424975894
molecular characterization of the african orthobunyavirus ilesha virus.ilesha virus is an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the genus orthobunyavirus of the bunyaviridae family. ilesha virus has been isolated from humans in several african countries, mostly in relation with febrile illness and erythema, though there are reported cases of fatal meningoencephalitis and hemorrhagic fever. in the present study, we report the complete genomic sequence of all three ilesha virus segments (s, m, l) and characterize the open reading frames. the nucleoprotein encoded by seg ...201323988729
surveillance of mosquito-borne viruses in alberta using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with generic primers.mosquitoes collected during 2003, 2004, and 2005 in alberta, canada, were screened for the presence of a wide range of arboviruses by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). nucleic acid extracts from mosquito slurries were amplified using universal primers designed to detect viruses belonging to the flavivirus genus of the flaviviridae family and california and bunyamwera serogroups of the bunyavirus genus within the bunyaviridae family. species-specific detection of western e ...200919496438
comparative analysis of g1 glycoprotein-coding sequences of cache valley virus (bunyaviridae: bunyavirus) isolates.the complete 4463 nucleotide sequence for the medium segment viral rna of cache valley virus has been cloned and sequenced in four isolates; in addition, the g1 glycoprotein extracellular coding domains are completed for nine additional isolates, including two subtypes, ft. sherman (86msp18) and tlacotalpan (61d240) viruses. the 13 represent isolations spanning over 45 years and a large geographic area, including the u.s., mexico, canada, and panama. glycosylation sites in g1 are generally conse ...200111324749
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