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[the estimation of the age of the female ibex (capra ibex ibex l.) by skeletal development].in female ibex up to an age of six years, a sufficiently accurate age determination can be made based on the degree of skeletal ossification and length of the bones (s. table 2). definitive ossification of the epiphyseal discs with the body of the vertebrae in the female ibex is not complete at end of the growth period. observations with regard to sex-related dimorphism of the skeleton will not be possible until corresponding investigations have been carried out on the buck.19921443645
allozyme divergence and phylogenetic relationships among capra, ovis and rupicapra (artyodactyla, bovidae).genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships between the chamois (rupicaprini, rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra) and three species of the caprini (capra aegagrus hircus, capra ibex ibex and ovis ammon musimon) have been studied by multilocus protein electrophoresis. dendrograms have been constructed both with distance and parsimony methods. goat, sheep and chamois pair-wise genetic distances had very similar values. all the topologies showed that capra, ovis and rupicapra originate from the sa ...19911774188
isolation of mycoplasma conjunctivae from conjunctival swabs of alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex) affected with infectious keratoconjunctivitis.mycoplasma conjunctivae was isolated four times from the eyes of nine alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex) suffering from keratoconjunctivitis. the animals examined were affected in two different outbreaks in the swiss alps. parasitological and bacteriological studies, including investigations for chlamydia and mycoplasmas, were performed. the results indicate that m. conjunctivae is the primary pathogenic agent causing infectious keratoconjunctivitis in this species.19968928575
lesions associated with infectious keratoconjunctivitis in alpine ibex.following a severe infectious keratoconjunctivitis (ikc) epizootic in free-ranging alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex) in switzerland in 1993, 19 animals were examined from six different populations. mucopurulent exudates, reddened conjunctiva and mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration in the conjunctiva and the limbic area were observed in mild cases. in more severe cases, lesions ranged from perilimbic neovascularization to corneal edema, erosion, ulceration and neovascularization accompanied by ...19979249685
susceptibility of alpine ibex to conjunctivitis caused by inoculation of a sheep-strain of mycoplasma conjunctivae.we evaluated the susceptibility of alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex) to mycoplasmal conjunctivitis induced by a strain of mycoplasma conjunctivae isolated from domestic sheep by inoculation of three alpine ibexes with 1.2 x 10(6) colony forming units of m. conjunctivae in the conjunctival sac of both eyes. one more ibex was exposed to the infection by contact. experimental animals were free of m. conjunctivae and ocular chlamydia infection before inoculation. conjunctivitis and serous to mucous lach ...19989646477
immune responses to mycoplasma conjunctivae in alpine ibex, alpine chamois, and domestic sheep in switzerland.the humoral immune response of three alpine chamois (rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra), two alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex) and three domestic sheep naturally affected with infectious keratoconjunctivitis (ikc), and four ibex and two sheep experimentally infected with mycoplasma conjunctivae was analysed. in addition, the local immune response to m. conjunctivae was analysed using conjunctival washes from chamois and sheep. immunoblot analysis of sera using whole cell antigens of m. conjunctivae reve ...200010813608
effect of seasonality on abomasal helminth community in alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex).abomasal helminths of 81 adult female ibex (capra ibex ibex) from piz albris colony (ch) culled monthly from december 1989 to may 1991 were analyzed. subjects were divided into six quarterly groups (i: december 1989-february 1990; ii: march-may 1990; iii: june-august 1990; iv: september-november 1990; v: december 1990-february 1991; vi: march-may 1991) in order to investigate the seasonal fluctuation of helminth community parameters (abundance, richness, sex-ratio, berger-parker dominance index, ...199910870562
microsatellite dna and recent statistical methods in wildlife conservation management: applications in alpine ibex [capra ibex(ibex)].we evaluated the usefulness of microsatellites and recently developed statistical methods for the conservation management of fragmented and reintroduced populations, using the alpine ibex (capra ibex) as a model species. first, we assessed the effects of past reintroduction programmes on genetic diversity and population differentiation considering different population sizes and histories. we show that genetic variability in ibex populations (he 0.13) is among the lowest reported from microsatell ...200211928708
[new entodinium (ciliata, entodinimorpha) from alpine goat stock (capra ibex ibex)]. 195813604753
high polymorphism in the kappa-casein (csn3) gene from wild and domestic caprine species revealed by dna sequencing.we assessed polymorphisms in exon iv of the kappa-casein gene (csn3) in ten different breeds of domestic goat (capra hircus) from three continents and in three related wild caprine taxa (capra <ibex> ibex, capra <ibex> sibirica and capra aegagrus). thirty-five dna samples were sequenced within a 558 bp fragment of exon iv. nine polymorphic sites were identified in domestic goat, including four new polymorphisms. in addition to four previously described polymorphic positions, a total of 13 polymo ...200415190947
anti-peroxidation effects of vitamin e on low density lipoprotein and milk fat globule membrane of lactating goats: in vivo versus metal ion challenge in vitro.ruminants are animals with mild oxidation risk considering characteristics of their plasma. the purpose of the present study was to determine if surplus vitamin e supplementation further improved their peroxidation status. four lactating goats (capra ibex ibex) receiving a single intramuscular injection of 3000 iu d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate were monitored daily for a week. plasma and milk levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (tbars) were measured to estimate the peroxidation status ...200415471676
field evaluation of the efficacy of fenbendazole in captive wild ruminants.the efficacy of in-feed fenbendazole at a dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg bodyweight for three consecutive days was assessed in five arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), six scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), 14 slender-horned gazelles (gazella leptoceros), eight soay sheep (ovis aries aries soay), 13 alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex), six red deer (cervus elaphus hippelaphus) and 11 nelson's elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) kept in five herds in a zoo. the efficacy was assessed by means of repeated faecal egg count r ...200516272545
transposition of the biceps tendon to reduce lateral scapulohumeral luxation in three species of nondomestic ruminant.open reduction of lateral luxation of the scapulohumeral joint was performed in a mhorr gazelle (gazella dama mhorr), a southern pudu (pudu puda), and an alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex) by transposition of the biceps brachii tendon lateral to the greater tubercle of the humerus. the ibex had a very large greater tubercle that required a second osteotomy to allow successful lateral transfer of the tendon. although all three animals were non-weight bearing in the first 2-3 wk after surgery, ambulati ...200517323571
detection of dichelobacter nodosus in wild ungulates (capra ibex ibex and ovis aries musimon) and domestic sheep suffering from foot rot using a two-step polymerase chain reaction.severe keratinous hoof afflictions have been recorded in ibex (capra ibex ibex) since 1995 and more recently in mouflon (ovis aries musimon) in switzerland. based on clinical observations and comparison with diseases known to affect domestic ungulates, it was hypothesized these wild ungulates were affected by foot rot associated with infection with dichelobacter nodosus. dichelobacter nodosus has been shown to be the essential pathogen for initiation and establishment of foot rot, a highly conta ...200717347396
genetic variability of haemonchus contortus (nematoda: trichostrongyloidea) in alpine ruminant host species.genetic variability of the ovine parasite haemonchus contortus from the alpine area was investigated using mitochondrial dna (nd4 gene), internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and microsatellites, in order to assess whether cross-transmission between domestic and wild ruminants occurs. the dataset was composed of 78 individual adult male h. contortus collected from chamois (rupicapra r. rupicapra), roe deer (capreolus capreolus), alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex), domestic goat (capra hircus) and shee ...201019889245
a strong genetic footprint of the re-introduction history of alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex).a population's neutral genetic variation is a composite of its size, degree of isolation and demographic history. bottlenecks and founder events increase genetic drift, leading to the loss of genetic variation and increased genetic differentiation among populations. gene flow has the opposite effects. thus, gene flow can override the genetic patterns caused by founder events. using 37 microsatellite loci, we investigated the effects of serial bottlenecks on genetic variation and differentiation ...200919912536
epizootiologic investigations of selected abortive agents in free-ranging alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex) in switzerland.in the early 2000s, several colonies of alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex) in switzerland ceased growing or began to decrease. reproductive problems due to infections with abortive agents might have negatively affected recruitment. we assessed the presence of selected agents of abortion in alpine ibex by serologic, molecular, and culture techniques and evaluated whether infection with these agents might have affected population densities. blood and fecal samples were collected from 651 ibex in 14 col ...201121719818
introgression from domestic goat generated variation at the major histocompatibility complex of alpine ibex.the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) is a crucial component of the vertebrate immune system and shows extremely high levels of genetic polymorphism. the extraordinary genetic variation is thought to be ancient polymorphisms maintained by balancing selection. however, introgression from related species was recently proposed as an additional mechanism. here we provide evidence for introgression at the mhc in alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex). at a usually very polymorphic mhc exon involved in pa ...201424945814
occurrence, quantification, and genotyping of mycoplasma conjunctivae in wild caprinae with and without infectious keratoconjunctivitis.mycoplasma conjunctivae, the causative agent of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (ikc), was recently detected in asymptomatic alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex). this suggested that an external source of infection may not be required for an ikc outbreak in wildlife but might be initiated by healthy carriers, which contradicted previous serologic investigations in chamois. our aims were to 1) assess the prevalence of m. conjunctivae among asymptomatic ibex and alpine chamois (rupicapra rupicapra rupica ...201222740528
[entodinium alpinum n. sp. (caliata) from rumen of alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex)]. 195813604744
[large supply of potassium and deficiency of sodium in the food of the ibex of the alps (capra ibex ibex l. 1758); verification of the law of bunge-quinton-mc callum]. 195713500656
coprological analyses on apparently healthy alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex) from two swiss colonies.to provide baseline parasitological data for health surveillance in free-ranging alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex), we assessed the endoparasite population and level of parasitism in apparently healthy ibex. faecal samples from 148 ibex were collected between 2006 and 2008 in two different swiss ibex colonies. they were analysed by coprology, including combined sedimentation/flotation method, sedimentation method, baermann funnel technique and ziehl-neelsen staining. gastrointestinal parasites and l ...201222119388
alpine ibex males grow large horns at no survival cost for most of their lifetime.large horns or antlers require a high energy allocation to produce and carry both physiological and social reproductive costs. following the principle of energy allocation that implies trade-offs among fitness components, growing large weapons early in life should thus reduce future growth and survival. evidence for such costs is ambiguous, however, partly because individual heterogeneity can counterbalance trade-offs. individuals with larger horns or antlers may be of better quality and thus ha ...201323774947
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