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antiinflammatory activity of anthurium cerrocampanense croat in rats and mice.aqueous (ae), ethanol (ee) and dichloromethane (de) extracts from the whole plant of anthurium cerrocampanense croat, endemic to panama, were assayed for antiinflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and croton oil-induced mouse ear edema tests. the extracts were administered i.p. and topically, respectively. the best antiinflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test, was shown by de (31% inhibition), which did not show any irritant effect in the peritoneal ...19989705016
phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of an extract of anthuriumversicolor leaves.fractionation of a methanolic extract of the leaves of anthurium versicolor has resulted in the isolation of two main fractions, i and ii. both the extract and the fractions were assayed for their radical-scavenging activity by means of an in vitro test (bleaching of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and showed a significant radical-scavenging effect. subsequent chromatographic fractionation of the most active fraction, ii, has led to the isolation and characterization, as major ...200111520218
molecular characterisation of xanthomonas strains isolated from aroids in mauritius.mauritius is one of the largest world producers of anthurium cut flowers but outbreaks of bacterial blight have never been reported on the island. this work was about the characterisation and identification of bacterial strains isolated from anthurium andreanum, dieffenbachia maculata and aglaonema simplex in mauritius. fifteen strains, that showed the morphological properties of xanthomonas on conventional media, were tested on two semi-selective media (esculin-trehalose and cellobiose-starch). ...200515997710
fossil araceae from a paleocene neotropical rainforest in colombia.both the fossil record and molecular data support a long evolutionary history for the araceae. although the family is diverse in tropical america today, most araceous fossils, however, have been recorded from middle and high latitudes. here, we report fossil leaves of araceae from the middle-late paleocene of northern colombia, and review fossil araceous pollen grains from the same interval. two of the fossil leaf species are placed in the new fossil morphogenus petrocardium herrera, jaramillo, ...200821628164
divergent chemical cues elicit seed collecting by ants in an obligate multi-species mutualism in lowland amazonia.in lowland amazonian rainforests, specific ants collect seeds of several plant species and cultivate them in arboreal carton nests, forming species-specific symbioses called ant-gardens (ags). in this obligate mutualism, ants depend on the plants for nest stability and the plants depend on ant nests for substrate and nutrients. ag ants and plants are abundant, dominant members of lowland amazonian ecosystems, but the cues ants use to recognize the seeds are poorly understood. to address the chem ...201021209898
seeking a way to promote the use of constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries.the aim of this study was to evaluate the domestic wastewater treatment efficiency as well as the survivability of commercially valuable ornamental plants in subsurface flow wetlands (ssfw) for domestic wastewater (dww) treatment in laboratory and pilot wetland studies. the laboratory scale study included five different species (zantedeschia aethiopica, strelitzia reginae, anthurium andreanum, canna hybrids and hemmerocallis dumortieri) that were evaluated in horizontal flow subsurface treatment ...201121330710
zygotic embryogenesis in anthurium (araceae).morphological, anatomical, and histochemical aspects of zygotic embryogenesis by anthurium andraeanum lind. were investigated from 4 to 24 wk postpollination. anatomical features were correlated with morphology of the spadix and capacity of embryos to germinate in vitro. development from a single-cell zygote to fully mature seed takes 24 wk. the suspensor was two ranked and obvious during the early stages of embryogeny. it was apparent by week 8, substantial until week 14, and diminished rapidly ...199821680314
a polar extract of the maya healing plant anthurium schlechtendalii (aracea) exhibits strong in vitro anticancer activity.the aracea anthurium schlechtendalii and syngonium podophyllum are traditional remedies for the treatment of severe and chronic inflammatory conditions. we cross-examined these plants regarding their anti-neoplastic properties, because several anti-inflammatory molecular targets are common for both pathologic conditions due to similar signalling pathways. two malignant cell lines, hl-60 and mcf-7, were treated with increasing concentrations of plant extracts of increasing polarity. the potential ...200919724892
floral biology and reproductive isolation by floral scent in three sympatric aroid species in french guiana.we studied the reproductive biology of three sympatric araceae species, anthurium sagittatum, a. thrinax and spathiphyllum humboldtii in french guiana. the plants flowered simultaneously and were visited by scent-collecting male euglossine bees, which were apparently their major pollinators. in total, each species was visited by 3-7 euglossine species, and 2-3 euglossine species accounted for at least 80% of all flower visits, with visits being plant species-specific. floral scent consisted of 6 ...201020636901
effect of conditioning treatments on the survival of radopholus similis at high temperatures.heat treatments are an environmentally safe method for eliminating quarantine pests from tropical foliage. conditioning heat treatments can induce thermotolerance against subsequent and otherwise phytotoxic temperatures in tropical foliage, allowing heat treatments to be even more effective. however, if thermotolerance is also induced in nematodes of quarantine significance like radopholus similis, heat treatments would be rendered ineffective. a lethal thermal death point (lt(99.9)) was establi ...200519262868
reclassification of subspecies of acidovorax avenae as a. avenae (manns 1905) emend., a. cattleyae (pavarino, 1911) comb. nov., a. citrulli schaad et al., 1978) comb. nov., and proposal of a. oryzae sp. nov.the bacterium acidovorax avenae causes disease in a wide range of economically important monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, including corn, rice, watermelon, anthurium, and orchids. genotypic and phenotypic relatedness among strains of phytopathogenic a. avenae subsp. avenae, a. avenae subsp. citrulli, a. avenae subsp. cattleyae and a. konjaci, as well as all other acidovorax species, including a. facilis, the type strain of acidovorax, was determined. the 16s rdna sequencing confirmed ...200818993005
pollination of anthurium (araceae) by derelomine flower weevils (coleoptera: curculionidae).cyclanthura flower weevils (coleoptera: curculionidae: derelomini) are identified for the first time as pollinators of multiple species of anthurium (araceae) in costa rica. the weevils are present on the inflorescences in small numbers during the pistillate and staminate phase of anthesis, and consume plant tissues and pollen. the individuals of one species of cyclanthura can visit several anthurium species within the same locality. they also engage in reproductive activities and are likely to ...200718457136
trigeminal sensory neuropathy and facial contact dermatitis due to anthurium sp.trigeminal sensory neuropathy (tsn) describes a heterogeneous group of disorders manifesting as facial numbness.200717952288
evaluation of predation abilities of blattisocius dolichus (acari: blattisociidae) on a plant-parasitic nematode, radopholus similis (tylenchida: pratylenchidae).predation and predatory behavior of blattisocius dolichus on radopholus similis were tested both in experimental arenas and on potted plants. predation occurred in all active stages of b. dolichus. blattisocius dolichus preferred live r. similis when offered together with caneorhabditis elegans and dead r. similis in a choice test. consumption rate was affected by temperature, prey density and duration of starvation. maximum consumption rates were observed at 25 °c, for both adult males and fema ...201223269565
specific detection of xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae in anthurium (anthurium andreanum) tissues by nested pcr.efficient control of xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae, the causal agent of anthurium bacterial blight, requires a sensitive and reliable diagnostic tool. a nested pcr test was developed from a sequence-characterized amplified region marker identified by randomly amplified polymorphic dna pcr for the detection of x. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae. serological and pathogenicity tests were performed concurrently with the nested pcr test with a large collection of x. axonopodis pv. dieffenba ...200616461651
metabolic engineering of anthocyanin biosynthesis in escherichia coli.anthocyanins are red, purple, or blue plant pigments that belong to the family of polyphenolic compounds collectively called flavonoids. their demonstrated antioxidant properties and economic importance to the dye, fruit, and cut-flower industries have driven intensive research into their metabolic biosynthetic pathways. in order to produce stable, glycosylated anthocyanins from colorless flavanones such as naringenin and eriodictyol, a four-step metabolic pathway was constructed that contained ...200516000769
genetic diversity and host range variation of ralstonia solanacearum strains entering north america.each year, large volumes of ornamental and food plant propagative stock are imported into the north america; occasionally, ralstonia solanacearum is found systemically infecting this plant material. in this study, 107 new r. solanacearum strains were collected over a 10-year period from imported propagative stock and compared with 32 previously characterized r. solanacearum strains using repetitive polymerase chain reaction (rep-pcr) element (box, eric, and rep) primers. additional strain compar ...200919671009
micropropagation and organogenesis of anthurium andreanum lind cv rubrun.tissue culture techniques are routinely used for mass propagation and the establishment of disease free stock material. virtually all pot type anthuriums available in the market today are produced by tissue culture. in this chapter, we describe an efficient protocol to obtain anthurium andreanum cv rubrun vitro plants through micropropagation and organogenesis. seeds from plant spadixes were germinated on ms medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l ba. micro-cuttings from in vitro germinated seedlings ...201020099085
improvements for observing anthurium (araceae) floral structures by light microscopy.three major obstacles must be overcome in the anatomical study of anthurium floral structure and embryo development including presence of mucilage, hardened carpel walls, and hardened seed coat in the developing fruit and seed. fixation in 6% glutaraldehyde and 1% cetylpyridinium chloride in 0.05 m sodium cacodylate, ph 6.8, effectively fixed or removed mucilage from the locules of anthurium andraeanum hort. in spadices. this treatment enhanced infiltration of the embedding medium through the ha ...19958580204
[carbohydrate-binding proteins--lectins and glycosidases in plants of anthurium genus].the content of lectins and activity of glycosidases have been estimated in seeds and vegetative organs of 5 strains of plants of anthurium genus. in seeds of all the investigated strains lectins were detected with the selectivity toward the n-acetyl-galactosamine (minimal inhibitory concentration of sugar was 0.1-0.2 mm) and an anti-a blood group specificity. lectins of anthuriums selectively bound o-type glycosidic chains and revealed high affinity toward mucins (salivary or ovary cysts origin) ...19938291137
relationship between symptom development and actual sites of infection in leaves of anthurium inoculated with a bioluminescent strain of xanthomonas campestris pv. dieffenbachiae.the infection process of bacterial blight of anthurium was monitored with a bioluminescent strain of xanthomonas campestris pv. dieffenbachiae. the relationship between symptom expression on infected leaves (assessed visually) and the extent of bacterial movement within tissues (evaluated by bioluminescence emission) varied among anthurium cultivars. in several cultivars previously considered susceptible on the basis of symptom development alone, bacterial invasion of leaves extended far beyond ...199616535253
acidovorax anthurii sp. nov., a new phytopathogenic bacterium which causes bacterial leaf-spot of anthurium.the bacterial leaf-spot of anthurium emerged during the 1980s, in the french west indies and trinidad. this new bacterial disease is presently wide spread and constitutes a serious limiting factor for commercial anthurium production. twenty-nine strains isolated from leaf-spots of naturally infected anthurium were characterized and compared with reference strains belonging to the comamonadaceae family, the genera ralstonia and burkholderia, and representative fluorescent pseudomonads. from artif ...200010826809
in vitro propagation of three commercial cut flower cultivars of anthurium andraeanum hort.in vitro propagation of anthurium andraeanum hort. cut flower cultivars viz. lima white, tropical white and tropical red through organogenesis using mature plant derived leaf explants was established on murashige and skoog (ms) medium fortified with different growth regulators. cultivar, stage and different regions of the source leaf, and type of growth regulators significantly influenced callus induction. explants from folded brown leaves were superior in induction of callus. half strength ms m ...200315255608
a new semi-selective medium for the isolation of xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae, the etiological agent of anthurium bacterial blight.xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae causes anthurium blight, which is regarded as the most threatening disease for the anthurium industry worldwide. the bacterium is listed as a quarantine pathogen in several regions, including europe. we evaluated the use of neomycin-cephalexin-trimethoprime-pirmecillinam 4 (nctm4) medium for its isolation.200919453949
genetic basis of resistance to systemic infection by xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae in anthurium.the genetic basis of systemic resistance to bacterial blight disease (blight) of anthurium (anthurium andraeanum) caused by xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae was investigated in progenies of 53 crosses involving 31 parent cultivars using segregation analysis. inoculation of parents and progenies was achieved by injecting the petiole base of the most recent fully expanded leaf with 100 microl of 10(9) colony forming units per ml of the blight pathogen (strain x4gfp) transformed with the g ...200818944190
ralstonia solanacearum strains from martinique (french west indies) exhibiting a new pathogenic potential.we investigated a destructive pathogenic variant of the plant pathogen ralstonia solanacearum that was consistently isolated in martinique (french west indies). since the 1960s, bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops in martinique has been caused primarily by strains of r. solanacearum that belong to either phylotype i or phylotype ii. since 1999, anthurium shade houses have been dramatically affected by uncharacterized phylotype ii strains that also affected a wide range of species, such as helico ...200717720825
comparisons of single versus multiple bacterial species on biological control of anthurium blight.abstract effects of single versus multiple biological control agents (bcas) on suppression of bacterial blight of anthurium were studied using a bioluminescent strain (v108lruh1) of xanthomonas campestris pv. dieffenbachiae. when five bcas (gut3, gut4, gut5, gut6, and gut9) were coinoculated in various combinations with v108lruh1 into filter-sterilized guttation fluids of anthurium plants, a mixture of all five strains or four strains without gut9 was most inhibitory to v108lruh1. none of the in ...199918944748
suppression of bacterial blight by a bacterial community isolated from the guttation fluids of anthuriumsgrowth and survival of xanthomonas campestris pv. dieffenbachiae in guttation fluids (xylem sap exuded from leaf margins) of anthuriums were suppressed by several bacterial strains indigenous to leaves of various anthurium cultivars. inhibition of growth was not observed in filter-sterilized guttation fluids and was restored to original levels only by reintroducing specific mixtures of bacteria into filter-sterilized guttation fluids. the inhibitory effect was related to the species in the bacte ...199910049858
effect of temperature on the incubation period and leaf colonization in bacterial blight of anthurium.abstract effect of temperature on leaf colonization in anthurium blight was studied using a bioluminescent strain of xanthomonas campestris pv. dieffenbachiae. in a susceptible cultivar, colonization of leaf tissues (monitored by detection of bioluminescence) and symptom development (assessed visually) advanced rapidly at higher temperatures. for a susceptible cultivar, there was a linear relationship between degree-days and percent leaf area colonized by the pathogen, indicating that leaf colon ...199918944655
characterization of a new burrowing nematode population, radopholus citrophilus, from hawaii.karyotype, host preference, isozyzme patterns, morphometrics, and mating behavior of two burrowing nematode populations from hawaii, one infecting anthurium sp. and the second infecting musa sp., were compared with radopholus similis and r. citrophilus populations from florida. the population from anthurium sp. had five chromosomes (n = 5), and that from musa sp. had four (n = 4). neither of the hawaiian nematode populations persisted in roots of citrus limon or c. aurantium. anthurium clarineri ...198619294139
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