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[neuromuscular spindles of several amphibia and reptiles].the work presents data on the structure and innervation of the nerve-muscle spindles in the soleus of the lake from rana ridibunda, bufo bufo, turtle testudo horsfieldi, lizzard lacerta agilis. the animals under study were shown to have different structure and innervation of these receptors. the thickness of the spindle connective tissue capsule has certain correlation with the width of the subcapsular space. the innervation apparatus in the muscle spindles of reptiles and turtles are similar in ...1976136238
[oswaldocruzia filiformis (goeze, 1782) travassos, 1917--a new parasite of the sand lizzard (lacerta agilis l.)]. 1976983065
hosts on which nymphal ixodes ricinus most abundantly feed.to identify hosts that may serve as european reservoirs for the agent of lyme disease, borrelia burgdorferi, we determined whether nymphal ixodes ricinus feed mainly on particular mice (apodemus flavicollis or a. agrarius), voles (clethrionomys glareolus) or on sand lizards (lacerta agilis) and whether the abundance of these hosts corresponds to the seasonal activity of the subadult stages of the vector tick. in all sites, the mice appeared most heavily infested by larvae; at least seven parasit ...19911996733
[differences in macroglia of the spinal cord in various cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals].certain macroglial differences of the spinal cord in poikilothermal (rana esculenta, lacerta agilis) and in homoiothermal (columba livia, felis domesticus, macaca rhesus) animals have been revealed. a greater amount of glial satellites, surrounding neurons, motor centers of the spinal cord and appearance of new variety of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are observed in the homoiothermal animals. it is supposed that the phenomenon mentioned indirectly reflects the evolutionary process of a more d ...19902275612
immunoreactive opsin in the pineal organ of reptiles and birds.the presence of opsin was investigated with light microscopic immunocytochemistry in pinealocytes of reptiles and birds (emys orbicularis, pseudemys scripta elegans, lacerta agilis et viridis, gallus domesticus, columba livia, melopsittacus undulatus, serinus canaria, taeniopyga punctate). the outer segments of pinealocytes selectively bound antiopsin antibody as revealed by indirect immunocytochemical techniques, indicating the occurrence of a rhodopsin-like photopigment in these structures. th ...19826213109
light- and electron-microscopic demonstration of immunoreactive opsin in the pinealocytes of various vertebrates.an antibody to opsin isolated from rod outer segments of the frog retina was applied in light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemical studies to the pineal organ of various vertebrates (cyprinus carpio, carassius auratus, rana esculenta, emys orbicularis, pseudemys scripta elegans, lacerta agilis and viridis. gallus domesticus, columba livia, melopsittacus undulatus, serinus canaria, taeniopyga punctata, didelphis virginiana, erinaceus roumanicus, myotis myotis, rabbit, rat, cat).19816458362
comparison of the pineal complex, retina and cerebrospinal fluid contacting neurons by immunocytochemical antirhodopsin reaction.the presence of rhodopsin was investigated by an indirect immunocytochemical method in the pineal complex of various vertebrates (carassius auratus, cyprinus carpio, hypophthalamichthys molitrix, lucioperca lucioperca, triturus vulgaris, bombina bombina, rana esculenta, pseudemys scripta elegans, lacerta agilis et viridis, white leghorn chickens, rat), in the retina of lebistes reticulatus, lucioperca lucioperca, rana esculenta, lacerta agilis, pseudemys scripta elegans, the chicken and the rat, ...19807456628
[the morphofunctional characteristics of the interstitial endocrinocytes (leydig cells) of the testes in vertebrates under conditions of seasonal change in reproductive activity].by means of light and electron microscopy the structural organization of leydig cells was studied in rana ridibunda, lacerta agilis, columba livia in the periods of reproductive activity and reproductive break. the dynamics of structural changes of some parameters of the testicles (interstitial tissue square, endocrinocytes number, state of the cytoplasm, structural components and the volume of nuclei) was shown in the process of the reproductive activity seasonal changes. nuclear volume and the ...19958688941
similar localization of immunoreactive glutamate and aspartate in the pineal organ and retina of various nonmammalian vertebrates.the localization of immunoreactive glutamate and aspartate was compared in the pineal organ and retina of various vertebrates (raja clavata, carassius auratus, salvelinus alpinus, triturus vulgaris, triturus cristatus, lacerta muralis, lacerta agilis, lacerta viridis, columbia livia and white leghorn chicken) by postembedding immunoelectron microscopy. immunoreaction of both excitatory amino acids was detected in the pinealocytes in a localization similar to that of retinal photoreceptors. the r ...19958714767
microsatellites in the sand lizard (lacerta agilis): description, variation, inheritance, and applicability.we developed microsatellite markers for the sand lizard (lacerta agilis) to enable investigations of the genetic variability within and among populations with a heterogeneous spatial distribution in sweden. the populations, which could not be characterized by variation in allozymes or mitochondrial dna, had a substantial level of variability in microsatellite loci. however, the variability in swedish populations was limited compared to a large, outbred hungarian population. in the sand lizard, t ...19979435947
[ultrastructural organization of cardiomyocytes in various lower vertebrates].electron microscopy was used to study myocardium in cyprinus carpio, bufo bufo and lacerta agilis. myofibrils, mitochondria, nuclei and secretory granules in cardiomyocytes (cmc) of atrium and ventricle were analyzed quantitatively. amphibians and reptiles showed significant complication of both structural organization of cmc and intercellular contacts versus bony fish. the absence of t-systems in bony fish was noted.19989621323
promiscuity in sand lizards (lacerta agilis) and adder snakes (vipera berus): causes and consequences.we review postcopulatory phenomena in the swedish sand lizard (lacerta agilis) and adder (vipera berus), and in particular, links between female promiscuity, determinants of paternity, and offspring viability. in both species, females mate multiply and exhibit a positive relationship between the number of partners and offspring viability. we conclude that this relationship is most likely the result of variable genetic compatibility between mates arising from postcopulatory phenomena, predominant ...200111396578
[histopathological changes in lizard skin (reptilia: lacertidae) in feeding places of ticks of the genus ixodes (acari: ixodidae)].histopathological changes in a skin of lacerta agilis in the places of attachment and feeding of nymphs of ixodes pacificus and i. ricinus were investigated. the mouthparts of ticks are surrounded by the fibrin cone and collagen capsula formed by their hosts. ticks of these species do not produce the cement. a proliferation stage of skin inflammation is expressed, the large collagen capsula is formed as the result of proliferation. neutrophils and eosinophils predominate in the inflammate cell i ...200212481605
evaporative water loss of small vertebrates, as measured with an infrared analyzer.evaporation is linearly and inversely related to absolute humidity at 26 degrees to 27 degrees c. the relative rate of loss in desert reptiles, rodents, and anurans is about 1:10:40. the maximum rate of water loss is about 2.5 and 5 times the basal rate, respectively, in pocket mice and sand lizards. the ratio of loss from lung to loss from skin is about 84:16 in kangaroo rats and 70:30 in rattlesnakes.196113692977
major histocompatibility complex and mate choice in sand lizards.in mice and man, females prefer males with a major histocompatibility complex (mhc) genotype different to their own. we tested whether this phenomenon also occurs in the swedish sand lizard (lacerta agilis). females in a laboratory experiment preferred to associate with odour samples obtained from more distantly related males at the mhc class 1 loci. data on free-ranging lizards suggest that associations between males and females are nonrandom with respect to mhc genotype. however, male spatial ...200314667398
first record of metacestodes of mesocestoides sp. in the common starling (sturnus vulgaris) in europe, with an 18s rdna characterisation of the isolate.metacestodes of mesocestoides sp. were recorded from sturnus vulgaris (passeriformes: stumidae) in the czech republic in april 2002. they were found in a cutaneous cyst and in the thoracic region of the body cavity of the bird. this is the first record of metacestodes of mesocestoides sp. in this host species in europe as well as the first finding of the formation of a cutaneous cyst provoked by this parasite. additional specimens from apodemus agrarius (mammalia: rodentia) from bulgaria and lac ...200415139376
fit and fat from enlarged badges: a field experiment on male sand lizards.to investigate the impact of nuptial coloration (the badge) on male fitness in the swedish sand lizard (lacerta agilis), we conducted a manipulation experiment in a natural population. males in one group had their badges enlarged by being painted as cheaters and were compared to a control group with respect to mate acquisition, body condition and survival. badge enlargement did not affect survival, but elevated mate acquisition by almost 400%, and body condition in small males. this increase in ...200415252966
offspring-driven local dispersal in female sand lizards (lacerta agilis).we report on a field study in which determinants of female breeding dispersal (i.e. the shift in the mean home range coordinates between successive breeding events) was investigated. offspring were released in full sib groups (or half sib ones if there was within-clutch multiple paternity) at a separation distance from the females that varied between 'families'. this allowed for analysis of 'offspring nearness' effects on maternal dispersal. when a female's offspring were released more closely t ...200415525406
the role of haldane's rule in sex allocation.sex allocation theory predicts that parents should bias their reproductive investments toward the offspring sex generating the greatest fitness return. when females are the heterogametic sex (e.g., zw in butterflies, some lizards, and birds), production of daughters is associated with an increased risk of offspring inviability due to the expression of paternal, detrimental recessives on the z chromosome. thus, daughters should primarily be produced when mating with partners of high genetic quali ...200515792241
perpetuation of the lyme disease spirochete borrelia lusitaniae by lizards.to determine whether the lyme disease spirochete borrelia lusitaniae is associated with lizards, we compared the prevalence and genospecies of spirochetes present in rodent- and lizard-associated ticks at a site where this spirochete frequently infects questing ticks. whereas questing nymphal ixodes ricinus ticks were infected mainly by borrelia afzelii, one-half of the infected adult ticks harbored b. lusitaniae at our study site. lyme disease spirochetes were more prevalent in sand lizards (la ...200616820453
costly parasite resistance: a genotype-dependent handicap in sand lizards?male sand lizards (lacerta agilis) with a specific restriction fragment length polymorphism fragment in their major histocompatibility complex (mhc) genotype ('o-males') are more resistant to ectoparasites (a tick, ixodes ricinus) than are males that lack this fragment ('no-males'). however, emerging evidence suggests that such adaptive immune responses are costly, here manifested by reduced body condition and a compromised defence against secondary infections by haemoprotid parasites that use t ...200517148210
reptilian transferrins: evolution of disulphide bridges and conservation of iron-binding center.transferrins, found in invertebrates and vertebrates, form a physiologically important family of proteins playing a major role in iron acquisition and transport, defense against microbial pathogens, growth and differentiation. these proteins are bilobal in structure and each lobe is composed of two domains divided by a cleft harboring an iron atom. vertebrate transferrins comprise of serotransferrins, lactoferrins and ovotransferrins. in mammals serotransferrins transport iron in physiological f ...200717466466
sensitivity of population viability to spatial and nonspatial parameters using grip.metapopulation dynamics are influenced by spatial parameters including the amount and arrangement of suitable habitat, yet these parameters may be uncertain when deciding how to manage species or their habitats. sensitivity analyses of population viability analysis (pva) models can help measure relative parameter influences on predictions, identify research priorities for reducing uncertainty, and evaluate management strategies. few spatial pvas, however, include sensitivity analyses of both spa ...200818536258
densities and morphology of two co-existing lizard species (lacerta agilis and zootoca vivipara) in extensively used farmland in poland.the study was carried out in extensive farmland area near the town of odolanów, poland. during two breeding seasons (april-may, 2006-2007) lizards were counted on transect routes and captured by hand or by noosing. in total, 123 specimens of l. agilis and 153 specimens of z. vivipara were captured. the proportion of males to females wasn't differed from the theoretical 1:1 ratio. almost half of the individuals exhibited tail autotomy at least once in life. in the studied sand lizards significant ...200819055042
a potential recovery of a population of the sand lizard liolaemus lutzae mertens, 1938 in an area within its range: a lizard endemic and threatened with extinction.the endemic and threatened lizard liolaemus lutzae has a relatively small geographic range restricted to only 200 km of along the coast of rio de janeiro state, brazil, which are habitats under intensive anthropic disturbance. at the barra da tijuca beach, in rio de janeiro city an estimate of the population abundance made in 1991, compared to a previous estimate made in 1984, showed a considerable decrease (about 65%). most of the decrease was attributed to anthropic disturbances that locally a ...200919347163
detection of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in lizards and their ticks from hungary.to investigate the involvement of lizard species in the natural cycle of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in hungary, a total of 186 reptiles belonging to three species--126 green lizards (lacerta viridis), 40 balkan wall lizards (podarcis taurica), and 20 sand lizards (lacerta agilis)--were captured in 2007 and 2008. all ticks removed from the lizards were ixodes ricinus, either larvae (324/472; 68.6%) or nymphs (148/472; 31.4%). more than half (66/126; 52.4%) of l. viridis individuals we ...200919492950
ophionyssus saurarum (acari, mesostigmata) infecting lacerta agilis (reptilia, lacertidae).thirty specimens of sand lizard, lacerta agilis, were analyzed and ophionyssus saurarum was found on three of them. these parasitic mites were located in the ear opening of the host. the only lizard specimens which were infested were those that inhabit areas degraded by human activity.200919579788
monitoring population abundance of the sand lizard acanthodactylus scutellatus and their ant prey in oil polluted soils at kuwait's greater al-burgan oil field.desert ecosystems in al-burgan oil fields of kuwait were contaminated by heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons due to oil spill generated by the gulf war in 1990. studying sand lizard (acanthodactylus scutellatus) population and their ant prey in the years 2002 and 2003 to detect the effects of oil pollution is now a focus of study. polluted sites with apparently different degrees of pollution (namely tar mat, soot and clear sites) were compared with control sites outside this region. total li ...200920128514
role of sand lizards in the ecology of lyme and other tick-borne diseases in the netherlands.abstract:201020470386
blood parasites in two co-existing species of lizards (zootoca vivipara and lacerta agilis).we investigated the occurrence of blood parasites of two lizard species: the common or viviparous lizard (zootoca vivipara) and the sand lizard (lacerta agilis) in western poland. selected traits of lizard body morphology were studied with respect to the presence and intensity of haematozoan infection in blood samples collected from 218 adult lizards; 88 of the common lizard and 130 of the sand lizard. haemogregarinid blood parasites were found to be the common parasite of both lizard species in ...201020661747
structure of capsule around acanthocephalan corynosoma strumosum from uncommon paratenic hosts-lizards of two species.micromorphology and ultrastructure of capsule forming around acanthocephalan corynosoma strumosum in uncommon paratenic hosts-lizards lacerta agilis and lacerta viridis-have been studied. experimental infestation of the lizards by acanthocephalans obtained from naturally infested sea fishes showed that only small amount of parasites occurred in the intestine of the host was able to migrate into body cavity and to be encapsulated. micromorphology of capsules of different ages from different speci ...201121748352
anaplasmataceae and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the sand lizard lacerta agilis and co-infection of these bacteria in hosted ixodes ricinus ticks.anaplasmataceae and borrelia burgdorferi s.l. are important tick-borne bacteria maintained in nature by transmission between ticks and vertebrate hosts. however, the potential role of lizards as hosts has not been sufficiently studied.201121933412
topography and organization of cranial nerve nuclei in the sand lizard, lacerta agilis.cobaltic-lysine complex compound was used to label cranial nerves of the ventrolateral (branchiomotor) and dorsomedial (somatomotor) nuclear columns in the sand lizard, lacerta agilis. the dendritic arborizations and axonal trajectories of neurons of the respective nuclei were reconstructed from serial sections. a fairly uniform neuronal morphology was found in the nuclei of the ventrolateral column: a spindle-shaped perikaryon gave rise to dorsomedial and ventrolateral dendritic trees, the latt ...20123346375
locomotor performance of sand lizards (lacerta agilis): effects of predatory pressure and parasite load.locomotor performance affects foraging efficiency, predator avoidance and consequently fitness. agility and speed determine the animal's social status and reflect its condition. in this study, we test how predatory pressure and parasite load influences locomotor performance of wild specimens of the sand lizard lacerta agilis. animals were chased on a 2-metre racetrack. lizards with autotomy ran significantly faster than lizards with an intact tail, but there was no significant difference in runn ...201324052686
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. li. ticks infesting leopard tortoises <i>stigmochelys pardalis</i>, hingeback tortoises <i>kinixys zombensis</i> and angulate tortoises <i>chersina angulata</i>.the objective of the study was to record the tick species collected from three species of tortoise, each in a different province of south africa. ticks were collected from leopard tortoises, stigmochyles pardalis, in the southern region of the kruger national park, mpumalanga province; from hingeback tortoises, kinixys zombensis, in the enseleni nature reserve, kwazulu-natal province and from angulate tortoises, chersina angulata, in the west coast national park, western cape province. of the 63 ...201728281776
correlative changes during early morphogenesis of the sacroiliac complex in squamate reptiles.we tested the "limb bud" hypothesis, which explains morphogenetic mechanisms of the formation of the sacroiliac skeletal complex in tetrapods. the hypothesis assumes that: 1) the destruction of the embryonal sacral myomeres and the appearance in their place of a sacral gap filled in with mesenchymal cells favor the development of the sacroiliac complex; and 2) the destruction of myomeres takes place under the influence of limb buds. we studied serial hystological sections of embryos from squamat ...200011035639
karyotype reorganization in the hokou gecko (gekko hokouensis, gekkonidae): the process of microchromosome disappearance in gekkota.the hokou gecko (gekko hokouensis: gekkonidae, gekkota, squamata) has the chromosome number 2n = 38, with no microchromosomes. for molecular cytogenetic characterization of the gekkotan karyotype, we constructed a cytogenetic map for g. hokouensis, which retains the ancestral karyotype of gekkota, with 86 functional genes, and compared it with cytogenetic maps for four toxicofera species that have many microchromosomes (elaphe quadrivirgata, varanus salvator macromaculatus, leiolepis reevesii ru ...201526241471
identification of the linkage group of the z sex chromosomes of the sand lizard (lacerta agilis, lacertidae) and elucidation of karyotype evolution in lacertid lizards.the sand lizard (lacerta agilis, lacertidae) has a chromosome number of 2n = 38, with 17 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes, one pair of microchromosomes, a large acrocentric z chromosome, and a micro-w chromosome. to investigate the process of karyotype evolution in l. agilis, we performed chromosome banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization for gene mapping and constructed a cytogenetic map with 86 functional genes. chromosome banding revealed that the z chromosome is the fifth largest chrom ...201424840599
the immunohistochemical localization of synaptophysin protein (p38) in the gastro-entero-pancreatic (gep) system of reptiles.the gastro-entero-pancreatic (gep) system of four reptilian species: turtle (emys orbicularis), lizards (lacerta viridis and lacerta agilis) and snake (natrix natrix) has been investigated immunohistochemically for the presence and topographic distribution of synaptophysin. among the studied reptiles, only in turtles were neural, glial and neuroendocrine elements labelled for this marker protein. semi-quantitative evaluation of the immunolabelled neural structures distributed throughout the gast ...200918829074
prevalence and intensity of blood apicomplexan infections in reptiles from romania.in order to evaluate prevalence and intensity of apicomplexan hemoparasites in free-ranging reptiles from romania, blood smears were collected from european pond turtles (emys orbicularis), sand lizards (lacerta agilis), and spur-thighed tortoises (testudo graeca). all three host species were positive for blood parasites, with prevalence of infected individuals between 60.71% and 100% and variable intensity. similarities and differences with other epidemiological data are discussed.200818283494
the embryonic development of the cortical plate in reptiles: a comparative study in emys orbicularis and lacerta agilis.from the earliest stage of its ontogenesis, the mammalian cerebral cortex displays a remarkable cytoarchitectonic organization, with its neurons oriented radially within the cortical plate (cp). it is not known whether this radial organization of cortical neurons is characteristic of every cerebral cortex or whether it reflects a progressive phylogenetic acquisition. in order to study this question, the embryonic development of the cortex has been examined in reptiles, where it is the most primi ...19836863592
ciliated neurons and different types of synapses in anterior hypothalamic nuclei of reptiles.the magnocellular paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei and the parvocellular preoptic and periventricular nuclei have been studied by light and electron microscopy in emys orbicularis, lacerta agilis and elaphe longissima. the ultrastructure of cerebrospinal fluid (csf)-contacting neurons was described in the preoptic and periventricular nuclei of emys and lacerta species. single 9 x 2 + 0 cilia similar to those of the csf-contacting dendritic terminals were found on perikarya of non csf-contac ...1976991258
distribution of substance p, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and serotonin immunoreactive structures in the central nervous system of the lizard, lacerta agilis.the distribution of substance p (sp), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (vip) and serotonin (5-ht) containing structures in the central nervous system of the lizard, lacerta agilis, were investigated with the aid of the peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunohistochemical method. sp and 5-ht nerve fibers are found almost all over the brain, whereas vip fibers are mainly observed in the limbic area, in the periventricular gray matter of the diencephalon and in the brain stem. the cells of origin are loc ...19892477439
complete mitochondrial genome of the desert toad-headed agama, phrynocephalus przewalskii (reptilia, squamata, agamidae), a novel gene organization in vertebrate mtdna.the mitogenome of the desert toad-headed agama, phrynocephalus przewalskii, was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (pcr), long-and-accurate pcr and directly sequenced by primer walking. the complete mitogenome was 16,892 bp in size and contained 13 protein-coding, 23 trna, and 2 rrna genes, and 1 control region. the mitogenome of the p. przewalskii was similar to those of other phrynocephalus sand lizards in gene arrangement and composition, except that trna-phe and trna-pro were exchange ...201524117191
[red bone marrow of the lake frog (rana ridibunda) and the nimble lizard (lacerta agilis)].the purpose of the present investigation was to study the morpho-physiology of the red bone marrow of the lake frog (rana ridibunda, pall., 1771) and the nimble lizard (lacerta agilis, linnaeus, 1758) and also to detect the peculiar features of the generations of formed cellular elements in these animals. the research was conducted on sexually mature female frogs and lizards (30 animals of each species).the bone marrow of the investigated animals was taken for the analysis from the tubular limb ...201020593584
distribution pattern and number of ticks on lizards.the success of ectoparasites depends primarily on the site of attachment and body condition of their hosts. ticks usually tend to aggregate on vertebrate hosts in specific areas, but the distribution pattern may depend on host body size and condition, sex, life stage or skin morphology. here, we studied the distribution of ticks on lizards and tested the following hypothesis: occurrence or high abundance of ticks is confined with body parts with smaller scales and larger interscalar length becau ...201626520053
two new species of oswaldocruzia (nematoda, molineidae) parasitising lizards in ukraine.two new species, oswaldocruzia lisnykiensis sp. n. and oswaldocruzia lacertica sp. n., are described from anguis fragilis l. (reptilia: anquidae) and lacerta agilis l. (reptilia: lacertidae) respectively. both species belong to the palaearctic group of species which have spicules divided in three main branches (blade, fork and shoe) with fork division above its distal third. the new species differs from all previously known palaearctic species by several morphological characters: type of caudal ...201728609874
microchromosome polymorphism in the sand lizard,lacerta agilislinnaeus, 1758 (reptilia, squamata).most true lizards (lacertidae) share a conservative karyotype, consisting of 18 pairs of macrochromosomes and one microchromosome pair. homeologues of the microchromosome are present in other squamates and even in chickens. no structural autosomal microchromosome polymorphisms have been described previously in lizards. we found homozygous and heterozygous carriers of a microchromosome variant in a siberian population of the sand lizard,lacerta agilislinnaeus, 1758. the variant microchromosome wa ...201627830048
sex differences in sand lizard telomere inheritance: paternal epigenetic effects increases telomere heritability and offspring survival.to date, the only estimate of the heritability of telomere length in wild populations comes from humans. thus, there is a need for analysis of natural populations with respect to how telomeres evolve.201121526170
proximate determinants of telomere length in sand lizards (lacerta agilis).telomeres are repeat sequences of non-coding dna that cap the ends of chromosomes and contribute to their stability and the genomic integrity of cells. in evolutionary ecology, the main research target regarding these genomic structures has been their role in ageing and as a potential index of age. however, research on humans shows that a number of traits contribute to among-individual differences in telomere length, in particular traits enhancing cell division and genetic erosion, such as level ...201020356883
patterns of cranial ontogeny in lacertid lizards: morphological and allometric disparity.we explored the ontogenetic dynamics of the morphological and allometric disparity in the cranium shapes of twelve lacertid lizard species. the analysed species (darevskia praticola, dinarolacerta mosorensis, iberolacerta horvathi, lacerta agilis, l. trilineata, l. viridis, podarcis erhardii, p. melisellensis, p. muralis, p. sicula, p. taurica and zootoca vivipara) can be classified into different ecomorphs: terrestrial lizards that inhabit vegetated habitats (habitats with lush or sparse vegeta ...201323278889
to move or not to move: cranial joints in european gekkotans and lacertids, an osteological and histological perspective.lepidosaurs are frequently described as having highly kinetic skulls, and different forms of cranial kinesis have been described as being characteristic of their radiation. the model of amphikinesis proposed by frazzetta, j morphol 1962; 111:287-319, which was long considered a synapomorphy of the large suborder sauria, is now much debated given its uncertain distribution among the various lizard taxa and the lack of data about its morphological correlates. in this article, we analyze the anatom ...201424550139
phylogenetic relationships among the phrynosomatid sand lizards inferred from mitochondrial dna sequences generated by heterogeneous evolutionary processes.nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial protein coding cytochrome b (cyt b; 650 bp) and small-subunit 12s ribosomal rna (approximately 350 bp) genes were used in analyses of phylogenetic relationships among extant phrynosomatid sand lizards, including an examination of competing hypotheses regarding the evolution of "earlessness." sequences were obtained from all currently recognized species of sand lizards as well as representatives of the first and second outgroups and analyzed using both pa ...200012116429
seasonal shifts along the oviparity-viviparity continuum in a cold-climate lizard population.squamate embryos require weeks of high temperature to complete development, with the result that cool climatic areas are dominated by viviparous taxa (in which gravid females can sun-bask to keep embryos warm) rather than oviparous taxa (which rely on warm soil to incubate their eggs). how, then, can some oviparous taxa reproduce successfully in cool climates - especially late in summer, when soil temperatures are falling? near the northern limit of their distribution (in sweden), sand lizards ( ...201829080390
corticosterone: a costly mediator of signal honesty in sand lizards.the mechanisms underlying honest signal expression remain elusive and may involve the integration of social and physiological costs. corticosterone is a socially modulated metabolic hormone that mediates energy investment and behavior and may therefore function to deter dishonest signal expression. we examined the relationship between corticosterone and green badge coloration in male sand lizards (lacerta agilis), hypothesizing that physiological and behavioral costs resulting from elevated base ...201628725412
encapsulation of the acanthocephalan sphaerirostris picae in its natural paratenic host, lacerta agilis.this study presents the structure of the capsule around the acanthocephalan sphaerirostris picae (rudolphi, 1819) golvan, 1956, in its natural paratenic host, lacerta agilis linnaeus, 1758. the capsule was composed of 2 layers: a thin, dense inner layer and a loose, thick outer layer. the inner layer was formed by macrophages and multinucleated cells. the outer layer consisted mainly of flattened fibroblasts, which included a small number of macrophages, granulocytes, plasma cells, and pigment c ...201627019054
coupling satellite data with species distribution and connectivity models as a tool for environmental management and planning in matrix-sensitive species.climate change and anthropogenic habitat fragmentation are considered major threats for global biodiversity. as a direct consequence, connectivity is increasingly disrupted in many species, which might have serious consequences that could ultimately lead to the extinction of populations. although a large number of reserves and conservation sites are designated and protected by law, potential habitats acting as inter-population connectivity corridors are, however, mostly ignored in the common pra ...201627094442
mammalian x homolog acts as sex chromosome in lacertid lizards.among amniotes, squamate reptiles are especially variable in their mechanisms of sex determination; however, based largely on cytogenetic data, some lineages possess highly evolutionary stable sex chromosomes. the still very limited knowledge of the genetic content of squamate sex chromosomes precludes a reliable reconstruction of the evolutionary history of sex determination in this group and consequently in all amniotes. female heterogamety with a degenerated w chromosome typifies the lizards ...201626980341
ultrastructural features of the differentiating thyroid primordium in the sand lizard (lacerta agilis l.) from the differentiation of the cellular cords to the formation of the follicular lumen.the differentiation of the thyroid primordium of lacertilian species is poorly understood. the present study reports on the ultrastructural analysis of the developing thyroid primordium in the sand lizard (lacerta agilis) during the early stages of differentiation. the early thyroid primordium of sand lizard embryos was composed of cellular cords that contained single cells with a giant lipid droplet, which were eliminated by specific autophagy (lipophagy). the follicular lumens at the periphery ...201626966051
when a general morphology allows many habitat uses.during the last decades the study of functional morphology received more attention incorporating more detailed data corresponding to the internal anatomy that together contribute for a better understanding of the functional basis in locomotion. here we focus on 2 lizard families, tropiduridae and liolaemidae, and use information related to muscle-tendinous and external morphology traits of hind legs. we investigate whether the value of the traits analyzed tend to exhibit a reduced phenotypic var ...201626853228
selection and constraints on offspring size-number trade-offs in sand lizards (lacerta agilis).the trade-off between offspring size and number is a central component of life-history theory, postulating that larger investment into offspring size inevitably decreases offspring number. this trade-off is generally discussed in terms of genetic, physiological or morphological constraints; however, as among-individual differences can mask individual trade-offs, the underlying mechanisms may be difficult to reveal. in this study, we use multivariate analyses to investigate whether there is a tra ...201626851437
stable isotope analysis of diet confirms niche separation of two sympatric species of namib desert lizard.we used stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to study the trophic niche of two species of insectivorous lizards, the husab sand lizard pedioplanis husabensis and bradfield's namib day gecko living sympatrically in the namib desert. we measured the δ(13) c and δ(15) n ratios in lizard blood tissues with different turnover times (whole blood, red blood cells and plasma) to investigate lizard diet in different seasons. we also measured the δ(13) c and δ(15) n ratios in available arthropod prey an ...201626817923
no interstitial telomeres on autosomes but remarkable amplification of telomeric repeats on the w sex chromosome in the sand lizard (lacerta agilis).telomeres are repeat (ttaggg) n sequences that form terminal ends of chromosomes and have several functions, such as protecting the coding dna from erosion at mitosis. due to chromosomal rearrangements through evolutionary history (e.g., inversions and fusions), telomeric sequences are also found between the centromere and the terminal ends (i.e., at interstitial telomeric sites, itss). its telomere sequences have been implicated in heritable disease caused by genomic instability of its polymorp ...201526464091
sand lizard (lacerta agilis) phenology in a warming world.present-day climate change has altered the phenology (the timing of periodic life cycle events) of many plant and animal populations worldwide. some of these changes have been adaptive, leading to an increase in population fitness, whereas others have been associated with fitness decline. representing short-term responses to an altered weather regime, hitherto observed changes are largely explained by phenotypic plasticity. however, to track climatically induced shifts in optimal phenotype as cl ...201526446705
geographic variation of life-history traits in the sand lizard, lacerta agilis: testing darwin's fecundity-advantage hypothesis.the fecundity-advantage hypothesis (fah) explains larger female size relative to male size as a correlated response to fecundity selection. we explored fah by investigating geographic variation in female reproductive output and its relation to sexual size dimorphism (ssd) in lacerta agilis, an oviparous lizard occupying a major part of temperate eurasia. we analysed how sex-specific body size and ssd are associated with two putative indicators of fecundity selection intensity (clutch size and th ...201525627276
the complete mitochondrial genome of phrynocephalus helioscopus (reptilia, squamata, agamidae).the toad-headed lizards of genus phrynocephalus are one of the most prevalent animals in the central asian desert. a few studies have investigated molecular phylogenesis of phrynocephalus, yet yield inconsistent results. moreover, these studies were only based on a few specific dna fragments of mitochondrial genome. to facilitate the clarification of molecular phylogenesis of phrynocephalus, we conducted this study to sequence the entire mitochondrial genome of the phrynocephalus helioscopus col ...201625319288
the complete mitochondrial genome of grumgzimailo's toad-headed agama, phrynocephalus grumgrizimailoi (reptilia, squamata, agamidae).polymerase chain reaction (pcr), long-and-accurate pcr and directly sequencing by primer walking was used to sequenced he complete mitochondrial genome sequence of grumgzimailo's toad- headed agama, phrynocephalus grumgrizimailoi. the genbank accession was km093859. there was 16,301 bp in length of the entire mitochondrial genome of p. grumgrizimailoi and the content of a, t, c, and g were 36.4%, 26.5%, 25.0% and 12.1%, respectively, that was similar to most vertebrate. the complete mitochondria ...201625208174
the complete mitochondrial genome of the color changeable toad-headed agama, phrynocephalus versicolor (reptilia, squamata, agamidae).the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of color changeable toad-headed agama, phrynocephalus versicolor, was determined using polymerase chain reaction (pcr), long-and-accurate pcr and directly sequencing by primer walking. the entire mitochondrial genome of p. versicolor was 16,429 bp in length, the accession was kj749841 and the content of a, t, c, and g were 36.1%, 26.5%, 24.9% and 12.5%, respectively, which was similar to most vertebrate. the complete mitochondrial genome of p. versicolo ...201624989048
intraspecific lineages of the lizard phrynocephalus putjatia from the qinghai-tibetan plateau: impact of physical events on divergence and discordance between morphology and molecular markers.the northeastern qinghai-tibetan plateau (nqtp) contains many physical features that may have contributed to its rich biological diversity. we explored the systematics and genetic structures of the sand lizards phrynocephalus putjatia, distributed across semi-deserts or rocky steppe habitats, and phrynocephalus guinanensis, found only in sand dune habitats, from the nqtp using mitochondrial (nd2 and trnas) and nuclear (rag-1) markers. bayesian analyses revealed two main monophyletic mtdna groups ...201424269317
complete mitochondrial genome of lacerta agilis (squamata, lacertidae).the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of lacerta agilis was determined in the present paper. the genome was 17,090 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rrna genes, 22 trna genes and 1 control region (cr). the gene composition and order of which was similar to most other squamate reptiles. the overall base composition of the genome in descending order was 31.29% a, 26. 39% c, 29.01% t and 13.29% g, with a slight at bias of 60.30%. cr is located between the trna-pro and trna- ...201423815333
species history and divergence times of viviparous and oviparous chinese toad-headed sand lizards (phrynocephalus) on the qinghai-tibetan plateau.the qinghai-tibetan plateau (qtp) is an important biogeographical area and has recently become a focus for biodiversity studies. phyrnocephalus lizards form a widespread eurasian group with oviparous and viviparous reproductive modes, but two previous mtdna studies of species from around the qtp have provided different phylogenetic hypotheses. we analysed three loci (mtdna, rag-1, ame) from all recognised chinese phrynocephalus species to reconstruct the speciation history of the group and to es ...201323567019
when is a species declining? optimizing survey effort to detect population changes in reptiles.biodiversity monitoring programs need to be designed so that population changes can be detected reliably. this can be problematical for species that are cryptic and have imperfect detection. we used occupancy modeling and power analysis to optimize the survey design for reptile monitoring programs in the uk. surveys were carried out six times a year in 2009-2010 at multiple sites. four out of the six species--grass snake, adder, common lizard, slow-worm -were encountered during every survey from ...201222937044
reptilian myotomal myogenesis-lessons from the sand lizard lacerta agilis l. (reptilia, lacertidae)update.reptilian myotomal myogenesis is poorly understood. this paper reports on structural, ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies of muscle differentiation in sand lizard (lacerta agilis) embryos. during somitogenesis, the somites are composed of epithelial vesicles with a centrally located somitocoel. at later developmental stages the ventral portion of the somite cortex disaggregates into the sclerotome mesenchyme, while the dorsal wall of the somite differentiates into dermomyotome. at the ...201222906593
sequence variation in the melanocortin-1 receptor (mc1r) pigmentation gene and its role in the cryptic coloration of two south american sand lizards.in reptiles, dorsal body darkness often varies with substrate color or temperature environment, and is generally presumed to be an adaptation for crypsis or thermoregulation. however, the genetic basis of pigmentation is poorly known in this group. in this study we analyzed the coding region of the melanocortin-1-receptor (mc1r) gene, and therefore its role underlying the dorsal color variation in two sympatric species of sand lizards (liolaemus) that inhabit the southeastern coast of south amer ...201222481878
complex selection associated with hox genes in a natural population of lizards.hox genes are recognized for their explanatory power of bilateral development. however, relatively little is known about natural variation in, and the evolutionary dynamics of, hox genes within wild populations. utilizing a natural population of sand lizards (lacerta agilis), we screened hoxa13 for genetic variation and an association with incidence of offspring malformations. we found significant effects of parental genetic similarity and offspring sex, and their interaction, on risk of hatchin ...201121883611
uv-deprived coloration reduces success in mate acquisition in male sand lizards (lacerta agilis).recent work on animal signals has revealed a wide occurrence of uv signals in tetrapods, in particular birds, but also in lizards (and perhaps other squamate reptiles). our previous work on the swedish sand lizard (lacerta agilis) has verified, both in correlative selection analyses in the wild and with laboratory and field experiments, the importance of the green 'badge' on the body sides of adult males for securing mating opportunities, probably mostly through deterring rival males rather than ...201121602928
sexual differences in telomere selection in the wild.telomere length is restored primarily through the action of the reverse transcriptase telomerase, which may contribute to a prolonged lifespan in some but not all species and may result in longer telomeres in one sex than the other. to what extent this is an effect of proximate mechanisms (e.g. higher stress in males, higher oestradiol/oestrogen levels in females), or is an evolved adaptation (stronger selection for telomere length in one sex), usually remains unknown. sand lizard (lacerta agili ...201121486373
evidence of hepatotoxicity in the sand lizard acanthodactylus scutellatus from kuwait's greater al-burgan oil field.the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of oil pollution in a desert location (the greater al-burgan oil fields, an area damaged in the gulf war in 1991) in kuwait on the hepatotoxicity of the sand lizard acanthodactylus scutellatus (a. scutellatus). twenty lizards (10 of each sex) from each polluted and each control sites were collected. livers were removed from dissected animals and ready for fixation by bouin's solution and formal-saline. twenty sections (10 from males and 10 ...201121411141
environmental differences in substrate mechanics do not affect sprinting performance in sand lizards (uma scoparia and callisaurus draconoides).running performance depends on a mechanical interaction between the feet of an animal and the substrate. this interaction may differ between two species of sand lizard from the mojave desert that have different locomotor morphologies and habitat distributions. uma scorparia possesses toe fringes and inhabits dunes, whereas the closely related callisaurus draconoides lacks fringes and is found on dune and wash habitats. the present study evaluated whether these distribution patterns are related t ...201121147976
in hot pursuit: fluctuating mating system and sexual selection in sand lizards.a changing climate is expected to have profound effects on many aspects of ectotherm biology. we report on a decade-long study of free-ranging sand lizards (lacerta agilis), exposed to an increasing mean mating season temperature and with known operational sex ratios. we assessed year-to-year variation in sexual selection on body size and postcopulatory sperm competition and cryptic female choice. higher temperature was not linked to strength of sexual selection on body mass, but operational sex ...201121044055
effects of oil pollution at kuwait's greater al-burgan oil field on the timing of morning emergence, basking and foraging behaviors by the sand lizard acanthodactylus scutellatus.an attempt was made to study the effects of oil pollution in a desert location (the greater al-burgan oil fields, an area damaged in the second gulf war) in kuwait on the behaviour of the sand lizard a. scutellatus. polluted sites with apparently different degrees of contamination (namely tar mat, soot and clear sites) were compared with control areas outside this region. between 2002 and 2003, ten lizards (5 of each sex) on each polluted and each control site were observed in the field at a tim ...200818817131
phylogenetic relationships and heterogeneous evolutionary processes among phrynosomatine sand lizards (squamata, iguanidae) revisited.phylogenetic analyses of dna sequences were conducted to evaluate four alternative hypotheses of phrynosomatine sand lizard relationships. sequences comprising 2871 aligned base pair positions representing the regions spanning nd1-coi and cyt b-trna(thr) of the mitochondrial genome from all recognized sand lizard species were analyzed using unpartitioned parsimony and likelihood methods, likelihood methods with assumed partitions, bayesian methods with assumed partitions, and bayesian mixture mo ...200818362078
nuclear and mtdna-based phylogeny of southern african sand lizards, pedioplanis (sauria: lacertidae).the diversity of lacertid lizards in africa is highest in the southern african subcontinent, where over two-thirds of the species are endemic. with eleven currently recognized species, pedioplanis is the most diverse among the southern african genera. in this study we use 2200 nucleotide positions derived from two mitochondrial markers (nd2 and 16s rrna) and one nuclear gene (rag-1) to (i) assess the phylogeny of pedioplanis and (ii) estimate divergence time among lineages using the relaxed mole ...200717588779
differential sex allocation in sand lizards: bright males induce daughter production in a species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes.in sand lizards (lacerta agilis), males with more and brighter nuptial coloration also have more dna fragments visualized in restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of their major histocompatibility complex class i loci (and, hence, are probably more heterozygous at these loci). such males produce more viable offspring, with a particularly strong viability effect on daughters. this suggests that females should adjust both their reproductive investment and offspring sex ratio in relatio ...200517148211
thermal biology of liolaemus occipitalis (squamata, tropiduridae) in the coastal sand dunes of rio grande do sul, brazil.the thermal biology of the small sand lizard, liolaemus occipitalis, was studied in the coastal sand dunes at quintão beach (palmares do sul, rio grande do sul, brazil; 30 degrees 24' s and 50 degrees 17' w), between september, 1998 and august, 1999. liolaemus occipitalis presented a mean body temperature of 30.89 degrees c (sd = 4.43 degrees c; min = 16.4 degrees c; max = 40.2 degrees c; n = 270), that varied on a daily and seasonal basis according to microhabitat thermal alterations. the subst ...200617119843
[finding of bov-b line retroelement in parthenogenetic and bisexual lizard species of the genus darevskia (lacertidae)].the bov-b line retrotransposon was first discovered in ruminantia and was long considered to be specific for this order. later, this mobile element was described in snakes and some lizard species. analysis of phylogenetic relationships of bov-b line elements from different ruminants, snakes, and lizard species led to the suggestion on horizontal transfer of this retrotransposon from squamata to ruminantia. in the squamata group, bov-b line element was found in all snakes and some lizard species ...200616915928
[molecular markers of nuclear dna in the study of evolution and speciation process in an example of "lacerta agilis complex" (sauria: lacertidae)].in order to elucidate the molecular-genetic relations of some lacerta s. str. lizard populations, subspecies and species in comparison with some other genera we used methods revealing four types of nuclear dna markers. among these were taxonprint, rapd, inter-mir-pcr markers and also satellite dna monomer sequences. the aim was to compare the phylogeny and systematics of this reptilian group based on morphological and molecular criteria. this problem has a general importance for understanding a ...200816523693
muscle fiber-type variation in lizards (squamata) and phylogenetic reconstruction of hypothesized ancestral states.previously, we found that phrynosomatid lizards, a diverse group common in the southwestern usa, vary markedly in fiber-type composition of the iliofibularis (a hindlimb muscle important in locomotion). phrynosomatidae comprises three subclades: the closely related sand and horned lizards, and their relatives the sceloporus group. the variation in muscle fiber-type composition for 11 phrynosomatid species is attributable mainly to differences between the sand- and horned-lizard subclades. here, ...200516339872
new satellite dna in lacerta s. str. lizards (sauria: lacertidae): evolutionary pathways and phylogenetic impact.a new tandemly repeated (satellite) dna family namely agi160, from lacerta agilis and lacerta strigata (lacerta sensu stricto (s. str.), linnaeus 1758) have been cloned and sequenced. agi160 is found in the above two species, as well as two other representatives of the same genus, l. viridis and l. media. dna hybridization did not reveal it in darevskia, podarcis, zootoca, eremias, ophisops, and gallotia - the other genera of the family lacertidae. the results suggest that agi160 is a lacerta s. ...200415390352
fecundity and mhc affects ejaculation tactics and paternity bias in sand lizards.we demonstrate that extending copulation enhances probability of paternity in sand lizards and that determinants of copulation duration depend on a males' mating order (first or second). first males, with no information on presence of rivals, extend copulation when mating with a more fecund female. second males, however, adjust copula duration in relation to a first male's relatedness with his female, which there is reason to believe can be deduced from the mhc-related odor of the copulatory plu ...200415154566
rhythmic contractile activity of amnion during the embryogenesis of the sand lizard (lacerta agilis). 201712854398
comparative analysis of fiber-type composition in the iliofibularis muscle of phrynosomatid lizards (squamata).the lizard family phrynosomatidae comprises three subclades: the closely related sand and horned lizards, and their relatives the sceloporus group. this family exhibits great variation in ecology, behavior, and general body plan. previous studies also show that this family exhibits great diversity in locomotor performance abilities; as measured on a high-speed treadmill, sand lizards are exceptionally fast sprinters, members of the sceloporus group are intermediate, and horned lizards are slowes ...200111746464
helminths of the sand lizard, lacerta agilis (reptilia, lacertidae), in the palaearctic: faunal diversity and spatial patterns of variation in the composition and structure of component communities.we studied variation in the structure of component communities of helminths in sand lizards, lacerta agilis, from 30 localities in the ukraine and bulgaria. thirty-five separate samples of lizards, with a total of 661 completely censused infracommunities, yielded 30 helminth species (4 cestodes, 10 trematodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 13 nematodes). in its range within the ukraine, l. agilis serves as the final host for 13 species of which only 3 (s. lacertae, s. hoffmanni and p. molini) can be co ...200111676371
testosterone, ticks and travels: a test of the immunocompetence-handicap hypothesis in free-ranging male sand lizards.the immunocompetence-handicap hypothesis suggests that androgen-dependent male characters constitute honest signals of mate and/or rival quality because of the imposed costs through immune suppression associated with elevated testosterone levels. we demonstrate in a field experiment that male sand lizards (lacerta agilis) exposed to elevated testosterone suffered from increased mass loss and tick load compared to control males. although the first of these two results could be due to an elevated ...200011413653
rapid speciation, morphological evolution, and adaptation to extreme environments in south african sand lizards (meroles) as revealed by mitochondrial gene sequences.data derived from the morphology of the seven species of south african sand lizards, meroles (reptilia, lacertidae), and their outgroups produce a robust estimate of phylogeny when a maximum parsimony approach is applied. the estimate is fully resolved with little character conflict and internal branches are relatively long. this analysis indicates that meroles is a true clade that includes the aberrant lacertid long separated as aporosaura anchietae. the tree is pectinate, its successive extern ...19989751916
advantages of multiple matings to females: a test of the infertility hypothesis using lizards. 199728568628
paternal genotype influences incubation period, offspring size, and offspring shape in an oviparous reptile.theoretical models for the evolution of life-history traits assume a genetic basis for a significant proportion of the phenotypic variance observed in characteristics such as hatching date and offspring size. however, recent experimental work has shown that much of the phenotypic variance in hatchling reptiles is induced by nongenetic factors, such as maternal nutrition and thermoregulation, and the physical conditions experienced during embryogenesis. thus, there is no unambiguous evidence for ...199628565274
does reproductive success increase with age or with size in species with indeterminate growth? a case study using sand lizards (lacerta agilis).most data on determinants of reproductive success (rs) and reproductive "tactics" are correlational in nature, and hence cannot be used to infer causation. consistent patterns-such as an increase in rs with age, as seen in many types of organisms-may result from diverse underlying mechanisms. ontogenetic increases in rs in mammals and birds may be due largely to direct effects of age (via learning, etc.) but our analyses show that apparently analogous ontogenetic shifts in reproductive tactics a ...199628307079
phylogenetic relationships among phrynosomatid lizards as inferred from mitochondrial ribosomal dna sequences: substitutional bias and information content of transitions relative to transversions.the phylogenetic relationships among 40 species, representing all genera, within the north american lizard family phrynosomatidae were inferred from mitochondrial ribosomal rna gene sequences. cladistic analysis of the dna sequence data (779 bp; 162 informative characters) supported the monophyly of the sand lizards (callisaurus, cophosaurus, holbrookia, and uma), petrosaurus, phrynosoma, urosaurus, and uta. all the species of sceloporus, except s. variabilis and s. chrysostictus, formed a clade ...19957663765
monoaminergic innervation patterns in the anterior dorsal ventricular ridge of a lacertid lizard, psammodromus algirus.in contrast to the view of a diffuse monoaminergic innervation of the telencephalon, studies on the monoaminergic innervation in certain mammalian isocortical regions have shown a high degree of regional and laminar specificity. the present study was designed to examine the distribution patterns of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in a telencephalic structure, the anterior dorsal ventricular ridge, of the sand lizard psammodromus algirus (lacertidae) using specific antibodies against each m ...19947987666
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