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polyomavirus infection in budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus): clinical and aetiological studies.in order to get insight into the aetiology of french moult (fm) and budgerigar fledgling disease (bfd), and to determine relationships between the two diseases, 298 budgerigars from 49 different breeding flocks were examined. from all birds with bfd and from several birds with fm, viruses were isolated which produced characteristic cytopathic changes in chicken embryo fibroblasts. they were insensitive to chloroform treatment, and their replication was inhibited in the presence of 5-iododeoxyuri ...19892552708
the genome of budgerigar fledgling disease virus, an avian polyomavirus.budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv) represents the first avian member of the polyomavirus family. in contrast to mammalian polyomaviruses bfdv exhibits unique biological properties, in particular it is able to cause an acute disease with distinct organ manifestations in affected birds. here we present the complete nucleotide sequence of the bfdv genome, consisting of 4980 bp. when compared to published nucleotide sequences of other polyomaviruses, the bfdv genome exposes a number of very s ...19882838972
a retrospective study of circovirus infection in pigeons: nine cases (1986-1993).circovirus infections were diagnosed in 12 pigeons from the united states 4 pigeons from australia, and 1 pigeon from canada (1986-1993). circovirus was identified by electron microscopic examination of basophilic botryoid cytoplasmic inclusions that had a histologic appearance similar to that of psittacine beak and feather disease virus inclusions. inclusions were seen in splenic, bursal, gut-associated, and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue macrophages and in bursal epithelial cells. inclusi ...19948068746
characterization of a calcium binding domain in the vp1 protein of the avian polyomavirus, budgerigar fledgling disease virus.calcium ions appear to play a major role in maintaining the structural integrity and assembly of papovavirus virions and are likely involved in the process of viral uncoating. recently it was reported that the purified recombinant vp1 protein of budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv) was capable of assembling into capsid-like particles in the presence of calcium. it is now reported that the major capsid protein vp1 of bfdv binds calcium ions in an in vitro calcium binding assay. two deletions ...19968879141
a novel dna virus associated with feather inclusions in psittacine beak and feather disease.the nature of feather inclusions was characterized in 32 psittacine birds (30 cockatoos, one peach-faced lovebird (agapornis roseicollis), and one red-lored amazon parrot (amazona autumnalis autumnalis] with naturally-acquired psittacine beak and feather disease. intranuclear inclusions within feather epithelial cells and intracytoplasmic inclusions within macrophages in the feather epithelium and pulp cavity contained psittacine beak and feather disease viral antigen when stained by the avidin- ...19911949509
hemagglutination by psittacine beak and feather disease virus and use of hemagglutination inhibition for detection of antibodies against the virus.conditions for psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) virus hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test reactions are defined. the pbfd virus was found to hemagglutinate cockatoo and some guinea pig erythrocytes. the hi test was used to assay serum antibody titer in birds with active pbfd virus infections and in others that had been exposed to diseased birds. on the basis of hi antibody titers in psittacine birds that had been exposed to pbfd virus, but remained clinically nor ...19911785723
routes and prevalence of shedding of psittacine beak and feather disease virus.psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) virus was recovered from the feces and crop washings from various species of psittacine birds diagnosed with pbfd. high concentrations of the virus also could be demonstrated in feather dust collection from a room where 22 birds with active cases of pbfd were being housed. the virions recovered from the feces, crop, and feather dust were confirmed to be pbfd virus by ultrastructural, physical, or antigenic characteristics. virus recovered from the feath ...19911785722
common and unique features of t antigens encoded by the polyomavirus group.although 12 different members of the polyomavirus group have now been identified, only sv40 and pyv have been studied extensively. whereas each member of the group shows a restricted host range, viruses infecting species from birds to humans have been reported. although little is known concerning the biology of natural infections in the wild, it is apparent that these viruses exhibit various cell-type tropisms. some viruses, such as lpv (b lymphocytes) or kv (pulmonary endothelium), are tightly ...19921318392
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to psittacine beak and feather disease virus.monoclonal antibodies specific for the virus that causes psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) were produced by fusing spleen cells from mice immunized with purified concentrated pbfd virus with mouse myeloma cell line sp2/0. the resulting hybridomas were tested for reactivity against whole purified virus by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) system. four clones, designated 15h8, 8e3, 11g12, and 2c3, were subcloned by limiting dilution. isotyping indicated that clone 15h8 was secr ...19921554764
molecular and biological characteristics of avian polyomaviruses: isolates from different species of birds indicate that avian polyomaviruses form a distinct subgenus within the polyomavirus genus.the isolation and characterization of two avian polyomaviruses, from chicken (bfdv-2) and a parrot (bfdv-3), is reported. both isolates are closely related to the non-mammalian polyomavirus budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv) isolated from budgerigars (now called bfdv-1), and all three viral genomes are shown to have the same basic size of 4981 bp. a 151 bp insertion was, however, observed in the non-coding region of bfdv-2 which represented an exact duplication of the left half of the non ...19938381462
ultrastructural, protein composition, and antigenic comparison of psittacine beak and feather disease virus purified from four genera of psittacine birds.psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) virus, was purified from diseased tissues of a lesser sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua sulphurea), a black palm cockatoo (probosiger aterrimus), a red-lored amazon parrot (amazona autumnalis), and a peach-faced lovebird (agapornis roseicollis). the histopathology of diseased feathers and follicular epithelium from the different species was compared; basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were identified in the follicular epithelium and intracytoplasm ...19902338723
a universal polymerase chain reaction for the detection of psittacine beak and feather disease virus.a universal pcr assay was designed that consistently detected psittacine beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) in psittacine birds affected with psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) from different geographic regions across australia. primers within open reading frame 1 (orf1) of the bfdv genome consistently amplified a 717 bp product from blood and/or feathers of 32 birds with pbfd lesions. the pcr did not amplify a product from the feathers or blood from 7 clinically normal psittacine bir ...199910501171
serological evaluation of some psittaciformes for budgerigar fledgling disease virus.breeding psittaciform birds (psittacines) from three geographically separated aviaries experiencing fledgling mortality were monitored during 1983 and 1984 for specific serum antibody to budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv) using a fluorescent-antibody virus-neutralization test. neither the time nor the extent of exposure to the virus was known. serological titers were positive in 45% of birds sampled from aviary 1, 25% from aviary 2, and 11% from aviary 3. several species of psittacine bir ...19872823781
comparison of three animal viruses with circular single-stranded dna genomes.no common antigenic determinants and no dna sequence homologies were detected when three animal viruses, chicken anaemia agent (caa), porcine circovirus (pcv), and psittacine beak and feather disease virus (pbfdv), all of which possess circular single-stranded dna genomes, were compared. negative contrast electron microscopy showed that pcv and pbfdv particles were 30% smaller than caa particles and lacked the surface structure of caa.19912006901
host restriction in the productive cycle of avian polyomavirus budgerigar fledgling disease virus type 3 depends on a single amino acid change in the common region of structural proteins vp2/vp3.the three avian polyomaviruses budgerigar fledgling disease virus types 1 to 3 (bfdv-1 to -3) contain genomes of identical size, 4981 bp. with differences of up to only 15 bp between the three genomes, these viruses show distinct tropism for cultured cells of various avian species: infection of chicken embryo (ce) cells with bfdv-1 and -2 results in virus propagation, whereas bfdv-3 is not replicated; all three viruses replicate, with different efficiencies, in infected muscovy duck cells. trans ...19948077924
agnoprotein-1a of avian polyomavirus budgerigar fledgling disease virus: identification of phosphorylation sites and functional importance in the virus life-cycle.the avian polyomavirus budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv) encodes an unusual set of four agnoproteins in its late upstream region. of the two pairs of these proteins, which overlap each other in two different reading frames, the p(l1)-promoted agnoprotein-1a (agno-1a) is the dominant species and is able to support virus propagation in the absence of the other three polypeptides. viral bfdv agno-1a, and also agno-1a expressed via an influenza virus vector, consists of a complex series of e ...200010644834
recombinant expression and modification analysis of protein agno-1b encoded by avian polyomavirus bfdv.among two pairs of agnoproteins encoded in upstream positions in the late mrnas of avian polyomavirus bfdv, either agno-1a or its splice derivative agno-1b are required for viral propagation. out of the two proteins both of which consist of multiple electrophoretic subspecies, the smaller and less complex agno-1b has been cdna-cloned into an influenza-virus /rna-polymerase i expression system for production of higher amounts of this protein in infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. fractional modi ...200010948993
vaccination and challenge studies with psittacine beak and feather disease virus.psittacine beak and feather disease virus (pbfdv) was administered to adult galahs (eolophus roseicapillus) by mouth or by intramuscular injection. concentration of pbfdv antibodies in serum and excretion of pbfdv were monitored by haemagglutination inhibition (hi) and haemagglutination (ha) respectively. after oral administration, 17 of 18 galahs remained clinically normal and a small rise in antibody titre was detected in 3 of 18 birds. after intramuscular administration, antibody was detected ...19938117208
expression and dna binding of budgerigar fledgling disease virus large t antigen.budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv) represents the first non-mammalian member of the polyomavirus genus and possesses uncommon structural and biological properties. recombinant baculoviruses were constructed to express bfdv small t antigen, large t antigens, as well as a large t deletion mutant td and beta-galactosidase-td fusion proteins to high levels in infected insect cells. a recombinant virus containing a genomic copy of the bfdv early region was used for small t antigen expression, ...19948207393
nucleotide sequence analysis of a novel circovirus of canaries and its relationship to other members of the genus circovirus of the family circoviridae.the circular, single-stranded dna genome of a novel circovirus of canaries, tentatively named canary circovirus (cacv), was cloned and sequenced. sequence analysis indicated that the genome was 1952 nucleotides (nt) in size and had the potential to encode three viral proteins, including the putative capsid and replication-associated (rep) proteins. the cacv genome shared greatest sequence similarity (58.3% nt identity) with the newly characterized columbid circovirus (cocv) and was more distantl ...200111602793
evidence for specificity of psittacine beak and feather disease viruses among avian hosts.beak and feather disease is a major avian disease of both captive and wild parrot and cockatoo populations. clinical signs include beak elongation and abnormal growth, together with weight loss and in some individuals the disease is fatal. we investigated the relationship between viral genotypes and their hosts in order to test for a positive association between distinct viral genomes and avian species. specifically, we used the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to amplify and sequence a 605-nucle ...200312620803
the sensitivities of various erythrocytes in a haemagglutination assay for the detection of psittacine beak and feather disease virus.the erythrocytes of various species were tested in psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) virus haemagglutination (ha) and haemagglutination inhibition assays to determine which are suitable for use in these assays. ha activity was observed for erythrocytes of the salmon-crested cockatoo, the sulphur-crested cockatoo, the umbrella cockatoo, the goffin's cockatoo and the cockatiel, with differences amongst individuals within species, but not for erythrocytes of humans, the pig, the guinea pig ...200011014065
genetic diversity of the rep gene of beak and feather disease virus in south africa.a study on the genetic variation of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) isolates in south africa was performed by amplifying and sequencing a region within the orf1 of the genome. six different bfdv isolates were found in 15 psittacine species from 6 regions within south africa, representing three unique isolates and three isolates that clustered into a budgerigar lineage (bg) previously described.200616932986
nuclear localization of budgerigar fledgling disease virus capsid protein vp2 is conferred by residues 308-317.the capsid protein vp2 of budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv) contains two sequences (residues 309-315 and 334-340) which are homologous to the prototypic nuclear localization sequence (nls) of the simian virus 40 t-antigen. using recombinant potential nls-beta-galactosidase fusion proteins we identified amino acid residues 308-317 (vpkrkrklpt) to be the nls of bfdv capsid proteins vp2 and vp3. microfluorometry studies show that the bfdv-vp2 signal is considerably more efficient in nuclear ...19911657638
polymerase chain reaction assay for avian polyomavirus.a polymerase chain reaction assay was developed for detection of budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv). the assay used a single set of primers complementary to sequences located in the putative coding region for the bfdv vp1 gene. the observed amplification product had the expected size of 550 bp and was confirmed to derive from bfdv dna by its restriction digestion pattern. this assay was specific for bfdv and highly sensitive, being able to detect as few as 20 copies of the virus. by using ...19911647403
early and late pre-mrna processing of budgerigar fledgling disease virus 1: identification of viral rna 5' and 3' ends and internal splice junctions.budgerigar fledgling disease virus 1 (bfdv-1) is the first avian polyomavirus to be identified, and it possesses uncommon structural and biological properties. here we present an analysis of the processed viral rnas in infected chicken embryo fibroblast cells. two early and 18 late bfdv-1 mrnas were defined according to their 5' ends and internal splice patterns. in the early region of the genome an incomplete splice reaction covering 195 nt is responsible for creating two mrnas that could encod ...19957844527
cloning and characterization of budgerigar fledgling disease virus, an avian polyomavirus.the dna of a virus isolated from fledgling budgerigars, designated bfdv, was cloned and analyzed with regard to its relationship to the polyomavirus subgroup of the papovavirus family. under relaxed conditions, the dna of bfdv cross-hybridized with the dnas of members of the polyomavirus subgroup, such as the mouse polyomavirus, the monkey viruses simian virus 40, stump-tailed macaque virus, and lymphotropic papovavirus, and the human viruses jcv and bkv. under stringent conditions, however, no ...19863010557
genetic diversity of beak and feather disease virus detected in psittacine species in australia.the complete nucleotide (nt) sequence of eight isolates of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) obtained from a range of psittacine species with psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) from throughout australia were compared with the sequences of two bfdv isolates previously reported from australia (bfdv-aus) and america (bfdv-usa), respectively. all isolates had the same basic structure including the position of the open reading frames, the hairpin structure between orf1 and orf2, the nonan ...200111162795
recombinant expression of late genes agno-2a and agno-2b of avian polyomavirus bfdv.budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv) genome contains two times two (two pairs) open reading frames (agnogenes) at the 5' end of the late coding region. recombinant influenza a viruses were constructed to express the second pair of bfdv agnoproteins, agno-2a and agno-2b, with a fusion of a histidine-tag at their carboxy-termini, respectively. specific proteins were detected in western blot analysis using anti histidine-tag monoclonal antibody. by indirect immunofluorescence experiments agno- ...199910595409
analysis of the beak and feather disease viral genome indicates the existence of several genotypes which have a complex psittacine host specificity.a study was made of the phylogenetic relationships between fifteen complete nucleotide sequences as well as 43 nucleotide sequences of the putative coat protein gene of different strains belonging to the virus species beak and feather disease virus obtained from 39 individuals of 16 psittacine species. the species included among others, cockatoos ( cacatuini), african grey parrots ( psittacus erithacus) and peach-faced lovebirds ( agapornis roseicollis), which were infected at different geograph ...200415290360
avian polymavirus in wild birds: genome analysis of isolates from falconiformes and psittaciformes.avian polyomavirus (apv) infections have been reported to cause fatal disease in a wide range of psittacine species. here we demonstrate apv infections in buzzards (buteo buteo) and in a falcon (falco tinnunculus) found dead in germany, and in lovebirds (agapornis pullaria) with fatal disease, wild-caught in moçambique. apv infection in buzzards was determined by pcr amplification of parts of the viral genome followed by southern blot hybridisation. the genomes of the isolates obtained from the ...19989739329
evidence for translation of vp3 of avian polyomavirus bfdv by leaky ribosomal scanning.due to several incomplete splicing reactions, budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv) late mature mrnas are either bicistronic or polycistronic with an agnogene located upstream of viral protein (vp) genes. while the bicistronic mrnas code for the vast majority of vp1, the polycistronic mrnas contain the coding sequences of vp2, vp3, and vp1 (as the most distal cistron relative to vp2 and vp3). in this work, the translation initiation mechanism of vp3 was investigated in chicken embryo fibrobl ...200010752562
psittacine beak and feather disease virus nucleotide sequence analysis and its relationship to porcine circovirus, plant circoviruses, and chicken anaemia virus.cloning and sequencing of the circular, single-stranded dna of one isolate of psittacine beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) demonstrate a genome composed of a circular molecule of 1993 nucleotide bases. an analysis of the assembled replicative form demonstrated seven open reading frames (orfs) (three in the virion strand and four in the complementary strand), potentially encoding seven viral proteins of >8.7 kda. high amino acid sequence similarity was demonstrated between a potential 33.3-kd ...19989791035
infection with the avian polyomavirus, bfdv, selectively affects myofibril structure in embryonic chick ventricle cardiomyocytes.embryonic cardiomyocytes can both beat and divide. they assemble cardiac muscle-specific proteins into sarcomeric myofibrils and contract. in addition, they periodically synthesize dna, complete mitosis, disassemble sarcomeric myofibrils in the area of the mitotic spindle, assemble cytoplasmic isoform-specific proteins into a cleavage furrow contractile ring, undergo cytokinesis, and then reform sarcomeric myofibrils in daughter cells. little is known about how embryonic cardiomyocytes disassemb ...19938228865
detection of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) and avian polyomavirus (apv) dna in psittacine birds in italy.beak and feather disease (psittacine circovirus) and budgerigar fledgling disease (avian polyomavirus) are viral diseases that can frequently affect captive psittacine birds. we designed the first survey to investigate the presence of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) and avian polyomavirus (apv) inside the population of captive psittacine birds in italy. samples were collected in 18 italian psittacine breeding centres and four trade centres over a 4-year period. a total of 1516 birds were t ...200515752264
psittacine beak and feather disease virus in budgerigars and ring-neck parakeets in south africa.psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) is a common disease of the psittacine species and is caused by the psittacine beak and feather disease virus (pbfdv). in this study the occurrence of the disease in ring-neck parakeets and budgerigars in south africa suffering from feathering problems, using polymerase chain reaction as a diagnostic test was investigated. the genetic variation between viral isolates was also studied. results indicate that pbfdv can be attributed to being the cause of fe ...200415185572
genome sequence determinations and analyses of novel circoviruses from goose and pigeon.the genomes of novel circoviruses from goose and pigeon, which were isolated using degenerate primer and inverse primer pcr methods, were cloned and sequenced. comparative nucleotide (nt) sequence analyses showed that the goose circovirus (gcv) and pigeon circovirus (picv) possessed genomes which were 1821 and 2037 or 2036 nt, respectively, and which had features in common with the genomes of porcine circoviruses types 1 and 2 (pcv1, pcv2) and psittacine beak and feather disease virus (bfdv), su ...200111485403
psittacine beak and feather disease: a first survey of the distribution of beak and feather disease virus inside the population of captive psittacine birds in germany.psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) is the most common viral disease of wild and captive psittacine birds. here, we designed the first survey to investigate the existence of subclinical infections and the distribution of the causative agent named beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) inside the population of captive psittacine birds in germany. dna was isolated from feathers of 146 symptom-free birds from 19 different genera (all psittaformes) taken from 32 independent breeders from all o ...200314633205
comparison of the structures of three circoviruses: chicken anemia virus, porcine circovirus type 2, and beak and feather disease virus.circoviruses are small, nonenveloped icosahedral animal viruses characterized by circular single-stranded dna genomes. their genomes are the smallest possessed by animal viruses. infections with circoviruses, which can lead to economically important diseases, frequently result in virus-induced damage to lymphoid tissue and immunosuppression. within the family circoviridae, different genera are distinguished by differences in genomic organization. thus, chicken anemia virus is in the genus gyrovi ...200314645560
beak and feather disease virus and porcine circovirus genomes: intermediates between the geminiviruses and plant circoviruses.circoviruses are a diverse group of animal and plant pathogens with undefined relationships to one another but for their non-geminate, non-enveloped capsids and circular, single-stranded dna genomes. the sequences of the beak and feather disease virus and porcine circovirus genomic dnas are presented and analyzed in the context of the other members of the family. sequence comparisons, inferred phylogenies, and geographic occurrence suggest that the ambisense circoviruses, particularly the beak a ...19989787657
detection of circovirus infection in pigeons by in situ hybridization using cloned dna probes.degenerate primers were designed based on known sequence information for the circoviruses psittacine beak and feather disease virus and porcine circovirus and applied by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to known virus-infected bursa of fabricius (bf) from a pigeon. a 548-bp dna fragment was amplified and shown to be specific to a novel circovirus, named pigeon circovirus (picv), and was used to produce sensitive and specific probes for detection of circovirus dna by in situ hybridization (ish). u ...200111724137
comparitive sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction diagnosis of psittacine beak and feather disease on feather samples, cloacal swabs and blood from budgerigars (melopsittacus undulates, shaw 18005).a longitudinal study was performed in order to investigate virus excretion and viraemia during a clinical outbreak of the psittacine beak and feather disease in budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus). viral nucleic acid was detected in feathers, cloacal swabs and blood samples. overall, beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) dna was detected most commonly in feather samples, followed by cloacal swabs, and least frequently from blood samples. in most cases the viraemia was short lived and correlate ...200415545027
nucleotide sequence analysis of a c1 gene fragment of psittacine beak and feather disease virus amplified by real-time polymerase chain reaction indicates a possible existence of genotypes.to investigate sequence diversity of psittacine beak and feather disease virus, samples collected from 31 psittacine species with or without clinical signs were tested for the presence of the viral genome. a real-time polymerase chain reaction was developed amplifying a 202 base pair fragment of the region encoding the capsid protein c1 and detecting 100 to 1000 genome equivalents. the nucleotide sequences of the polymerase chain reaction products showed 84.1 to 100% identity with no consistent ...200414681067
recombinant expression of a truncated capsid protein of beak and feather disease virus and its application in serological tests.beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) causes severe disease characterized by irreversible feather disorders and severe immunosuppression in many psittacine species. bfdv cannot be propagated in tissue or cell cultures, rendering virus propagation and thus diagnosis rather difficult. to develop reliable diagnostic methods, the region encoding the bfdv capsid protein c1 was cloned from an infected sulphur-crested cockatoo (cacatua galerita). phylogenetic analysis showed this gene had 76.3 to 83.2% ...200415223562
beak and feather disease virus infection in cockatiels (nymphicus hollandicus).psittacine beak and feather disease is known to occur in a wide range of psittacine species; however, there are no scientific or credible anecdotal reports of psittacine beak and feather disease occurring in the cockatiel (nymphicus hollandicus) despite it being one of the world's most commonly kept companion bird species. consequently, this has resulted in speculation that the species may have some innate resistance to beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) infection. to investigate this hypothe ...200818202953
comparison of three template preparation methods for routine detection of beak and feather disease virus and avian polyomavirus with single and nested polymerase chain reaction in clinical specimens.direct comparisons are important when assessing the value of dna extraction methods for diagnostic virology as the inhibitors present and the efficiency of extraction vary with the target infectious agent as well as the species and the site from which the clinical sample was obtained. three dna extraction methods were compared for routine polymerase chain reaction (pcr) detection of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) in whole blood and feather samples and of avian polyomavirus (apv) in feathe ...200818393092
a novel genotype of beak and feather disease virus in budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus).beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) is a causative agent for psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd), which shows a characteristic feather disorder in psittacine birds. nineteen budgerigars, which were clinically suspected to have pbfd, were examined by two polymerase chain reactions (pcr), which target each of open reading frames (orfs) v1 and c1. all of the 19 samples were detected bfdv by the pcr targeting orf c1, whereas only two of them were detected by the pcr targeting orf v1. it was ...201020658313
cloning and sequencing of columbid circovirus (cocv), a new circovirus from pigeons.the complete nucleotide sequence of columbid circovirus (cocv) isolated from pigeons is described. cocv was amplified using a consensus primer pcr approach directed against conserved sequences within the rep genes of vertebrate circoviruses. the genome of cocv is circular and 2037 nt in size. it displays 55% homology to the genome of psittacine beak and feather disease virus and is more distantly related (< 40% homology) to porcine circovirus type 1 and 2. two major open reading frames were iden ...200011205099
a concurrent outbreak of psittacine beak and feather disease virus, and avian polyomavirus infection in budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus).a dual natural infection with psittacine beak and feather disease virus and budgerigar fledgling disease virus in a breeding aviary of budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) is described. one-hundred per cent of newly-hatched birds were affected and mortality was high (85%). most surviving birds had diarrhoea, feather alterations and 30% mortality after a 5- to 10-week period. necropsies of 1-week-old and 2-month-old birds demonstrated non-specific lesions, but histologically nuclear inclusions s ...199818483964
development and applications of a monoclonal antibody to a recombinant beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) capsid protein.the development of diagnostic assays for detecting beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) has traditionally been hampered by the difficulty associated with producing suitable reagents, namely purified virus and polyclonal antibodies. in an effort to develop a consistent and standardised source of antibody, a monoclonal antibody to a recombinant bfdv capsid protein has been developed and its use in western blotting, immunohistochemistry (ihc), elisa and haemagglutination-inhibition (hi) assays cha ...200817942162
evidence of unique genotypes of beak and feather disease virus in southern africa.psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd), caused by beak and feather disease virus (bfdv), is the most significant infectious disease in psittacines. pbfd is thought to have originated in australia but is now found worldwide; in africa, it threatens the survival of the indigenous endangered cape parrot and the vulnerable black-cheeked lovebird. we investigated the genetic diversity of putative bfdvs from southern africa. feathers and heparinized blood samples were collected from 27 birds repre ...200415308722
diagnosis of psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) viral infection, avian polyomavirus infection, adenovirus infection and herpesvirus infection in psittacine tissues using dna in situ hybridization.the evaluation of the usefulness of dna probes in a diagnostic setting to identify nuclear inclusions in selected viral infections (psittacine beak and feather disease viral infection, avian polyomavirus infection, adenovirus infection and pacheco's parrot disease) is reported. a dna in situ hybridization method was used to detect viral nucleic acid in sections of paraffin-embedded tissues coming from birds naturally and/or experimentally infected. it is concluded that dna probes used for polyom ...199418671131
the haemagglutination spectrum of psittacine beak and feather disease virus.a simple method for concentrating psittacine beak and feather disease virus (pbfdv) from crude feather suspensions is described. the addition of 10% polyethylene glycol (mw 6000 to 9000) to feather suspensions facilitated the precipitation and pelleting of pbfdv by low speed centrifugation. pellets were resuspended in one-twentieth of the original volume with caesium chloride (cscl) buffer and subjected to isopycnic ultracentrifugation. peak haemagglutination activity (ha) occurred at 1.35 g/ml ...199418671129
elimination of false-positive polymerase chain reaction results resulting from hole punch carryover contamination.the collection of biological material (e.g., blood) directly onto filter paper for subsequent use in laboratory assays such as polymerase chain reaction (pcr), has become a common practice. dried cells or fluid on the paper can be readily rehydrated and retrieved into a standard volume of an appropriate elution buffer but introduces a dilution factor to the sample. the use of a common cutting instrument for excising a standard-sized piece of paper that contains the material also introduces the p ...200818182510
avian circovirus diseases: lessons for the study of pmws.the diseases associated with psittacine beak and feather disease virus (bfdv), pigeon circovirus (picv) and goose circovirus (gocv), which can be classified with porcine circovirus type 2 (pcv2) as members of the genus circovirus of the family circoviridae, have clinico-pathological features in common with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (pmws), with which pcv2 infection is causally associated. intracytoplasmic botryoid inclusions within macrophages and depletion of t and b lymphocyt ...200414741130
a comparison of haemagglutination, haemagglutination inhibition and pcr for the detection of psittacine beak and feather disease virus infection and a comparison of isolates obtained from loriids.psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) is recognized as a threat for endangered psittacine birds in australia, new zealand and south africa. several diagnostic methods for the detection of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) infection have been developed but there are few studies comparing the relative merits or sensitivity and specificity of each diagnostic test. in this report, the results of pcr, haemagglutination (ha) and haemagglutination inhibition (hi) testing of diagnostic samples ...200516227226
beak and feather disease virus haemagglutinating activity using erythrocytes from african grey parrots and brown-headed parrots.psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) is a common viral disease of wild and captive psittacine birds characterized by symmetric feather loss and beak deformities. the causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (bfdv), is a small, circular single-stranded dna virus that belongs to the genus circovirus. bfdv can be detected by pcr or the use of haemagglutination (ha) and haemagglutination inhibition (hi) assays that detect antigen and antibodies respectively. erythrocytes from a limited ...200516300196
circoviruses: immunosuppressive threats to avian species: a review.circoviruses are small, non-enveloped, icosahedral viruses that are unique among animal viruses in having circular, single-stranded dna genomes. their genomes are also the smallest possessed by animal viruses. the circovirus family currently comprises three members, chicken anaemia virus, porcine circovirus, and psittacine beak and feather disease virus, with pigeon circovirus being classified as a tentative member. infections with each of the four circoviruses are associated with potentially fa ...200019184829
nucleotide sequence-based identification of a novel circovirus of canaries.circovirus-like, spherical particles measuring 16 to 18 nm in diameter were detected in organ homogenates from adult canaries that had died after a short illness characterized by dullness, anorexia, lethargy and feather disorder. a polymerase chain reaction method, based on degenerate primers specific to conserved amino acid sequences in the circovirus replication-associated protein, was used to amplify dna specific to a novel circovirus, tentatively named canary circovirus (ccv). sequence analy ...200119184917
chicken anaemia virus infection: molecular basis of pathogenicity.chicken anaemia virus (cav) is a small virus of a unique type with a particle diameter of 23 to 25 nm and a genome consisting of a circular single-stranded (minus-strand) dna. this dna multiplies in infected cells via a circular double-stranded replicative intermediate, which was recently cloned. dna analysis of cav strains isolated in different continents revealed only minor differences among the various isolates. apparently, all cav isolates belong to a single serotype. cav is not related to o ...199518645763
identification of a novel circovirus in australian ravens (corvus coronoides) with feather disease.the complete genome of a novel circovirus isolated from an australian raven (corvus coronoides) with feather lesions similar to those that occur in psittacine beak and feather disease is reported. degenerate polymerase chain reaction primers were designed to amplify and sequence novel circovirus dna from affected feathers. sequence analysis indicated that the tentatively named raven circovirus (racv) was 1898 nucleotides in size with two major open reading frames synonymous with other avian circ ...200616595298
avian polyomavirus expression patterns of bicistronic late mrnas.avian polyomavirus (apv, previously called budgerigar fledgling disease virus, bfdv-1) differs from other polyoma viruses by a complex arrangement within its late genes: p(l1)-promoted agno-genes 1a and 1b overlap p(l2)-promoted agno-genes 2a and 2b in different reading frames, and are located upstream of standard late vp genes. as a minimal set, agno-gene 1a plus vp1, vp2, vp3 support effective viral propagation in cell culture, together with the origin-region and t-antigen section. all viral l ...200919329136
the prevalence of psittacine beak and feather disease virus infection in native parrots in new zealand.to determine the prevalence of psittacine beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) infection in native parrots in new zealand.200919252543
a blocking elisa for the detection of antibodies to psittacine beak and feather disease virus (bfdv).currently, the only diagnostic test available routinely for the sero-diagnosis of bfdv is the haemagglutination-inhibition (hi) assay. this test, whilst useful and applicable to samples from a wide range of psittacine birds, is not an ideal assay; it requires erythrocytes from live animals, virus purified from the feathers of infected birds and polyclonal antibody preparations in order to perform the assay. variations in these reagents make consistency between tests difficult to achieve, undersc ...200919428582
a comparison of pcr assays for beak and feather disease virus and high resolution melt (hrm) curve analysis of replicase associated protein and capsid genes.beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) threatens a wide range of endangered psittacine birds worldwide. in this study, we assessed a novel pcr assay and genetic screening method using high-resolution melt (hrm) curve analysis for bfdv targeting the capsid (cap) gene (hrm-cap) alongside conventional pcr detection as well as a pcr method that targets a much smaller fragment of the virus genome in the replicase initiator protein (rep) gene (hrm-rep). limits of detection, sensitivity, specificity and ...201627565820
erratum to: the phylogenetic and recombinational analysis of beak and feather disease virus taiwan isolates. 201627558121
seroprevalence of psittacine beak and feather disease in wild psittacine birds in new south wales.a haemagglutination inhibition assay was used to detect antibody to psittacine beak and feather disease virus in sera from wild sulphur crested cockatoos (cacatua galerita), galahs (eolophus roseicapillus), short-billed corellas (cacatua sanguinea), eastern long-billed corellas (cacatua tenuirostris) and other psittacine birds in new south wales. the seroprevalence of psittacine beak and feather disease ranged from 41% to 94% in different flocks, indicating infection with the virus is widespread ...19938494522
the capsid protein of beak and feather disease virus binds to the viral dna and is responsible for transporting the replication-associated protein into the nucleus.circoviruses lack an autonomous dna polymerase and are dependent on the replication machinery of the host cell for de novo dna synthesis. accordingly, the viral dna needs to cross both the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope before replication can occur. here we report on the subcellular distribution of the beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) capsid protein (cp) and replication-associated protein (rep) expressed via recombinant baculoviruses in an insect cell system and test the hypothesi ...200616809327
use of goose red blood cells for detection of infection with psittacine beak and feather disease virus by haemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition. 19947848185
genetic analysis of beak and feather disease virus derived from a cockatiel (nymphicus hollandicus) in japan.psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd), which is caused by beak and feather disease virus (bfdv), has been reported in a wide range of psittacine species, except the cockatiel (nymphicus hollandicus), in which pbfd has rarely been reported. we detected bfdv from a case of pbfd in a cockatiel in the present study. the virus was designated co-ja. the whole genome sequence of co-ja had from 86 to 98% homology with bfdvs in psittacine species. co-ja clustered with isolates derived from other coc ...201020035119
the prevalence of beak and feather disease virus infection in wild populations of parrots and cockatoos in new zealand.to determine the prevalence of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) infection in exotic parrots and cockatoos in the wild in new zealand.200717928900
molecular characterization of novel circoviruses from finch and gull.the purpose of this study was to molecularly characterize circoviruses that infect finches and gulls. circovirus-specific dnas were isolated using polymerase chain reaction methods from bursa of fabricius tissues from a gouldian finch (chloebia gouldiae) and a herring gull (larus argentatus) that were known to be circovirus-infected. nucleotide sequence determination and analysis of cloned genomic dnas showed that these circoviruses represented novel members of the genus circovirus of the family ...200717364513
evidence of a deep viral host switch event with beak and feather disease virus infection in rainbow bee-eaters (merops ornatus).since the characterization of psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) in 1984, a wide range of avian circoviruses have been discovered with varying pathogenic effects amongst a diverse range of avian hosts. until recently these circovirus species were thought to be restricted to within avian orders such as the psittaciformes for beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) and columbiformes for pigeon circovirus with little evidence of cross-family transmission or replication. we report evidence of ...201526411487
avian polyomavirus genome sequences recovered from parrots in captive breeding facilities in poland.eight genomes of avian polyomaviruses (apvs) were recovered and sequenced from deceased psittacula eupatria, psittacula krameri, and melopsittacus undulatus from various breeding facilities in poland. of these apv-positive samples, six had previously tested positive for beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) and/or parrot hepatitis b virus (phbv).201526404592
phylogenetic analysis of six isolates of beak and feather disease virus from african grey parrots in portugal.beak and feather disease virus (bfdv), a member of the genus circovirus, was detected in six dead african grey parrots (psittacus erithacus) in portugal. the complete nucleotide sequences of these six bfdvs (pt05, pt08, pt08-2, pt08-3, pt09, and pt09-2) were determined and analyzed. the seven open reading frames (orfs) described for other bfdvs were detected in all strains, except for pt05 and pt08, in which orfs 4 and 7 are absent. bayesian inference of phylogeny based on complete genomes of bf ...201020945789
global genetic diversity and geographical and host-species distribution of beak and feather disease virus isolates.psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) has a broad host range and is widespread in wild and captive psittacine populations in asia, africa, the americas, europe and australasia. beak and feather disease circovirus (bfdv) is the causative agent. bfdv has an ∼2 kb single stranded circular dna genome encoding just two proteins (rep and cp). in this study we provide support for demarcation of bfdv strains by phylogenetic analysis of 65 complete genomes from databases and 22 new bfdv sequences is ...201021177924
genome sequences of beak and feather disease virus in urban rainbow lorikeets (trichoglossus haematodus).beak and feather disease viral genomes were recovered from two deceased juvenile urban rainbow lorikeets (trichoglossus haematodus) that lacked tail feathers. these genomes share ~95% pairwise identity with two beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) genomes identified in wild and captive australian t. haematodus birds and ~92% identity to those in wild new caledonian t. haematodus deplanchii birds.201525908126
a unique isolate of beak and feather disease virus isolated from budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) in south africa.beak and feather disease virus (bfdv), the causative agent of psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) infects psittaciformes worldwide. we provide an annotated sequence record of three full-length unique genomes of bfdv isolates from budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) from a breeding farm in south africa. the isolates share >99% nucleotide sequence identity with each other and approximately 96% nucleotide sequence identity to two recent isolates (melopsittacus undulatus) from thailand but ...201020127375
an efficient approach for recombinant expression and purification of the viral capsid protein from beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) in escherichia coli.structural insights into the biology of viruses such as beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) which do not replicate in cell cultures are increasingly reliant on recombinant methods for protein production and purification. development of efficient methods for homogenous production of bfdv capsid protein is also essential for vaccine development and diagnostic purposes. in this study, two different plasmids (pmcsg21 and pmcsg24), three homologous bfdv capsid proteins, and two unique expression me ...201525698466
Prevalence and genetic characterization of avian polyomavirus and psittacine beak and feather disease virus isolated from budgerigars in Mainland China.Budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) and psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) are caused by avian polyomavirus (APV) and psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV), respectively. These diseases frequently infect psittacine birds and result in similar clinical manifestations. In this study, we observed the prevalence of PBFDV infection and a dual infection of APV and PBFDV in a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) in Mainland China for the first time. One PBFDV isolate and two APV isol ...201122002652
psittacine beak and feather disease-like illness in gouldian finches (chloebia gouldiae).beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) is a member of the genus circovirus and causes psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) in psittaciformes. pbfd is a severe disease generally characterized by immunodeficiency and beak and feather disorders. although circovirus spp. have been detected in several nonpsittacine species, little is known about the symptoms and the disease associated with this infection in birds other than psittaciformes. in this study, we report the identification of circoviru ...201425518446
molecular characterization of genome sequences of beak and feather disease virus from the australian twenty-eight parrot (barnardius zonarius semitorquatus).three complete genomes of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) were recovered from wild twenty-eight parrots (polytelis anthopeplus monarchoides). the genomes consisted of 1,996 bp with 1,934 identical sites and a typically content stem-loop structure between orf1 and orf2. this is the first report of bfdv infection as well as the complete genome sequences for this host species globally.201425477410
phylogenetic analysis of beak and feather disease virus across a host ring-species complex.pathogens have been hypothesized to play a major role in host diversity and speciation. susceptibility of hybrid hosts to pathogens is thought to be a common phenomenon that could promote host population divergence and subsequently speciation. however, few studies have tested for pathogen infection across animal hybrid zones while testing for codivergence of the pathogens in the hybridizing host complex. over 8 y, we studied natural infection by a rapidly evolving single-strand dna virus, beak a ...201425225394
genetic analysis of beak and feather disease virus isolated from captive psittacine birds in thailand.beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) is a causative agent of psittacine beak and feather disease. genome sequences of bfdvs isolated from thailand have not hitherto been reported. the whole genomes of 17 bfdv isolates, obtained from 12 psittacine genera, were amplified and subjected to direct sequencing revealing a length ranging from 1,990 to 2,015 nucleotides. the predicted open reading frames (orfs) in the viral genome varied from four to six. only orf1, orf2, and orf5 were found in all isol ...201122299467
a presumptive case of baylisascaris procyonis in a feral green-cheeked amazon parrot (amazona viridigenalis).a feral green-cheeked amazon parrot (amazona viridigenalis), also known as the red-crowned amazon, with generalized neurologic symptoms was found in pasadena in southern california and brought in for treatment. the bird was refractory to a wide variety of medications and supportive treatment. tests for polyoma virus, psittacine beak and feather disease virus, and west nile virus as well as chlamydophila psittaci were negative. hospitalized and home care continued for a total of 69 days. the bird ...201424712176
development and evaluation of taqman real-time pcr assay for detection of beak and feather disease virus.psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) is one of the most significant viral diseases in psittacine birds. the aim of the presented study was to develop a highly specific and sensitive taqman real-time pcr assay for universal detection of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv). primers and a hydrolysis probe were selected on the highly conserved regions belonging to the orf1 of the bfdv genome which were identified by aligning 814 genomic sequences downloaded from the genbank database. the eva ...201728263762
characterization of the whole-genome sequence of a beak and feather disease virus isolate from a mallee ringneck parrot (barnardius zonarius barnardi).the complete genome sequence of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) from a wild australian mallee ringneck parrot (barnardius zonarius barnardi) was characterized. the genome consists of 1,995 nucleotides and encodes two major proteins in opposing directions. this is the first evidence of bfdv infectivity and the first complete genome sequence for this novel host.201425059866
detection and sequence analysis of avian polyomavirus and psittacine beak and feather disease virus from psittacine birds in taiwan.avian polyomavirus (apv) and psittacine beak and feather disease virus (pbfdv) are the most common viral diseases of psittacine birds. in taiwan, however, the existence of these viruses in psittacine birds has not been established. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) methodology was therefore employed to ascertain whether apv and pbfdv genomes were present in isolates from psittacine birds of taiwan. a total of 165 psittacine birds belonging to 22 genera were examined between 2002 and 2005. findings ...200617039833
identification of beak and feather disease virus in an unusual novel host (merops ornatus) using nested pcr.the complete genome sequence of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) was discovered from a rainbow bee-eater (merops ornatus), a species of coraciiformes the genome consisted of 1,996 bp encoding two major bidirectional transcribed open reading frames. this is the first evidence of bfdv infection and complete genome characterization for this novel host species.201627932660
clinical beak and feather disease virus infection in wild juvenile eastern rosellas of new zealand; biosecurity implications for wildlife care facilities.four juvenile eastern rosellas (platycercus eximius) were admitted to two separate wildlife care facilities in the auckland region by members of the public. they had missing or dystrophic wing and tail feathers that rendered them flightless, suggestive of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) infection. two were subject to euthanasia after failing to re-grow their feathers, with samples taken for histopathology and pcr analysis. blood samples were obtained from the other two birds at the time of ...201424916448
characterization of beak and feather disease virus genomes from wild musk lorikeets (glossopsitta concinna).three complete genomes of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) were recovered from wild musk lorikeets (glossopsitta concinna). the genomes consisted of 2,008 to 2,010 nucleotides (nt) and encode two major proteins transcribing in opposing directions. this is the first report of bfdv complete genome sequences obtained from this host species.201627795266
experimental inoculation of bfdv-positive budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) with two mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates.beak and feather disease virus- (bfdv-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (pavo cristatus). during a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for bfdv and mycobacterium avium testing with pcr. birds were euthanized ...201424738057
molecular characterization of a beak and feather disease virus genome from a purple crowned lorikeet (glossopsitta porphyrocephala).the complete genome sequence of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) from a purple crowned lorikeet (glossopsitta porphyrocephala) was characterized. the genome consists of 2,010 nucleotides and encodes replicase-associated protein and capsid protein. this is the first evidence of bfdv infectivity and complete genome sequence for this novel host.201627795264
whole-genome sequence of a beak and feather disease virus isolate from a fledgling red-capped parrot (purpureicephalus spurius).the complete genome sequence of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) from a fledgling red-capped parrot (purpureicephalus spurius) was assembled and characterized. the genome consists of 1,995 nucleotides and encodes two major proteins in opposing directions. this is the first evidence of bfdv infectivity and a complete genome sequence for this novel host.201627738029
evidence of psittacine beak and feather disease virus spillover into wild critically endangered orange-bellied parrots (neophema chrysogaster).we report the recent emergence of a novel beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) genotype in the last remaining wild population of the critically endangered orange-bellied parrot (neophema chrysogaster). this virus poses a significant threat to the recovery of the species and potentially its survival in the wild. we used pcr to detect bfdv in the blood of three psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd)-affected wild orange-bellied parrot fledglings captured as founders for an existing captive br ...201424484492
structural insights into the assembly and regulation of distinct viral capsid complexes.the assembly and regulation of viral capsid proteins into highly ordered macromolecular complexes is essential for viral replication. here, we utilize crystal structures of the capsid protein from the smallest and simplest known viruses capable of autonomously replicating in animal cells, circoviruses, to establish structural and mechanistic insights into capsid morphogenesis and regulation. the beak and feather disease virus, like many circoviruses, encode only two genes: a capsid protein and a ...201627698405
mutability dynamics of an emergent single stranded dna virus in a naïve host.quasispecies variants and recombination were studied longitudinally in an emergent outbreak of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) infection in the orange-bellied parrot (neophema chrysogaster). detailed health monitoring and the small population size (<300 individuals) of this critically endangered bird provided an opportunity to longitudinally track viral replication and mutation events occurring in a circular, single-stranded dna virus over a period of four years within a novel bottleneck p ...201424416396
characterization of the complete genome sequence of a beak and feather disease virus from a moluccan red lory (eos bornea).the complete genome sequence of a beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) encoding two major open reading frames (orfs) was characterized in a wild moluccan red lory (eos bornea). this is the first report of a bfdv genome from indonesia and the first reported bfdv infection for this host species.201324285654
whole-genome sequences of two beak and feather disease viruses in the endangered swift parrot (lathamus discolor).two complete genomes of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) were characterized from lathamus discolor, the australian swift parrot. this is the first report of bfdv complete genome sequences in this host. the completed bfdv genomes consist of 1,984 nucleotides encoding two open reading frames with 99.7% pairwise nucleotide identity.201324285653
a quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for beak and feather disease virus.pcr-based assays for the detection of bfdv dna are in widespread use throughout the world. quantitative real-time pcr assays are extremely sensitive and have the advantages over standard pcr assays that they do not require post-reaction processing to visualise pcr products and can quantify the amount of dna present in a sample. this study describes a quantitative real-time pcr assay for the detection of bfdv dna, using primers designed to amplify a conserved 81 bp fragment of orfv1 and syto9, a ...200919442852
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