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fine structure of the antennal receptors of the bed bug, cimex lectularius l.sensilla on the antenna of the bed bug, cimex lectularius, were studied with the scanning and transmission electron microscope. those which display a tubular body in the dendrite ending are presumed to have a mechanoreceptor function (bristles of type a, flat plate of type b). bristles of type a1 contain additional dendrites which terminate at the tip of the bristle and may be gustatory receptors. sensilla with pores in the hair wall are supposed to have an offactory, humidity and/or temperatur ...1976190731
a simple apparatus for providing blood diets at constant temperature and with different corticosterone levels to individual bed bug colonies (hemiptera: cimicidae). 1979537011
transmission experiments with hepatitis b surface antigen and the common bedbug (cimex lectularius l).hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag)-positive blood meals were fed to a colony of the common bedbug (cimex lectularius l) in a series of 5 experiments. antigen persisted in the bugs for at least 7 1/2 weeks, but was undetectable after 18 weeks. trans-stadial transmission was demonstrated through one moult only, and transovarial transmission did not occur. antigen was successfully transmitted by adult bugs into 3 out of 35 canisters of hbsag-negative blood. antibody of hbsag was detected in the se ...1979573506
infection of the common bedbug (cimex lectularius l) with hepatitis b virus in south africa.a total of 1 368 bedbugs of the species cimex lectularius l were collected mainly from huts in villages or on farms at 6 localities in the northern transvaal. they were tested in pools of 10 for the presence of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag). none of 20 pools from pietersburg was hbsag-positive, but 32 out of 120 pools from the 5 other localities were hbsag-positive. estimated infection rates per 1 000 bugs were 17,1 (messina), 24,9 (waterpoort), 28,4 (letaba), 54,5 (potgietersrus) and 67,0 ...1978675426
[studies of the sensitivity to the usual domestic insecticides on insects of the anopheles maculipennis group, and musca domestica, cimex lectularius and blattella germanica species].the present paper was designed to the study of the degree of sensitivity of mosquitoes, flies, bedbugs and cockroaches to organochloride and organophosphoric insecticides produced in romania. testing of the sensitivity to insecticides of these species, important as transmitters of human pathogens, showed the effectiveness of the products, which induced a high mortality rate in relatively small concentrations. against anopheles labranchiae atroparvus, the insecticides detox, carbetox and lindatox ...1978694334
the action of juvenile hormone analogues jtc-1 and zr-777, in cimex lectularius species (heteroptere, cimicidae) by continuous treatment. 1978747522
continuous administration of famphur for control of ticks and bed bugs feeding on ruminants. 1977915076
[susceptibility tests of the bedbug, cimex lectularius l. (hemiptera, cimicidae) to ddt in belo horizonte, mg (brazil)].susceptibility levels for the adult bed-bug, cimex lectularius, in belo horizonte, minas gerais-brazil, to ddt, were determined during the period 1985 to 1986. the test results showed that a 4% dosage of ddt is not enough to kill 55% of the insects. the data are sufficient to show that there exists bed-bug resistance to ddt in belo horizonte.19921307427
[cimex lectularius l. (the common bedbug), the vector of trypanosoma cruzi]. 19921340545
[the efficacy of a new insecticide ethofenprox (trebon) for controlling different types of insects].the insecticidal action of the new compound ethofenprox (trebon) in the form of 10 and 30% flow concentrate against house flies, cockroaches, bed bugs, rat fleas, mosquito imagines and larvae of aedes and culex genera was studied in the laboratory and in the field. the effective doses and the methods of spraying were established. 10% flow trebon is allowed by the ussr ministry of health to be useful in medical disinfection.19921435586
delayed reaction to bed bug bites. 19921739312
cimex lectularius l., 1758 (hemiptera, cimicidae): sensitivity to commercial insecticides in labs. 19911842448
attempts to transmit hepatitis b virus to chimpanzees by arthropods.bedbugs (cimex lectularius l.) were fed on an infective blood-hepatitis b virus (hbv) mixture. further bedbugs and tampan ticks (ornithodoros moubata [murray]) were fed on hbv-carrier chimpanzees. after a 10-13 day interval for oviposition, tests done on samples of individual arthropods showed that 53-85% of the bugs were hbsag-positive and none hbeag-positive, while 100% of the ticks were hbsag-positive and 88% hbeag-positive. the remaining arthropods were fed on 3 susceptible chimpanzees, whic ...19912017742
[trials of the insecticides icon and ficam against mosquitoes in the southern ussr].two residual insecticides (icon 10% wp, ici and ficam w 80% wp, camco) were in 1989 tested in field trials in tajikistan, azerbaijan and uzbekistan against anopheles superpictus, an. sacharovi, an. pulcherrimus, an. martinius, culex pipiens, aedes caspius, and ae. vexans. in dosages recommended by the producing companies (0.025 g/m2 a. i. for icon and 0.4 g/m2 for ficam), the above preparations showed residual action during 2-3 months. icon and ficam did not cause irritability and repellency in ...19912067463
[the cimicids and their importance in public health (hemiptera-heteroptera; cimicidae)].a review of the cimicidae of importance in public health is presented. after a general morphological study, special attention is given to knowledge of the biology and ecology of bed-bugs, mainly as regards their relation to the human environment and the possibility of their role in disease transmission. the species cimex lectularius and c. hemipterus are given particular attention and data on their relevance to questions of public health are revised. taxonomy, biosystematic and geographical dist ...19902098897
hepatitis b surface antigen in cimex lectularius.bedbug (cimex lectularius) samples adult and nymphs either engorged or starved from central security forces sleeping wards, laboratory animal house and control samples from laboratory reared colonies were ground and subjected to elisa test of hepatitis b surface antigen together with 276 serum samples from the recruits slept in those wards. in the camp 7 out of 30 samples of engorged adult bedbugs were positive to hbsag and 5 out of 30 samples of starved bedbugs were positive. regarding nymphs 4 ...19902133897
experimental assessment of bedbugs (cimex lectularius and cimex hemipterus) and mosquitoes (aedes aegypti formosus) as vectors of human immunodeficiency virus.in vitro experiments were conducted to assess whether bedbugs (cimex lectularius and cimex hemipterus) and mosquitoes (aedes aegypti formosus) could act as vectors of hiv. these insects engorged through a membrane on a blood-virus mixture. female bedbugs were larger than males and took larger blood-meals when fed to repletion. it was determined that the full blood-meal of a female bedbug contained 0.09 x 10(5) tissue culture infectious doses (tcid) of virus and a male 0.07 x 10(5) tcid, while pa ...19872450552
the effects on domestic infestations of cimex lectularius bedbugs of interspecific mating with c. hemipterus.interspecific mating between male cimex hemipterus and female c. lectularius bedbugs (hemiptera: cimicidae) occurs freely in the laboratory, even when many female c. hemipterus are available. longevity and fertile egg production of female c. lectularius are reduced by mating with male c. hemipterus. in kwazulu, south africa, a correlation exists between the percentage of c. lectularius females which are interspecifically mated and the predominance of c. hemipterus in mixed domestic infestations ...19892519691
toxicity of colocynithin and hydrated colocynithin from alcoholic extract of citrullus colocynthis pulp.the comparative toxicity of the alcoholic extract of citrullus colocynthis pulp; colocynithin and hydrated colocynithin have been isolated and tried against seven insect species. the american cockroaches were more susceptible for both compounds than the german one, adult honey bee were more affected with colocynithin than adult housefly. while hydrated colocynithin was more toxic to housefly than honey bee, cotton leafworm was less affected with both toxicants. bed bug was less affected with col ...19892708854
a field study of mating between two species of bedbug in northern kwazulu, south africa.the interspecific cross-mating of female cimex lectularius linnaeus with male cimex hemipterus (fabricius) results in a visible mark developing in the female ectospermalege. this mark has been used to record the frequency of mating between female c.lectularius and male c.hemipterus in sympatric wild populations in a ddt-sprayed area of northern kwazulu, south africa. a high percentage (11/16 = 69%) of c.lectularius females were marked, showing that these two species mate in nature.19882980185
production of a hybrid between the bedbugs cimex hemipterus and cimex lectularius.of 479 eggs laid by female cimex lectularius linnaeus and c.hemipterus (fabricius) mated by males of the other species, one was fertile and gave rise to a first stage nymph. the egg showed sculpturing typical of c.hemipterus, the female parent, and the nymph conformed to the narrow pronotum and abdomen of this species, being significantly different from c.lectularius in the width of the abdomen. because the orientation and lengths of the bristles on the sides of the abdomen were distinctly diffe ...19882980186
the occurrence of the bedbugs cimex hemipterus and cimex lectularius in northern natal and kwazulu, south africa.two species of anthropophilic bedbugs, cimex lectularius and c. hemipterus, infest dwellings in kwazulu, the known range of the latter extending to 28 degrees 15's. c. hemipterus is the more common species in kwazulu north of 27 degrees 15'. the pattern of distribution of c. hemipterus in south africa is consistent with the species requiring a tropical climate, being a more recent invader than c. lectularius, and being able to thrive sympatrically with the latter species.19873686639
a reovirus from the bedbug, cimex lectularius.large numbers of virus particles were identified by electron microscopy in the epithelial cells of the ventriculus of the bedbug, cimex lectularius. the morphology of the virus particles and the presence of a segmented double-stranded rna genome imply that this isolate should be included in the reoviridae.19873806057
the common bedbug cimex lectularius in african huts.the size and life-stage structure of heavy infestations of c. lectularius in zulu huts were determined. the presence of more than one person in a hut at night, and control measures attempted by hut owners were found not to influence bedbug numbers significantly.19863810799
insecticide susceptibility of the bedbug cimex lectularius (hemiptera: cimicidae), in libya. 19704102590
morphology, histochemistry, and ultrastructure of mycetome and its rickettsial symbiotes in cimex lectularius l. 19734127814
effects of elevated temperature on the mycetome and symbiotes of the bed bug cimex lectularius (heteroptera). 19744208302
action and ocmposition of the alarm pheromone of the bedbug cimex lectularius l. 19744449574
free amino acids in seminal fluid & haemolymph of cimex lectularious l. & their possible role in sperm metabolism.previously it was shown that glucose and trehalose are present in the hemolymph of cimex lectularious l. and that the active bed bug sperm can utilize these sugars oxidatively. a study was conducted on the occurrence of amino acids in the seminal fluid and the hemolymph of the bed bug and the enzymes of cimex sperm concerned with amino acid metabolism. it was determined that the hemolymph contains 12 free amino acids and in the seminal fluid, there are 8. in the cimex sperm, transaminase acti ...19744457467
abnormal sexual behavior of isolated males of cimex lectularius l. 19724659683
structure of sensilla, olfactory perception, and behaviour of the bedbug, cimex lectularius, in response to its alarm pheromone. 19744854436
a note on the susceptibility of the tropical bed bug cimex hemipterus to wuchereria bancrofti in ceylon. 19725054494
[sensitivity of cimex lectularius to residual insecticides in rumania]. 19715150506
[bedbug bite, crimicosis, dermatitis due to to cimex lectularius]. 19705276086
biochemistry of malathion resistance in a strain of cimex lectularius resistant to organophosphorus compounds.the penetration of (14)c-labelled malathion was found to be similar in two bedbug strains, of which one was susceptible and the other moderately resistant to a range of organophosphorus insecticides. the latter strain was especially resistant to malathion and fenchlorphos, but was not resistant to organophosphates or (significantly) to organochlorine insecticides. there was no difference in acetylcholinesterase activity or sensitivity, or in total esterase activity (using 1- or 2-naphthyl acetat ...19715317013
toxicological and genetical studies of organophosphorus-resistance in cimex lectularius l. 19695375522
the problem of resurgent bed-bug infestation in malaria eradication programmes. 19715547711
supernumerary chromosomes in the human bed bug, cimex lectularius linn. (cimicidae: hemiptera). 19675613987
laboratory methods for evaluation of toxicants for the bed bug and the oriental rat flea. 19685723756
[study of the infection and transmission of rickettsia quintana by cimex lectularius]. 19665936108
controlled release effect of insecticide microcapsules and their results in common household insect pest control.since 1978 we have prepared microencapsulated insecticides by complex coacervation and interfacial polymerization for household insect pest control, fenthion being the main core element. a series of tests have been conducted against mosquitoes (culex pipiens quinquefasciatus), cockroaches (periplaneta americana) and bedbugs (cimex lectularius), and the results indicate that microencapsulation can prolong persistent effects by 2-12 times, enhance safety and subdue offensive odour. furthermore, th ...19846336530
[epizootiology of aegyptianellosis in poultry].epizootiologic studies were carried out on avian aegyptianellosis, especially with birds raised at poultry dressing combines and industrial poultry farms within the country. it was found that the mechanism of infection transmission was mediated not only by the role of argas persicus ticks but also by bed bug insects of the cimex genus, belonging to the hemiptera order. carriers of aegyptianellosis might also be migratory birds coming from tropical countries, such as swallows. it is concluded tha ...19836420981
[triatoma infestans as a vector of hepatitis b virus].mosquitoes and bed bugs may play a role in the transmission of hepatitis b virus (h.b.v.). we investigated this possibility with the triatoma infestans, which is a hematophagous insect widely prevalent in the argentine republic. triatoma infestans fed with serum or blood contaminated with h.b.v. were studied at 7, 14, and 21 days after contamination. stool and insect homogenates were positive for hbsag at each time checked. considering the domestic habits and hematophagous condition of triatoma ...19817034439
sex differences in size of the blood meal in the bed bug cimex hemipterus (hemiptera: cimicidae). 19827120297
[survey on carriage of hbsag by cimex lectularius, bedbugs of the temperate zone]. 19827185472
[experimental changes in the sensitivity level of ddt- and chlorophos-resistant populations of the bedbug, cimex lectularius l]. 19817207392
adult cat flea (siphonaptera: pulicidae) excretion of host blood proteins in relation to larval nutrition.protein content and ion composition of host blood and feces from blood-fed adult cat fleas, ctenocephalides felis (bouché), were examined. total fecal protein differed slightly from host blood indicating that there was little digestion of host blood by adult fleas. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels of host blood and flea feces also revealed little digestion, as evidenced by the quantitatively and qualitatively similar protein banding patterns. blood and fecal ion com ...19947910638
patterns of erythrocyte digestion by bloodsucking insects: constraints on vector competence.two general patterns of erythrocyte digestion were observed in representative species from four insect orders. ingested erythrocytes were hemolyzed rapidly, and blood meals remained liquefied within body lice, pediculus humanus l. and the fleas ctenocephalides felis (bouché) and xenopyslla cheopis (rothschild). peritrophic membrane was absent. in contrast, there was a lag time of 6-18 h before substantial degradation of erythrocytes within the blood meals of bed bugs, cimex lectularius l.; the s ...19938094460
a novel inhibitor of factor x activation from the salivary glands of the bed bug cimex lectularius.cimex lectularius salivary gland homogenate delayed the recalcification time of human citrated plasma. separation of the salivary gland homogenate by molecular sieving hplc chromatography resulted in a single major peak of anticlotting activity with an apparent molecular mass of 17,000. the anticoagulant principle inhibited the activation of factor x to factor xa in the tenase complex (fviii, fixa, fx, phospholipids, and calcium). however, it did not directly inhibit already activated factor xa, ...19968682187
can we get aids from mosquito bites?human immunodeficiency virus, or hiv, is a human retrovirus that infects lymphocytes and other cells bearing the cd4 surface marker. the virus is transmitted primarily by sexual and parental routes. there are two ways blood feeding arthropods can spread disease, mechanically, by simple transfer of virus between hosts by contaminated mouth parts, or, biologically, which would require virus replication in arthropod tissues (especially salivary glands). there are some important factors which have p ...199910554479
oxygen tension and sperm migration in the female bed bug. 19873673734
millennium bed bug. 199911075114
trypanosoma (megatrypanum) incertum from pipistrellus pipistrellus: development and transmission by cimicid bugs.trypanosoma (megatrypanum) incertum pittaluga 1905 was found in 33 out of 206 pipistrellus pipistrellus caught at various sites in britain. the trypanosome is described from blood smears. development took place in laboratory-reared cimex pipistrelli and cimex lectularius. epimastigote forms initially multiplied rapidly in the ventriculus and midgut of cimex. metacyclic trypanosomes were found in the rectum of both species of cimex after 8 days when bugs were maintained at 20 degrees c and as ear ...19883405632
a simple method to identify triatomine (hemiptera: reduviidae) feces in sensing devices used in vector surveillance programs.we successfully applied the phenolphthalin (kastle-meyer) test used in forensic chemistry to distinguish between feces from triatomines and other domestic arthropods in sensing devices used for vector surveillance. all black or dark brown, but not white or yellow, fecal smears from laboratory-reared or field-collected triatoma infestans klug, triatoma guasayana wydgozinsky & abalos, triatoma sordida ståhl (recently revalidated as triatoma garciabesi carcavallo, cichero, martínez, prosen & ronder ...200111296815
traumatic insemination and sexual conflict in the bed bug cimex lectularius.the bed bug, cimex lectularius, has a unique mode of copulation termed "traumatic" insemination [carayon, j. (1966) in monograph of the cimicidae, ed. usinger, r. (entomol. soc. am., philadelphia), pp. 81-167] during which the male pierces the female's abdominal wall with his external genitalia and inseminates into her body cavity [carayon, j. (1966) in monograph of the cimicidae, ed. usinger, r. (entomol. soc. am., philadelphia), pp. 81-167]. under controlled natural conditions, traumatic insem ...200111331783
assessment of hepatitis b virus dna and hepatitis c virus rna in the common bedbug (cimex lectularius l.) and kissing bug (rodnius prolixus).historical clinical studies suggest the potential for insect-borne transmission of human hepatitis viruses. studies of hepatitis b virus (hbv) persistence in insects were performed before the advent of molecular techniques, and studies to assess possible insect-borne transmission of hepatitis viruses have not yet been performed. the aim of this study was to determine, using molecular techniques, whether hbv and hepatitis c virus (hcv) persist in and are excreted in the feces of the bedbug cimex ...200111467652
stercorarial shedding and transtadial transmission of hepatitis b virus by common bed bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae).transtadial persistence and stercorarial shedding of hepatitis b virus (hbv) in common bed bugs, cimex lectularius l., was studied by using experimental infectious blood feedings, infectious intrathoracic inoculations, and virus detection by polymerase chain reaction and southern hybridization. results showed that hbv persisted after an infectious blood meal in bed bug bodies for up to 35 d after the infectious blood meal. it was passed transtadially through one molt regardless of instar, was sh ...200111580042
widespread bullous eruption due to multiple bed bug bites. 200211952681
induction of skin papillomas in the rabbit, oryctologus cuniculus, by bites of a blood-sucking insect, cimex lectularius, irradiated by gamma rays.bed bugs, cimex lectularius, irradiated with gamma rays were allowed to suck blood from shaved areas of the skin of rabbits, oryctolagus cuniculus, 2 times/week for 5 months and then once weekly for another 5 months. this significantly induced the formation of skin papillomas and sweat gland hyperplasia in five out of nine experimental animals. it is speculated that the saliva of the irradiated bugs was activated by gamma rays and was responsible for the induction of skin papillomas. because bed ...19892794550
urologic uses of the bed bug.a bed utility grip can be positioned on the bed frame in whatever place is the most advantageous for such purposes as supporting urinary drainage bags, including double-hanger designs, and the vitalmetric unit.19902305511
effect of vitamin a acid on papillomas induced by irradiated bed bugs in rabbit skin.the preventive effect of vitamin a acid (13-cis-retinoic acid) on skin papillomas induced in rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus) by the bite of bed bugs (cimex lectularius) pre-irradiated with gamma rays was investigated. painting the papillomas with an oily 13-cis-retinoic acid suspension twice a week in a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight leads to significant regression of these structures.19902083878
household papular urticaria.papular urticaria often occurs after bites of insects such as mosquitoes, sandflies, bed bugs and fleas. multiple bites and local pruritus are characteristic symptoms. treatment is usually symptomatic and includes antihistamines and corticosteroids. the reappearance of the symptoms can be prevented by successful control of the parasite.200212455178
the relation between cimex lectularius antigen and bronchial asthma in egypt.in bronchial asthma, house dust is one of the important precipitating factor. cimex lectularius or bedbug is a well known house insect and share in the constitution of house dust. 54 asthmatic patients and 11 control individuals were skin tested using the common environmental inhalant antigens as well as cimex extracts (head and thorax, 1st antigen and abdomen, 2nd antigen). also precipitin test using both cimex extracts were used. the percentage of positive skin reactions to 1st cimex antigen w ...19911765685
a matter of taste: direct detection of female mating status in the bedbug.males of the bedbug, cimex lectularius, traumatically inseminate females by inserting a needle-like intromittent organ (penis) through the female's abdominal wall after she has fed. we demonstrate that: (i) mating duration determines ejaculate size; (ii) a female's first copulation in a bout of copulations always lasts longer than subsequent copulations; (iii) the intromittent organ bears sensillae; (iv) males use their intromittent organ to 'taste' whether their current mate has recently copula ...200312769466
disseminated bullous eruption with systemic reaction caused by cimex lectularius.bedbugs seem to have become more common due to international trade and travelling. we report on a 37-year-old man who developed a bullous reaction with fever and general malaise due to bites of the common bedbug, cimex lectularius. fortunately, bullous and systemic reactions are rare.200312834463
the surveillance of the resistance to insecticides in the cimex lectularius (heteroptera; cimicidae) species. 19807416943
[behavior of various spirochaeta in the bedbug cimex lectularius]. 195212979378
[acquired resistance of cimex lectularius to hexachlorane]. 195313063062
[host determination and the significance of type specific odors in cimex lectularius linné]. 195513248063
observations on the structure and the nature of nr bodies found in the testes of bed-bug. 195513280279
the insecticide-resistance problem: a review of developments in 1956 and 1957.the author reviews the growth of the insecticide-resistance problem throughout the world during the period between july 1956 and november 1957, and the developments in research on the subject during the same period.three new resistant species have been discovered-anopheles subpictus, chrysomyia putoria and rhipicephalus sanguineus-and eight new types of resistance in already resistant species have been observed. moreover, the geographical area covered by certain resistant insect populations has ...195813536795
["biological" crystallization of the hemoglobin in the blood ingested by the bedbug cimex lectularius linne 1758]. 196113735470
a survey of bed-bug resistance to insecticides in israel.fourteen strains of bed-bugs collected from various places in israel and one normally susceptible strain from the laboratories of j. r. geigy s.a., basle, switzerland, were tested for their resistance to ddt and gamma-bhc. a very high degree of resistance to ddt was found in most of the strains, indicating that ddt-resistance is very widespread in israel. a moderate to low resistance to gamma-bhc was observed in several strains.195913829045
pyralis pictalis curt. (pyralidae: lepidoptera) larvae as predators of eggs of bed bug, cimex hemipterus fab. (cimicidae: hemiptera). 196013831355
laboratory rearing of cockroaches, bed-bugs, human lice and fleas. 196414272467
resistance to dieldrin and ddt and sensitivity to malathion in the bed-bug cimex hemipterus in malaya. 196014437086
assembling and alerting scents produced by the bedbug cimex lectularius l. 19715549217
an automated feeding apparatus for in vitro maintenance of the human head louse, pediculus capitis (anoplura: pediculidae).an automated feeding apparatus was developed to maintain the human head louse (pediculus capitis degeer) in vitro. with the use of valves and timers, banked human blood and saline from refrigerated reservoirs were pumped into and flushed out of the system every 7 d. during this rotational interval, bloodmeals were provided to head lice continuously and ad libitum through a stretched nescofilm-silicone sandwich membrane. compared with our previous in vitro human head louse-rearing apparatus, grea ...200314765655
ectoparasite associations of bats from central pennsylvania.between april and october 1997, 689 bats representing seven species were captured at pennsylvania's canoe creek state park. each bat was sampled for ectoparasitic arthropods, and four species were collected from 13.2% of the host individuals. ectoparasites include the bat flea myodopsylla insignis (rothschild), the wing mite spinturnix americanus (banks), the bed bug cimex adjunctus barber, and the soft tick ornithodoros kelleyi cooley & kohls. prevalence, relative density, and mean intensity we ...200314765658
cimex lectularius. what is this insect and how does it affect man?cimex lectularius, the common bed bug, is a bloodsucking nocturnal parasite of man. other hosts for this bug include chickens, bats, and some domestic animals. cimex feeds by piercing the host with hollow tubes derived from the maxilla. saliva injected at the time of feeding is associated with local and sometimes widespread urticaria. this pest has become less important over the last half century with general improvements in household and personal cleanliness.199910673449
[not available]. 194915406087
[what is your diagnosis? bedbug sting reaction caused by cimex lectularius (common bedbug)]. 199910616300
phylogenetic characterization of wolbachia symbionts infecting cimex lectularius l. and oeciacus vicarius horvath (hemiptera: cimicidae).wolbachia symbionts are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause host reproductive alterations in many arthropods and filarial nematodes. we identified wolbachia symbionts in the cliff swallow bug (oeciacus vicarious horvath) and the human bed bug (cimex lectularius l.) (hemiptera: cimicidae) by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification and sequencing using wolbachia-specific 16s rdna and ftsz primers. phylogenetic analyses using bayesian, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony algorith ...200415605657
heme-assisted s-nitrosation of a proximal thiolate in a nitric oxide transport protein.certain bloodsucking insects deliver nitric oxide (no) while feeding, to induce vasodilation and inhibit blood coagulation. we have expressed, characterized, and determined the crystal structure of the cimex lectularius (bedbug) nitrophorin, the protein responsible for no storage and delivery, to understand how the insect successfully handles this reactive molecule. surprisingly, no binds not only to the ferric nitrophorin heme, but it can also be stored as an s-nitroso (sno) conjugate of the pr ...200515637157
systemic immediate allergic reactions to arthropod stings and bites.most of the encounters with biting and stinging insects result in more or less pronounced localized reactions. typically, urticarial wheals and papular reactions are observed. less often local bullous or hemorrhagic or disseminated papular reactions, particularly in children and immunologically naive adults, may be seen. with the exception of bee and wasp venom allergies, immediate-type allergic reactions to arthropod stings and bites are rare. systemic ige-mediated hypersensitivity has also bee ...200515724094
did i hear someone say: 'we have a bed bug?'. 197610241847
purification, cloning, and expression of an apyrase from the bed bug cimex lectularius. a new type of nucleotide-binding enzyme.an enzyme that hydrolyzes the phosphodiester bonds of nucleoside tri- and diphosphates, but not monophosphates, thus displaying apyrase (ec 3.6.1.5) activity, was purified from salivary glands of the bed bug, cimex lectularius. the purified c. lectularius apyrase was an acidic protein with a pi of 5.1 and molecular mass of approximately 40 kda that inhibited adp-induced platelet aggregation and hydrolyzed platelet agonist adp with specific activity of 379 units/mg protein. amplification of c. le ...19989804829
tick saliva is a potent inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis.we report for the first time that saliva of the hard tick and lyme disease vector, ixodes scapularis, is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. saliva (< or = 1:500 dilutions) or salivary gland (0.1-0.5 pairs/assay) dose-dependently inhibits microvascular endothelial cell (mvec) proliferation. inhibition was also detected with the saliva of the cattle tick boophilus microplus but not with the salivary gland of anopheles gambiae, an. stephensi, lutzomyia longipalpis, phlebotomus papatasi, aedes aegy ...200516113800
[insecticidal gels--a promising form for using pyrethroids].insecticidal gels containing the following agents as active ingredients: permethrin (0.4%), cipermethrin (0.1%), fenvalerate (0.5%), alpha-methrin (0.2%) were designed and studied under laboratory and field conditions. when applied to various surface types, the designed formulations of the gels caused 100% death of cockroaches, domestic flies, bed-bugs and fleas. the application rate is 2.5-10.0 g/m2 depending on the species of insects. the residual insecticidal action of gels on the surfaces is ...19957770016
patients with papular urticaria have igg antibodies to bedbug (cimex lectularius) antigens.igg and ige against salivary gland proteins of bedbug (cimex lectularius) were assessed in comparison with mosquito (culex pipiens) and flea (pulex irritans) antigens in the sera of papular urticaria patients (group i), siblings without papular urticaria (group iia), patients' parents (group iib), and healthy controls (group iii) (immunoblotting). anti-c. lectularius igg was significantly recognized at 66 and 10 kda in 40% of group i, besides others ranging from 45 to 107 kda. group iia signific ...200616425065
malaria control using deltamethrin impregnated bed nets in a cantonment area at allahabad (u. p.).the study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of deltamethrin impregnated mosquito nets on malaria incidence, mosquito density, any adverse side effect among users and collateral effects on bed bugs and houseflies. a field trial was carried out over a period of three years in two adjacent military stations at allahabad (up), keeping one as a trial and other as a control station. during first year, baseline data were collected and during next two years residual spray was replaced with use of de ...200416509253
[bedbugs (cimex lectularius l.)]. 19827155219
wolbachia infections in the cimicidae: museum specimens as an untapped resource for endosymbiont surveys.wolbachia spp. are obligate maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that infect diverse arthropods and filarial nematodes. previous microscopic and molecular studies have identified wolbachia in several bed bug species (cimicidae), but little is known about how widespread wolbachia infections are among the cimicidae. because cimicids of non-medical importance are not commonly collected, we hypothesized that preserved museum specimens could be assayed for wolbachia infections. for the screeni ...200616672453
geographic distribution of wolbachia infections in cimex lectularius (heteroptera: cimicidae).endosymbiotic wolbachia bacteria have been previously shown to infect laboratory colonies of the human bed bug, cimex lectularius l. (heteroptera: cimicidae), but little information exists regarding the extent of infection in natural populations. we assayed c. lectularius populations from five north american regions (california, connecticut, florida, new york, and toronto, canada) and one african region (macha, zambia) for wolbachia infection by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). wolbachia inf ...200616892626
susceptibility of bed-bug cimex lectularius to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in alexandria, u.a.r. 19695375843
wash resistance and bioefficacy of olyset net--a long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito net against malaria vectors and nontarget household pests.during recent years, long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (llins) have been developed to overcome the problems of low retreatment rates, washing, and erratic dose of the insecticide resulting in the dilution of efficacy of the conventional insecticide-treated mosquito nets. these nets are treated at factory level with insecticide either incorporated into or coated around fibers. olyset net, a polyethylene net with 2% permethrin incorporated within fibers, is one type of llin. therefore, these n ...200617017224
notes on some ectoparasites received by the medical entomology unit, institute for medical research.there were a spate of recent complaints of insect bites and the entomological specimens received from various sources were identified to be those of cat flea (ctenocephalides felis) and rat flea (xenopsylla cheopis), the tropical bed-bug (cimex hemipterus) and the dog louse (heterodoxus spiniger). only the fleas and the bed-bug are known to attack humans.200617041562
arthropod-borne diseases in homeless.homeless people are particularly exposed to ectoparasite. the living conditions and the crowded shelters provide ideal conditions for the spread of lice, fleas, ticks, and mites. body lice have long been recognized as human parasites and although typically prevalent in rural communities in upland areas of countries close to the equator, it is now increasingly encountered in developed countries especially in homeless people or inner city economically deprived population. fleas are widespread but ...200617114713
bacterial expression and characterization of a novel, soluble, calcium-binding, and calcium-activated human nucleotidase.a newly discovered human analogue of a bed bug apyrase, which we named hscan-1 for human soluble calcium-activated nucleotidase-1, was expressed in bacteria, refolded from inclusion bodies, purified, and characterized. this apyrase, which is distinct from the entpdases exemplified by the endothelial cd39 (ntpdase1) apyrase, is a 38 kda monomeric enzyme capable of hydrolyzing a variety of nucleoside di- and triphosphates, but not monophosphates. preferred substrates include gdp, udp, and idp, wit ...200312600208
encasing mattresses in black plastic will not provide thermal control of bed bugs, cimex spp. (hemiptera: cimicidae).the suggestion that bed bug (cimex spp.; hemiptera: cimicidae)-infested mattresses wrapped in black plastic and exposed to sunlight will be heated sufficiently to kill the bed bugs was tested. two types of mattresses were tested: a thin mattress of solid foam rubber and a thick multilayered inner spring mattress. temperature probes were placed on both upper and lower sides of the mattresses, which were wrapped in black plastic and placed outside on a summer day for >9 h wherein the ambient tempe ...200617195683
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