avian malaria in african black-footed penguins.ten captive-reared african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) from a large outdoor colony were monitored for avian malaria, using several diagnostic tests. one treatment regimen was evaluated. thin smear blood evaluation enabled detection of seven parasitemias involving plasmodium relictum and plasmodium elongatum in the penguins. leukocytosis (relative lymphocytosis) was characteristic of infected birds. parasitemia was detected as early as 21 days prior to onset of clinical signs (dep ...1979521378
malaria (plasmodium elongatum) in captive african penguins (spheniscus demersus). 19685692933
fine structure of the asexual stages of plasmodium elongatum.plasmodium elongatum, an avian malarial parasite, differs from other such parasites by infecting both the circulating red blood cells and the hematopoietic cells. the exoerythrocytic development of p. elongatum occurs mainly in these red cell precursors. the fine structure of the asexual stages of p. elongatum has been studied in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of canaries and compared with that of the asexual stages of other avian malarial parasites. with minor differences, the merozoites ...19676033534
subclinical avian malaria infections in african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) and induction of parasite recrudescence.the subclinical and clinical plasmodium elongatum and plasmodium relictum infections of captive-reared african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) were evaluated in nine adult and 29 juvenile penguins in the baltimore zoo (maryland, usa) during summer 1988 and winter 1989. two diagnostic methods were used: giemsa-stained thin blood films, and subinoculation of penguin blood into 1-day-old peking ducklings. chloroquine and primaquine treatment was applied to all parasitemic juvenile pengu ...19947933280
hematologic characteristics of avian malaria cases in african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) during the first outdoor exposure season.twenty-nine juvenile, captive-reared african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) were hematologically monitored every 2 wk over the period of 24 wk during their first outdoor exposure. blood samples taken from the penguins were screened for 12 blood evaluation parameters. parasitemic penguins were medically treated. eighteen birds (62.1%) experienced naturally acquired malaria and 11 birds (37.9%) remained nonparasitemic. a total of 32 avian malaria episodes were noted; 25 (78.1%) were i ...19948158474
plasmodium elongatum in the pekin duck. 194621003023
development of a rapid hrm qpcr for the diagnosis of the four most prevalent plasmodium lineages in new zealand.although wildlife rehabilitation and translocations are important tools in wildlife conservation in new zealand, disease screening of birds has not been standardized. additionally, the results of the screening programmes are often difficult to interpret due to missing disease data in resident or translocating avian populations. molecular methods have become the most widespread method for diagnosing avian malaria (plasmodium spp.) infections. however, these methods can be time-consuming, expensiv ...201728497225
vector ability of mosquitoes for isolates of plasmodium elongatum from raptors in florida.three isolates of plasmodium elongatum were obtained from 3 species of raptors (red-tailed hawk [buteo jamaicensis], bald eagle [haliaeetus leucocephalus], and eastern screech owl [otus asio]) from florida using isodiagnostic techniques in pekin ducks (anas platyrhynchos). six to 10 species of mosquitoes were tested for susceptibility to these 3 isolates. complete development of the sporogonic cycle of the 3 isolates of p. elongatum occurred in 3 species of mosquitoes, culex nigripalpus, culex r ...19989645854
in situ hybridization and sequence analysis reveal an association of plasmodium spp. with mortalities in wild passerine birds in austria.native european passerine birds are frequently clinically inapparent carriers of haemosporidian parasites of the genus plasmodium. clinical disease and death are only exceptionally reported. in the present study, tissue samples of 233 wild passerine birds found dead in eastern austria were examined by in situ hybridization (ish) and partial cytochrome b gene sequence analysis for the presence, abundance and taxonomic assignment of plasmodium spp. in 34 cases (14.6%), ish yielded a positive resul ...201525636246
description, molecular characterisation, diagnostics and life cycle of plasmodium elongatum (lineage perirub01), the virulent avian malaria parasite.plasmodium elongatum causes severe avian malaria and is distributed worldwide. this parasite is of particular importance due to its ability to develop and cause lethal malaria not only in natural hosts, but also in non-adapted endemic birds such as the brown kiwi and different species of penguins. information on vectors of this infection is available but is contradictory. pcr-based analysis indicated the possible existence of a cluster of closely related p. elongatum lineages which might differ ...201627349510
concurrent avian malaria and avipox virus infection in translocated south island saddlebacks (philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus).outbreaks of mortality in south island saddlebacks (philesturnus carunculatus carunculatus) that had been translocated to two offshore islands in the marlborough sounds of new zealand were investigated during the summers of 2002 and 2007. both outbreaks were associated with a severe decrease in numbers of saddlebacks of up to 60% of approximately 200 birds. clinical and pathological findings: many of the surviving birds were in poor condition, and had skin lesions on the legs and head. necropsy ...201020676161
an elisa for detecting anti-plasmodium spp. antibodies in african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus).an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) utilizing 3 plasmodium falciparum antigens, r32tet32, p.f.r27, and crude red blood cell extract, was developed for the detection of circulating anti-plasmodium relictum or anti-plasmodium elongatum antibodies in sera from naturally infected adult african black-footed penguins (spheniscus demersus) at the baltimore zoo, maryland. a concentration of 2.0 micrograms/ml of each antigen was optimal in terms of specificity, sensitivity, and test speed. it wa ...19948308660
elisa method for detecting anti-plasmodium relictum and anti-plasmodium elongatum antibody in infected duckling sera using plasmodium falciparum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) with 3 plasmodium falciparum nf-54 antigens, r32tet32, p.f.r27, and crude red blood cell extract (crbce), was tested for detection of anti-plasmodium relictum and anti-plasmodium elongatum antibodies in sera from experimentally infected ducklings. whole blood, serum, and dried blood on filter paper gave similar results. the latter was selected for convenience. all birds infected by experimental blood challenge, but not exposed to sporozoites, had dete ...19938277381
plasmodium forresteri n. sp., from raptors in florida and southern georgia: its distinction from plasmodium elongatum morphologically within and among host species and by vector susceptibility.plasmodium forresteri n. sp. naturally infects eastern screech-owls (otus asio), great horned owls (bubo virginianus), barred owls (strix varia), bald eagles (haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-shouldered hawks (buteo lineatus), broad-winged hawks (buteo platypterus), and red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) in florida and southern georgia. schizonts occur in mature or nearly mature erythrocytes, produce 2-6 merozoites arranged most commonly in fan or cruciform configuration, with mean dimensions am ...19979379302
malaria parasites (plasmodium spp.) infecting introduced, native and endemic new zealand birds.avian malaria is caused by intracellular mosquito-transmitted protist parasites in the order haemosporida, genus plasmodium. although plasmodium species have been diagnosed as causing death in several threatened species in new zealand, little is known about their ecology and epidemiology. in this study, we examined the presence, microscopic characterization and sequence homology of plasmodium spp. isolates collected from a small number of new zealand introduced, native and endemic bird species. ...201121842389
a phylogenetic comparison of gene trees constructed from plastid, mitochondrial and genomic dna of plasmodium species.gene trees of plasmodium species have been reported for the nuclear encoded genes (e.g. the small subunit rrna) and a mitochondrial encoded gene, cytochrome b. here, we have analyzed a plastid gene coding for caseinolytic protease clpc, whose structure, function and evolutionary history have been studied in various organisms. this protein possesses a 220-250 amino acid long aaa domain (atpases associated with a variety of cellular activities) that belongs to the walker super family of atpases an ...200111356517
a loss of gametocytes in plasmodium elongatum. 194718903609
investigations on the mosquito transmission of plasmodium elongatum huff, 1930. 194918142529
[a strain of plasmodium elongatum in the gray crow (corvus cornix)]. 196113695638
the behavior of plasmodium elongatum and p. hexamerium in chick and duck embryos. 196214469484
pathologic confirmation of malaria (plasmodium elongatum) in african penguins (spheniscus demerusus). 19685693838
plasmodium elongatum from a penguin. 19685693837
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