experimental transmission of wuchereria bancrofti to monkeys.infective larvae of wuchereria bancrofti from laboratory-raised culex pipiens fatigans and aedes togoi mosquitoes fed on human volunteers in jakarta, indonesia (j strain) and kinmen island, china (k strain) were introduced into taiwan monkeys (macaca cyclopis) by subcutaneous inoculation, by foot puncture, or by permitting infected mosquitoes to feed weekly on the monkeys. some animals were splenectomized and others were treated with varying regimens of immunosuppressants. necropsy was done on m ...1979107818
spontaneous diabetes mellitus in macaca cyclopis and mandrillus leucophaeus: case reports.spontaneous diabetes mellitus was reported in a mandrillus leucophaeus (drill baboon) and a mpacaca cyclopis (formosan rock macaque). each had hyperglycemia, impaired clearance of glucose during tolerance test, and reduced concentrations of immunoreactive insulin; the m cyclopis also had increased triglyceride and prebetalipoprotein concentrations. both monkeys had extensive amyloid infiltration into the islets of langerhans and loss of beta cells. beta cell obliteration can account for the appe ...1975166251
infection of newborn taiwan monkeys (macaca cyclopis) with human adenovirus type 12 and simian virus 40.for testing biological response of newborn taiwan monkeys to infection of human adenovirus type 12 (ad12) and simian virus 40 (sv40), 40 newborn taiwan monkeys were inoculated with ad12, ad12, plus sv40, ad12 supplemented with ad12-induced hamster tumor tissue (ad12 tumor) or control specimens (hela or african green monkey kidney cell lysate). among them 26 survived including 8 newborn monkeys inoculated with control specimens. the survivors were observed for 4 years but no tumor was produced. t ...1975181217
the superficial lateral muscles of the neck in macaca cyclopis (formosan monkey). 1975815859
hypothermic action of chlorpromazine in monkeys.1 in the conscious monkey (macaca cyclopis) intravenous administration of chlorpromazine 0.1-8.0 mg/kg produced a fall of rectal temperature of 0.3 to 3.5 degrees c after a latency of 3.5 to 10.8 minutes. the course of hypothermia lasted from 125 to 600 min or more. 2 direct injection of chlorpromazine 100-800 mug into the lateral or fourth cerebral ventricle produced a similar fall of 0.3 to 2.0 degrees c but with shorter latency (2 to 3.5 min) and with a duration of 94 to 375 minutes. 3 two di ...1976819073
histological and biomechanical studies of hydroxylapatite implant.bony defects measuring 12x12x12 millimeters in size were created bilaterally over the proximal end of the femurs of 10 macaca cyclopis monkeys and implanted with particulate hydroxylapatite. the animals were sacrificed according to a predetermined sequence of post-operative 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 months. the specimens taken from the implant sites in the two femurs of each animal were chosen randomly either for histological observation or for compressive strength tests under vertical loads. histologic ...19911667694
innervation of the knee joint in the rabbit and the formosan rock-monkey (macaca cyclopis): a retrograde hrp study.the number and segmental distribution of cell bodies of sensory afferents and sympathetic efferent innervating to the knee joint of the rabbit and the formosan rock-monkey were investigated using retrograde transport with horseradish peroxidase (hrp). after injecting hrp into the articular knee joint capsule of the rabbits, labeled neurons were found in the ipsilateral l4-s2 dorsal root ganglia (drg). however, following injection of hrp into the articular cavity of the knee joint in the rabbit a ...19911726372
non-uniform nervous components in the optic nerve of one formosan rock-monkey (macaca cyclopis)--a light microscopic study. 19863482891
the lipofuscin in neuroglial cells of the optic nerve of formosan rock-monkey (macaca cyclopis).the ultrastructure of lipofuscin granules in neuroglial cells of the optic nerve of the formosan rock-monkey was investigated by electron microscopy. in the cytoplasm of astroglial cells, numerous irregular lipofuscin granules were characterized by the presence of large lipid droplets, small electron-dense pigment granules, and some lamellar structures. the lipofuscin granules of the oligodendroglial cells were composed largely of dense, coarse pigment granules, multilinear structures, and a few ...19863749368
pancreatic beta cell replication induced by glucocorticoids in subhuman primates.pancreatic islets were studied by means of light microsocpy, autoradiography and electron microscopy in untreated macaca cyclopis monkeys and after the administration of large quantities of adrenal glucocorticoids. mild hyperglycemia and profound elevations of serum immunoreactive insulin were induced by glucocorticoid injections of 1 to 3 weeks duration, with a gradual return to pretreatment levels within 2 months after cessation of treatment. morphologic alterations included degranulation and ...19744207270
experimental studies on the nucleus cervicalis lateralis (ncl) of macaca cyclopis (swinhoe). ii. the spinal afferents to the nucleus cervicalis lateralis in the monkey. 19744212003
formosan monkey (macaca cyclopis): present situation in taiwan and its reproductive biology. 19734214228
urolithiasis in a taiwan monkey (macaca cyclopis). a literature review and case report. 19694244906
care and rassing of newborn taiwan monkeys (macaca cyclopis) for virus studies. 19684247419
a study on natural infection of simian virus 40 (sv40) in taiwan monkeys (macaca cyclopis). 19674294621
antibodies to epstein-barr virus in a burkitt's lymphoma cell line in taiwan monkeys (macaca cyclopis).the prevalence of taiwan monkeys with antibodies to epstein-barr virus, as detected by the indirect immunofluorescence technique, was lower than that of healthy persons in taiwan.19714324196
effects of heating and cooling the spinal cord and medulla oblongata on thermoregulation in monkeys.1. in the unanaesthetized monkey (macaca cyclopis), heating the spinal cord or the medulla oblongata from 38 to 42-43 degrees c produced subcutaneous vasodilatation, respiratory acceleration (frequently interrupted with a period of apnoea in the medullary experiment), bradycardia and hypotension. the animal became drowsy and had a slight decrease of body temperature. heating the medulla oblongata often induced retching and/or emesis.2. cooling the spinal cord or medulla oblongata from 38 to 32-3 ...19724627523
on the visually evoked potentials in the cerebral visula, somatosensory, motor and association areas of monkeys (macaca cyclopis). 19684974134
ogmocotyle ailuri (price, 1954) in the taiwanese monkey, macaca cyclopis (swinhoe, 1862). 19694976115
leech (dinobdella ferox) infection of a taiwan monkey (macaca cyclopis). 19704991976
experimental studies on the nucleus cervicalis lateralis (ncl) of macaca cyclopis (swinhoe). part i: the general morphology and the spinal origins of the nucleus cervicalis lateralis of the monkey (macaca cyclopis). 19715293641
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a colony of macaque monkeys.a naturally occurring immunodeficiency syndrome has been seen in a captive colony of macaque monkeys. this syndrome is seen primarily in the species macaca cyclopis. affected animals died with lymphomas (a rare disease in macaques) or such opportunistic infections as pneumocystis carinii and noma (necrotizing gingivitis). these m. cyclopis exhibited anemia, neutropenia, and a circulating bizarre immature monocyte. in addition, liver function tests suggested hepatitis. pokeweed mitogen-, concanav ...19836221343
studies on trypanosomes in the taiwan monkey.fifty-three or 9% of 594 taiwan monkeys, macaca cyclopis, were found infected with a trypanosome species. the parasites were recovered from monkey blood in diaphasic blood-agar culture medium with a locke's solution overlay. trypanosomes were found on only a few thick blood smears and no dividing or multiplying forms were found. some of the organisms had a free-flagellum (4.7 microns), an undulating membrane and both ends of the body were pointed. the total length averaged 41.7 microns; nucleus ...19836673131
occurrence of twins in wild formosan macaques, macaca cyclopis, at mt. longevity, taiwan. 200010828694
a study of filaria in taiwan monkeys.filarial adult were found in the intermuscular connective tissue of the peritracheal and mandibular region of the taiwan monkey(macaca cyclopis). the microfilariae in the peripheral blood demonstrated a marked nocturnal periodicity with a peak between 2100-0100 hours and a low diurnal minimum between 900 and 1300 hours. staining the microfilaria by various stains demonstrated differences in size. no development of microfilariae was detected in the culex fatigans, culex tritaeniohyncus, aedes alb ...196412913612
pathology of schistosoma japonicum in the taiwanese monkey (macaca cyclopis). i. comparison of formosan and japanese strains. 196314070765
pathology of schistosoma japonicum in the taiwanese monkey (macaca cyclopis). ii. effect of passing the formosan strain through japanese snails. 196314070766
some chemocytological observations on the parathyroid gland of the formosan rock-monkey (macaca cyclopis). 196414125372
some observations on the effect of splenectomy upon the taiwan monkey (macaca cyclopis) infected with plasmodium inui. 196414198796
imaging serotonin transporters with 123i-adam brain spect in healthy non-human primates.serotonin transporters (serts) play a major role in modulating serotonergic neuronal function and are the target of many antidepressant drugs used in neuro-psychiatric disorders. to gain more information on the temporal distribution of serts, 2-([2-([dimethylamino]methyl)phenoxyl]thio)-5-[i]iodophenylamine (i-adam) single photon emission computed tomography (spect) was utilized in an in vivo imaging study using non-human primates.200415100512
prevalence of antibody reaction with cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 antigen in macaca cyclopis, macaca fascicularis, and papio anubis in taiwan.a total of 284 non-human primate sera were collected between december 2004 and september 2005 and tested by a commercially available dot immunobinding assay for the antibodies to cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, an alphaherpesvirus with high mortality for infected humans.200717976038
pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma in the hind leg of a taiwanese macaque (macaca cyclopis).an adult, captive taiwanese monkey (macaca cyclopis) presented clinically with a large, rapidly growing mass located in the crus of the left hind leg. the overlying skin was severely ulcerated and necrotic. radiographs suggested an invasive neoplasm in soft tissue with no bone involvement. the animal's clinical condition progressively worsened over the next 3 months until it died. necropsy revealed that the mass infiltrated the surrounding skeletal muscle with no evidence of distant metastasis. ...200919564513
effects of dextromethorphan on mdma-induced serotonergic aberration in the brains of non-human primates using [(123)i]-adam/spect.3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (mdma), a common recreational drug, is known to cause serotonergic neurotoxicity in the brain. dextromethorphan (dm) is a widely used antitussive reported to exert anti-inflammatory effect in vivo. in this study, we examined the long-term effect of mdma on the primate serotonergic system and the protective property of dm against mdma-induced serotonergic abnormality using single photon emission computed tomography (spect). nine monkeys (macaca cyclopis) were div ...201627941910
non-maternal infant handling in wild formosan macaques of mount longevity, this paper, we present quantitative data on how the social network and sex of infants influence allomothering behaviour among wild formosan macaques, macaca cyclopis. using long-term field data collected from the mount longevity study site in kaohsiung (taiwan), we have tested relevant hypotheses incorporating data on age, rank and reproductive state of infant handlers, and the relationship between handlers and infants. the results support 2 major hypotheses, i.e. those of reciprocity and all ...201526820742
the in vitro protection of human decay accelerating factor and hdaf/heme oxygenase-1 transgenes in porcine aortic endothelial cells against sera of formosan mitigate hyperacute rejection, pigs have been generated with alpha-gal transferase gene knockout and transgenic expression of human decay accelerating factor (hdaf), mcp, and cd59. additionally, heme-oxygenase-1 (ho-1) has been suggested to defend endothelial cells. sera (ms) (0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) from formosan macaques (macaca cyclopis, mc), an old world monkey wildly populated in taiwan, was used to test the protective in vitro, effects of hdaf or hdaf/hho-1 on porcine aortic endotheli ...201020692427
hypothermic effect of sodium acetysalicylate on afebrile monkeys.1 afebrile monkeys (macaca cyclopis) receiving systemic (100-300 mg/kg, i.p.) or central (5-20 mg into the 3rd cerebral ventricle) administration of sodium acetylsalicylate showed a dose-dependent reduction in rectal temperature in a thermoneutral environment (25 degrees c).2 administration of sodium acetylsalicylate (10 mg) into the 3rd cerebral ventricle produced a hypothermia with a temperature decrement of 1.0 degrees c, ehile an intraperitoneal injection of 300 mg/kg was required for a temp ...197519108297
within-group female-female agonistic interactions in taiwanese macaques (macaca cyclopis).feeding-related agonism among wild female taiwanese macaques was investigated in two study groups at ecologically diverse sites (fu-shan and ken-ting) to determine whether contest-feeding competition was present in these groups. females that contest for food within a primate group are hypothesized to form dominance hierarchies and tend to be philopatric. in this study we tested 1) whether taiwanese macaque females show higher agonism in a feeding context, 2) whether they exhibit stronger agonism ...200717154380
high incidence of supernumerary nipples and twins in formosan macaques (macaca cyclopis) at mt. longevity, taiwan.a population of formosan macaques at mt. longevity exhibits an unusually high incidence of supernumerary nipples (polythelia: between 1-6 accessory nipples and/or areolae on 33% of adults), as well as a high rate of twinning (about 1% of births). the coexistence of these unusual traits suggests a connection, which is further supported by a tendency for mothers of twins to have accessory nipples and for twins to be born in troops with high incidence of polythelia.200011132113
innervation of the ligament of the femoral head in the formosan rock monkey: a retrograde hrp tracing and ultrastructural study.the innervation of the ligament attached to the femoral head of the formosan rock monkey (macaca cyclopis, swinhoe) was investigated by means of the retrograde hrp tracing method and by electron microscopy. wga/hrp was injected into the ligament of the left femoral head. numerous neurons labelled with hrp were found in the ipsilateral lumbar sympathetic ganglia, from l1 to l7, with a peak in the l3 to l5 region. labelled neurons were also found in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal root ganglia, from ...19948157494
noma in a nonhuman primate.a lesion in macaca cyclopis which appears to conform to defined characteristics of noma in human beings has been reported. clinical features in common include the gangrenous appearance of the lesion, the association with necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, and the massive destruction of soft tissue and bone in the oronasofacial regions. systemic features in common include debilitation of the host, leukocytosis, and depression of cellular immunologic responses. microbiologic studies revealed the p ...19816944671
observation of lateral mandibular protuberance in taiwan macaque (macaca cyclopis) using computed tomography imaging.morphological characteristics of the protuberance on the external surface of the mandible in taiwan macaque (macaca cyclopis) was investigated using cone-beam computed tomography. we observed 49 skulls of m. cyclopis. of 7 skulls with deciduous and mixed dentitions in which m2s did not erupt, the protuberance was not found. of the 13 skulls with mixed and permanent dentitions in which m2s had erupted, a palpable protuberance was found in one specimen. of the 29 samples in which m3s had erupted c ...200919828971
amino acid levels in the plasma of fasting macaques (macaca cyclopis, m. fascicularis, and m. mulatta). 19734351476
studies on the primitive lymphatic apparatus in the blood vascular system of the lungs of macaca cyclopis. 19734199046
a study on the lymphatic apparatus in the pancreas of macaca cyclopis, with special reference to the development. 19714995010
morphologic studies on the spinal cord of macaca cyclopis (swinhoe). 19705003183
anatomical studies of the vascular system of the brain of macaca cyclopis (swinhoe). 19684977694
first discovery of colobine fossils from the early to middle pleistocene of southern we report on two kinds of cercopithecid fossil monkeys (cercopithecinae and colobinae) from the early to middle pleistocene sediments of the chochen (=tsochen) area (tsailiao-chi or shinhua hill), southern taiwan. the fossil specimens include the first fossil record of colobine monkeys from taiwan, where only macaque monkeys now occur. all cercopithecine fossils were identified as macaca cf. macaca cyclopis, the extant taiwan macaque, except for one extremely large isolated upper molar, whi ...201222749256
variability of tail length in hybrids of the japanese macaque (macaca fuscata) and the taiwanese macaque (macaca cyclopis).in primates, tail length is subject to wide variation, and the tail may even be absent. tail length varies greatly between each species group of the genus macaca, which is explained by climatic factors and/or phylogeographic history. here, tail length variability was studied in hybrids of the japanese (m. fuscata) and taiwanese (macaca cyclopis) macaque, with various degrees of hybridization being evaluated through autosomal allele typing. relative tail length (percent of crown-rump length) corr ...201222875578
the evolutionary history of slc6a4 and the role of plasticity in macaca.serotonin has been repeatedly indicated as a biological marker of behavior. in particular, the serotonin transporter gene, slc6a4, has been the focus of a large body of research. interestingly, both rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) and humans have independently evolved a number of shared polymorphisms for this gene, which is indicative of parallel evolution between the two species. however, little is known about the evolution of this gene, particularly within macaques. although there are several ...201424375078
evaluation of endoscopic salpingectomy for sterilization of female formosan macaques (macaca cyclopis).we evaluated the safety and postsurgical outcomes of endoscopic salpingectomy for sterilization of female formosan macaques (macaca cyclopis) as a method of population control. nineteen adult female formosan macaques were included in our study. the fallopian tubes of each anesthetized macaque were cauterized and excised endoscopically using a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope system. we recorded the complications encountered, and objectively scored the amount of hemorrhage throughout the procedure. postope ...201525407314
complete taiwanese macaque (macaca cyclopis) mitochondrial genome: reference-assisted de novo assembly with multiple k-mer strategy.the taiwanese (formosan) macaque (macaca cyclopis) is the only nonhuman primate endemic to taiwan. this primate species is valuable for evolutionary studies and as subjects in medical research. however, only partial fragments of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of this primate species have been sequenced, not mentioning its nuclear genome. we employed next-generation sequencing to generate 2 x 90 bp paired-end reads, followed by reference-assisted de novo assembly with multiple k-mer strate ...201526125617
identification of recombination in the envelope gene of simian foamy virus serotype 2 isolated from macaca cyclopis.the full-length sequence of simian foamy virus serotype 2 (sfvmcy-2), isolated from a taiwanese macaque, was determined. sfvmcy-2 was highly related to sfv serotype 1 (sfvmcy-1), an isolate from the same species, except in the putative receptor binding domain (rbd) in env, which contained novel sequences related to sfv serotype 3 (sfvagm-3), isolated from an african green monkey. the results identify a potential region of neutralization in sfvs and demonstrate recombination between genetically d ...201323698303
construction of an infectious clone of simian foamy virus of japanese macaque (sfvjm) and phylogenetic analyses of sfvjm isolates.foamy viruses belong to the genus spumavirus of the family retroviridae and have been isolated from many mammalian species. it was reported that simian foamy viruses (sfvs) have co-evolved with host species. in this study, we isolated four strains (wk1, wk2, ar1 and ar2) of sfv (named sfvjm) from japanese macaques (macaca fuscata) in main island honshu of japan. we constructed an infectious molecular clone of sfvjm strain wk1, termed pjm356. the virus derived from the clone replicated and induce ...201425017058
characterization of 4-[(18)f]-adam as an imaging agent for sert in non-human primate brain using pet: a dynamic study.introduction: serotonin transporter (sert) has been associated with many psychiatric diseases. this study investigated the biodistribution of a serotonin transporter imaging agent, n,n-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-(18)f-fluorophenylthio)benzylamine (4-[(18)f]-adam), in nonhuman primate brain using positron emission tomography (pet). methods: six and four macaca cyclopis monkeys were used to determine the transit time (i.e., time necessary to reach biodistribution equilibrium) and the reproducibility of ...201122136885
molecular cloning and characterization of the circumsporozoite protein gene of plasmodium inui isolated from formosan macaques (macaca cyclopis) in taiwan.we characterized the complete nucleic and amino acid sequences of the plasmodium inui circumsporozoite protein (pincsp) gene and analyzed nucleotide diversity across the entire pincsp gene by using 7 field isolates and strains taiwan i and ii obtained from formosan macaques (macaca cyclopis) in taiwan. the length of the circumsporozoite protein ( csp ) gene ranged from 1077 to 1125 bp. size polymorphisms were due to variations in the number of tandem repeat units. the non-repetitive (nr) region ...201021158626
body and organ weights of macaca fuscata and macaca cyclopis. 19846482133
efficiency of coding in macaque vocal communication.a key characteristic of human language efficiency is that more frequently used words tend to be shorter in length-the 'law of brevity'. to date, no test of this relationship between frequency of use and length has been carried out on non-human animal vocal communication. we show here that the vocal repertoire of the formosan macaque (macaca cyclopis) conforms to the pattern predicted by the law of brevity, with an inverse relationship found between call duration and rate of utterance. this findi ...201020106854
prevalence and molecular characterization of plasmodium inui among formosan macaques (macaca cyclopis ) in taiwan.since the 1970s, no information on simian malaria has been documented in taiwan, an area that is free from human malaria. to update the prevalence of simian malaria, a molecular-based survey was performed. blood samples from 286 formosan macaques ( macaca cyclopis ) were tested for plasmodium species by microscopy and nested polymerase chain reaction. furthermore, the field isolates were characterized by sequencing the 42-kda fragment of the merozoite surface protein 1 (msp-1(42)). of the 286 bl ...201019712012
molecular cloning and characterization of taiwan macaque lactoferrin.lactoferrin (lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that plays an important role in combating a wide range of pathogens and contributes innate protective defenses of mammals.200919335476
nasal adenocarcinoma in a taiwan macaque. 1977407699
interactions between visitors and formosan macaques (macaca cyclopis) at shou-shan nature park, taiwan.ecotourism involving feeding wildlife has raised public attention and is a controversial issue, especially concerning nonhuman primates. between july 2002 and april 2005, the behavior of monkeys and tourists was collected through scan samplings, focal samplings and behavior samplings at the shou-shan nature park located in taiwan's second largest city--kaohsiung. in addition, the number of tourists and monkeys was counted in different hours and places within the park. four hundred visitors were ...200919051313
localization of the motor cells in the spinal cord of macaca cyclopis (swinhoe). 2. the spinal motor cells in the cervical enlargement for the median, radial, musculocutaneous and ulnar nerves. 1976823293
pig as a favorable animal for taenia saginata asiatica infection.the epidemiology of taenia saginata in some parts of asia is confusing, in that beef does not appear to be the source of infection. in some areas, beef is either not available or not eaten raw, whereas pork at times is eaten uncooked. in light of this situation, we have exposed pigs and other animals to infection with strains of t. saginata to establish their ability to serve as intermediate hosts. eggs of taiwan taenia, korea taenia, indonesia taenia, thailand taenia, philippines taenia, ethiop ...200616570562
trachoma in the taiwan monkey macaca cyclopis. 196214004858
the deep lateral muscles of the neck in macaca cyclopis (mm. scalenii). 1976822380
ectopic locations of taenia saginata asiatica cysticerci in the abdominal cavity of domestic pig and monkey.eleven small-ear-miniature pigs, 1 landrace small-ear-miniature pig, and 1 monkey (macaca cyclopis) were infected experimentally with eggs of taenia saginata asiatica. they were found to harbor cysticerci on the liver surface, each with a thin, whitish fiber connecting to another location in the same lobe, or to other lobes of the liver; some were also connected individually to the diaphragm, abdominal muscles, and gall bladder with a short, thin fiber. moreover, they also harbored extrahepatic ...19968973419
localization of the motor cells in the spinal cord of macaca cyclopis (swinhoe). i. the spinal motor cells in the lumbosacral enlargement for the femoral, obturator, tibial, common peroneal and sciatic nerves. 19751056417
baseline blood determinations of the taiwan macaque (macaca cyclopis). 19734354718
pyrogenic responses in the decerebrate monkey (macaca cyclopis). 19806766402
a new type d retrovirus isolated from macaques with an immunodeficiency syndrome.macaque monkeys with the recently described acquired immunodeficiency syndrome show a marked defect in t-lymphocyte function and die with opportunistic infections and lymphoproliferative abnormalities. in the study described here a new type d retrovirus was isolated from two macaca cyclopis with this syndrome. this virus is related to, but distinct from, mason-pfizer monkey virus, a type d retrovirus previously isolated from a mammary tumor of a rhesus monkey (macaca mulatta).19846695172
studies on the lymphatic apparatus in the small intestine of macaca cyclopis. 196414197075
entamoeba spp. in wild formosan rock macaques (macaca cyclopis) in an area with frequent human-macaque contact.entamoeba is a genus of gastrointestinal protozoon that is transmitted through contaminated food and water. this protozoon is commonly found in human and nonhuman primates. contact between humans and formosan rock macaques (macaca cyclopis) has become more frequent due to food provisioning; accordingly, concerns regarding zoonotic pathogen transmission through the fecal-oral route have increased. for example, surveillance of intestinal parasites in wild formosan rock macaques indicated that enta ...201930681898
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