detection of rabies virus antibodies in fruit bats (eidolon helvum) from nigeria.fruit bats (eidolon helvum) were collected from three different localities in western nigeria: oti, ibadan and idanre. fifty serum samples were analyzed using a modified rapid fluorescent focus inhibition technique against rabies, mokola, lagos bat and duvenhage viruses. twenty-five brain samples were screened for rabies and related lyssavirus antigens by direct fluorescent antibody microscopy and by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique with rabies anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies. ...19902187101
results of serological examination for leptospirosis of domestic and wild animals in the upper nile province (sudan).195 domestic and 766 wild animals were serologically examined for leptospirosis. cattle was found to be positive at titres 1 greater than or equal to 400 in 63.5%, namely 50.6% for tarassovi, 17.1% for sejroe-hebdomadis, 9.4% for bataviae, 1.2-3.5% for icterohaemorrhagiae, cynopteri, autumnalis, australis, pomona and grippotyphosa. sera from 35 animals reacted with the serovars from two or more serogroups. of 7 sheep 1 was positive for pomona and 18 goats proved to be negative. 10.2% of wild mam ...19892809189
[ife: a new african orbivirus isolated from eidolon helvum bats captured in nigeria, cameroon and the central african republic].eight viral isolates were recovered from eidolon helvum bats collected in nigeria and cameroon in 1971 and from the central african republic in 1974. subsequent studies showed that the agents from the three countries were similar and were strains of a new virus of the orbivirus genus, family reoviridae. this new virus was characterized with respect to its sensitivity to lipid solvents and to ph, its relative size and morphology by electron microscopy, its effect on mice experimentally infected b ...19882841044
ultrastructure of the ventricular myocardium of the bat eidolon helvum.ultrastructural studies, including a preliminary morphometric analysis, of the right ventricular myocardium in the west african bat eidolon helvum show that the myocytes contain a wider t-tubule system and a higher proportion of mitochondria and lipid droplets than in typical terrestrial mammals such as the rat; these features in the bat are even mor pronounced than in hibernating species such as the golden hamster. in addition to having coupling arrangements with t-tubules and surface sarcolemm ...19863766107
a pharmacological analysis of the responses of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle of the bat to transmural and periarterial nerve stimulation.a comparative study of the responses of the gastrointestinal tract of the guinea-pig and of the fruit-eating bat eidolon helvum to transmural nerve stimulation (tns) was made. the stomach and rectum of the guinea-pig, the bat and the guinea-pig ileum contracted in response to tns. these contractions were cholinergic in nature because atropine blocked and physostigmine potentiated them. tetrodotoxin reversibly abolished these contractions suggesting that they were nerve-mediated. the bat isolated ...19853986428
isolation of lecythophora mutabilis and wangiella dermatitidis from the fruit eating bat, eidolon helvum.lecythophora mutabilis was isolated from the lungs of 3 and from the liver of 2 bats, eidolon helvum a fruit eating species. wangiella dermatitidis was recovered from the liver of 2 bats of the same species. the isolates were pathogenic for laboratory mice when injected by subcutaneous, intraperitoneal and intravenous routes. w. dermatitidis was neurotropic in the mice injected intravenously.19938327002
ultrastructural characteristics of atrial, ventricular and subendocardial (purkinje) cells of the fruit-eating bat eidolon helvum.the ultrastructure of the myocardium of the large (285 gm) fruit-eating bat (eidolon helvum) provides further evidence that, among mammalian species, different types of cardiac myocytes are morphologically heterogeneous. atrial cells of this species, like those of smaller bats previously studied, have few of the natriuretic hormone-containing granules. these granules are also small, with a mean diameter of 176 +/- 3.9 nm, in comparison with those of the rat (230 +/- 5.8 nm) and mouse (211 +/- 4. ...19938379297
a comparative study of the correlation of weights of the body, testis, and epididymis in the goat, ram, bat and rat.this study was undertaken to correlate the weights of the body (bw), testis (tw), epididymis (ew), cauda epididymidis (cew), length (tl), diameter (td), and area (tld) of testis in adult wistar rats, eidolon helvum (mogachiropteran bat), red sokoto goats, and white yankassa rams. the results showed that it was only in the wistar rats that tl, td and tld correlated significantly with tw (p < 0.01). bw showed no significant correlation with tw in the mammals. tw correlated very significantly (p < ...19958540278
isolation and properties of cytoplasmic alpha-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase from the pectoral muscle of the fruit bat, eidolon helvum.cytoplasmic alpha-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from fruit-bat-breast muscle was purified by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography. the specific activity of the purified enzyme was approximately 120 units/mg of protein. the apparent molecular weight of the native enzyme, as determined by gel filtration on sephadex g-100 was 59,500 +/- 650 daltons; its subunit size was estimated to be 35,700 +/- 140 by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the true michaelis-menten constants for all sub ...200312689513
hearing in large (eidolon helvum) and small (cynopterus brachyotis) non-echolocating fruit bats.comparing the hearing abilities of echolocating and non-echolocating bats can provide insight into the effect of echolocation on more basic hearing abilities. toward this end, we determined the audiograms of two species of non-echolocating bats, the straw-colored fruit bat (eidolon helvum), a large (230-350 g) african fruit bat, and the dog-faced fruit bat (cynopterus brachyotis), a small (30-45 g) bat native to india and southeast asia. a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure with a fruit ...200616982165
detection of specific antibody responses to vaccination in variable flying foxes (pteropus hypomelanus).megachiropteran bats are biologically important both as endangered species and reservoirs for emerging human pathogens. reliable detection of antibodies to specific pathogens in bats is thus epidemiologically critical. eight variable flying foxes (pteropus hypomelanus) were immunized with 2,4-dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (dnp-bsa). each bat received monthly inoculations for 2 months. affinity-purified igg was used for production of polyclonal and monoclonal anti-variable flying fox igg ...200918242703
lagos bat virus in kenya.during lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in kenya. one isolate of lagos bat virus (lbv) was obtained from a dead eidolon helvum fruit bat. the virus was most similar phylogenetically to lbv isolates from senegal (1985) and from france (imported from togo or egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. this genome conservancy across space and time suggests that lbv is well ada ...200818305130
antibodies against lagos bat virus in megachiroptera from west investigate the presence of lagos bat virus (lbv)-specific antibodies in megachiroptera from west africa, we conducted fluorescent antibody virus neutralization tests. neutralizing antibodies were detected in eidolon helvum (37%), epomophorus gambianus (3%), and epomops buettikoferi (33%, 2/6) from ghana. these findings confirm the presence of lbv in west africa.200818507903
sound localization acuity and its relation to vision in large and small fruit-eating bats: ii. non-echolocating species, eidolon helvum and cynopterus brachyotis.passive sound-localization acuity for 100-msec noise bursts was determined behaviorally for two species of non-echolocating bats: the straw-colored fruit bat, eidolon helvum, a large frugivore, and the dog-faced fruit bat, cynopterus brachyotis, a small frugivore. the mean minimum audible angle for two e. helvum was 11.7 degrees, and for two c. brachyotis was 10.5 degrees. this places their passive sound-localization acuity near the middle of the range for echolocating bats as well as the middle ...200818571883
evidence of henipavirus infection in west african fruit bats.henipaviruses are emerging rna viruses of fruit bat origin that can cause fatal encephalitis in man. ghanaian fruit bats (megachiroptera) were tested for antibodies to henipaviruses. using a luminex multiplexed microsphere assay, antibodies were detected in sera of eidolon helvum to both nipah (39%, 95% confidence interval: 27-51%) and hendra (22%, 95% ci: 11-33%) viruses. virus neutralization tests further confirmed seropositivity for 30% (7/23) of luminex positive serum samples. our results in ...200818648649
distant relatives of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and close relatives of human coronavirus 229e in bats, ghana.we tested 12 bat species in ghana for coronavirus (cov) rna. the virus prevalence in insectivorous bats (n = 123) was 9.76%. cov was not detected in 212 fecal samples from eidolon helvum fruit bats. leaf-nosed bats pertaining to hipposideros ruber by morphology had group 1 and group 2 covs. virus concentrations were < or =45,000 copies/100 mg of bat feces. the diversified group 1 cov shared a common ancestor with the human common cold virus hcov-229e but not with hcov-nl63, disputing hypotheses ...200919788804
evidence of lagos bat virus circulation among nigerian fruit bats.during lyssavirus surveillance, 350 brains from four species of fruit bats and one species of insectivorous bat were collected from seven locations in northern nigeria during may to october, 2006. lyssavirus antigen was not detected in the brains, and isolation attempts in mice were unsuccessful. however, serologic tests demonstrated the presence of lyssavirus-neutralizing antibodies in bat sera. of 140 sera tested, 27 (19%) neutralized lagos bat virus, and two of these additionally neutralized ...201020090042
virus neutralising activity of african fruit bat (eidolon helvum) sera against emerging is likely that phylogroup 2 lyssaviruses circulate within bat reservoirs. we adapted a pseudotype (pt) neutralisation assay (pna) to a multiplex format enabling serosurveillance for lagos bat virus (lbv), mokola virus (mokv) and west caucasian bat virus (wcbv) in a potential reservoir, the african straw-coloured fruit bat, eidolon helvum. highly correlated titres were observed between single and multiplex pnas using ptlbv and ptmokv (r=0.97, p<0.0001), validating its use for bat serosurveilla ...201020951400
reassortant group a rotavirus from straw-colored fruit bat (eidolon helvum).bats are known reservoirs of viral zoonoses. we report genetic characterization of a bat rotavirus (bat/ke4852/07) detected in the feces of a straw-colored fruit bat (eidolon helvum). six bat rotavirus genes (viral protein [vp] 2, vp6, vp7, nonstructural protein [nsp] 2, nsp3, and nsp5) shared ancestry with other mammalian rotaviruses but were distantly related. the vp4 gene was nearly identical to that of human p[6] rotavirus strains, and the nsp4 gene was closely related to those of previously ...201021122212
antibodies to henipavirus or henipa-like viruses in domestic pigs in ghana, west africa.henipaviruses, hendra virus (hev) and nipah virus (niv), have pteropid bats as their known natural reservoirs. antibodies against henipaviruses have been found in eidolon helvum, an old world fruit bat species, and henipavirus-like nucleic acid has been detected in faecal samples from e. helvum in ghana. the initial outbreak of niv in malaysia led to over 265 human encephalitis cases, including 105 deaths, with infected pigs acting as amplifier hosts for niv during the outbreak. we detected non- ...201121966471
type i interferon reaction to viral infection in interferon-competent, immortalized cell lines from the african fruit bat eidolon helvum.bats harbor several highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses including rabies, marburg, and henipaviruses, without overt clinical symptoms in the animals. it has been suspected that bats might have evolved particularly effective mechanisms to suppress viral replication. here, we investigated interferon (ifn) response, -induction, -secretion and -signaling in epithelial-like cells of the relevant and abundant african fruit bat species, eidolon helvum (e. helvum). immortalized cell lines were generated; ...201122140523
breeding cycle of straw-colored fruit bat, eidolon helvum, at ile-ife, nigeria. 20154833188
classification of bartonella strains associated with straw-colored fruit bats (eidolon helvum) across africa using a multi-locus sequence typing platform.bartonellae are facultative intracellular bacteria and are highly adapted to their mammalian host cell niches. straw-colored fruit bats (eidolon helvum) are commonly infected with several bartonella strains. to elucidate the genetic diversity of these bartonella strains, we analyzed 79 bartonella isolates from straw-colored fruit bats in seven countries across africa (cameroon, annobon island of equatorial guinea, ghana, kenya, nigeria, tanzania, and uganda) using a multi-locus sequencing typing ...201525635826
bat airway epithelial cells: a novel tool for the study of zoonotic viruses.bats have been increasingly recognized as reservoir of important zoonotic viruses. however, until now many attempts to isolate bat-borne viruses in cell culture have been unsuccessful. further, experimental studies on reservoir host species have been limited by the difficulty of rearing these species. the epithelium of the respiratory tract plays a central role during airborne transmission, as it is the first tissue encountered by viral particles. although several cell lines from bats were estab ...201424454736
evidence for henipavirus spillover into human populations in africa.zoonotic transmission of lethal henipaviruses (hnvs) from their natural fruit bat reservoirs to humans has only been reported in australia and south/southeast asia. however, a recent study discovered numerous hnv clades in african bat samples. to determine the potential for hnv spillover events among humans in africa, here we examine well-curated sets of bat (eidolon helvum, n = 44) and human (n = 497) serum samples from cameroon for nipah virus (niv) cross-neutralizing antibodies (niv-x-nabs). ...201425405640
multiple evolutionary origins of bat papillomaviruses.infection by papillomaviruses (pvs) has been linked to different types of neoplasias, in both human and non-human hosts. knowledge about pv diversity is essential to reliably infer the evolutionary history of these pathogens and to elucidate the link between infection and disease. we cloned and sequenced the complete genome of a novel pv, ehelpv1, isolated from hair bulbs from a captive straw-colored fruit bat eidolon helvum (pteropodidae, chiroptera). we also retrieved partial sequences of the ...201323481575
use of cross-reactive serological assays for detecting novel pathogens in wildlife: assessing an appropriate cutoff for henipavirus assays in african bats.reservoir hosts of novel pathogens are often identified or suspected as such on the basis of serological assay results, prior to the isolation of the pathogen itself. serological assays might therefore be used outside of their original, validated scope in order to infer seroprevalences in reservoir host populations, until such time that specific diagnostic assays can be developed. this is particularly the case in wildlife disease research. the absence of positive and negative control samples and ...201323835034
novel, potentially zoonotic paramyxoviruses from the african straw-colored fruit bat eidolon helvum.bats carry a variety of paramyxoviruses that impact human and domestic animal health when spillover occurs. recent studies have shown a great diversity of paramyxoviruses in an urban-roosting population of straw-colored fruit bats in ghana. here, we investigate this further through virus isolation and describe two novel rubulaviruses: achimota virus 1 (achpv1) and achimota virus 2 (achpv2). the viruses form a phylogenetic cluster with each other and other bat-derived rubulaviruses, such as tuhok ...201323152534
continent-wide panmixia of an african fruit bat facilitates transmission of potentially zoonotic viruses.the straw-coloured fruit bat, eidolon helvum, is africa's most widely distributed and commonly hunted fruit bat, often living in close proximity to human populations. this species has been identified as a reservoir of potentially zoonotic viruses, but uncertainties remain regarding viral transmission dynamics and mechanisms of persistence. here we combine genetic and serological analyses of populations across africa, to determine the extent of epidemiological connectivity among e. helvum populat ...201324253424
endemic lagos bat virus infection in eidolon helvum.phylogenetic analyses suggest lyssaviruses, including rabies virus, originated from bats. however, the role of bats in the maintenance, transmission and evolution of lyssaviruses is poorly understood. a number of genetically diverse lyssaviruses are present in africa, including lagos bat virus (lbv). a high seroprevalence of antibodies against lbv was detected in eidolon helvum bats. longitudinal seroprevalence and age-specific seroprevalence data were analysed and capture-mark-recapture (cmr) a ...201222370126
a novel rodent chapparvovirus in feces of wild rats.chapparvovirus, a recently determined new genus in the family parvoviridae, can infect many species of animals including bats, chickens, and pigs. here, using viral metagenomics method, we identified a novel chapparvovirus from feces of wild rats and designated it as rat parvovirus 2 (rpv2). the nearly complete genome of rpv2 is 4222-nt long and includes two orfs encoding a 654-aa nonstructural protein 1 (ns1) and a 472-aa capsid protein (vp), respectively. phylogenetic analysis over the amino a ...201627473724
discovery of a novel parvovirinae virus, porcine parvovirus 7, by metagenomic sequencing of porcine rectal swabs.parvoviruses are a diverse group of viruses containing some of the smallest known species that are capable of infecting a wide range of animals. metagenomic sequencing of pooled rectal swabs from adult pigs identified a 4103-bp contig consisting of two major open reading frames encoding proteins of 672 and 469 amino acids (aa) in length. blastp analysis of the 672-aa protein found 42.4 % identity to fruit bat (eidolon helvum) parvovirus 2 (ehpv2) and 37.9 % to turkey parvovirus (tupv) tp1-2012/h ...201626995221
social grooming in bats: are vampire bats exceptional?evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. it is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. we compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, artibeus jamaicensis, carollia perspicillata, eidolon helvum and rousettus aegyptiacus, u ...201526445502
two novel parvoviruses in frugivorous new and old world bats.bats, a globally distributed group of mammals with high ecological importance, are increasingly recognized as natural reservoir hosts for viral agents of significance to human and animal health. in the present study, we evaluated pools of blood samples obtained from two phylogenetically distant bat families, in particular from flying foxes (pteropodidae), eidolon helvum in west africa, and from two species of new world leaf-nosed fruit bats (phyllostomidae), artibeus jamaicensis and artibeus lit ...201122216187
molecular epidemiology of pathogenic leptospira spp. in the straw-colored fruit bat (eidolon helvum) migrating to zambia from the democratic republic of congo.the role played by bats as a potential source of transmission of leptospira spp. to humans is poorly understood, despite various pathogenic leptospira spp. being identified in these mammals. here, we investigated the prevalence and diversity of pathogenic leptospira spp. that infect the straw-colored fruit bat (eidolon helvum). we captured this bat species, which is widely distributed in africa, in zambia during 2008-2013. we detected the flagellin b gene (flab) from pathogenic leptospira spp. i ...201525791930
henipavirus neutralising antibodies in an isolated island population of african fruit bats.isolated islands provide valuable opportunities to study the persistence of viruses in wildlife populations, including population size thresholds such as the critical community size. the straw-coloured fruit bat, eidolon helvum, has been identified as a reservoir for henipaviruses (serological evidence) and lagos bat virus (lbv; virus isolation and serological evidence) in continental africa. here, we sampled from a remote population of e. helvum annobonensis fruit bats on annobón island in the ...201222253928
lagos bat virus transmission in an eidolon helvum bat colony, ghana.a brain sample of a straw-coloured fruit bat (eidolon helvum) from ghana without evident signs of disease tested positive by generic lyssavirus rt-pcr and direct antigen staining. sequence analysis confirmed the presence of a lagos bat virus belonging to phylogenetic lineage a. virus neutralization tests using the isolate with sera from the same group of bats yielded neutralizing antibodies in 74% of 567 animals. no cross-neutralization was observed against a different lagos bat virus (lineage b ...201526191622
bat trait, genetic and pathogen data from large-scale investigations of african fruit bats, eidolon helvum.bats, including african straw-coloured fruit bats (eidolon helvum), have been highlighted as reservoirs of many recently emerged zoonotic viruses. this common, widespread and ecologically important species was the focus of longitudinal and continent-wide studies of the epidemiological and ecology of lagos bat virus, henipaviruses and achimota viruses. here we present a spatial, morphological, demographic, genetic and serological dataset encompassing 2827 bats from nine countries over an 8-year p ...201627479120
exposure to lyssaviruses in bats of the democratic republic of the congo.lyssavirus infections in the democratic republic of congo are poorly documented. we examined 218 bats. no lyssavirus antigens were detected but lagos bat virus (lbv) neutralizing antibodies (vna) were detected in eidolon helvum and myonycteris torquata . four samples with lbv vna reacted against shimoni bat virus.201728151079
serological evidence of influenza a viruses in frugivorous bats from africa.bats are likely natural hosts for a range of zoonotic viruses such as marburg, ebola, rabies, as well as for various corona- and paramyxoviruses. in 2009/10, researchers discovered rna of two novel influenza virus subtypes--h17n10 and h18n11--in central and south american fruit bats. the identification of bats as possible additional reservoir for influenza a viruses raises questions about the role of this mammalian taxon in influenza a virus ecology and possible public health relevance. as molec ...201525965069
molecular epidemiology of paramyxoviruses in frugivorous eidolon helvum bats in this study, we describe the detection of novel paramyxoviruses from the eidolon helvum species of fruit bats. we extracted rna from 312 spleen samples from bats captured in zambia over a period of 4 years (2008-2011). semi-nested rt-pcr detected a total of 25 (8%) positive samples for paramyxoviruses which were then directly sequenced and analyzed using phylogenetic analysis. among the positive samples, seven novel paramyxoviruses were detected. five viruses were closely related to the genus ...201424389743
metagenomic study of the viruses of african straw-coloured fruit bats: detection of a chiropteran poxvirus and isolation of a novel adenovirus.viral emergence as a result of zoonotic transmission constitutes a continuous public health threat. emerging viruses such as sars coronavirus, hantaviruses and henipaviruses have wildlife reservoirs. characterising the viruses of candidate reservoir species in geographical hot spots for viral emergence is a sensible approach to develop tools to predict, prevent, or contain emergence events. here, we explore the viruses of eidolon helvum, an old world fruit bat species widely distributed in afric ...201323562481
filovirus receptor npc1 contributes to species-specific patterns of ebolavirus susceptibility in bats.biological factors that influence the host range and spillover of ebola virus (ebov) and other filoviruses remain enigmatic. while filoviruses infect diverse mammalian cell lines, we report that cells from african straw-colored fruit bats (eidolon helvum) are refractory to ebov infection. this could be explained by a single amino acid change in the filovirus receptor, npc1, which greatly reduces the affinity of ebov-npc1 interaction. we found signatures of positive selection in bat npc1 concentr ...201526698106
the glycoproteins of all filovirus species use the same host factors for entry into bat and human cells but entry efficiency is species dependent.ebola and marburgviruses, members of the family filoviridae, can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. the ongoing ebola virus (ebov) disease epidemic in western africa claimed more than 11,300 lives and was associated with secondary cases outside africa, demonstrating that filoviruses pose a global health threat. bats constitute an important natural reservoir of filoviruses, including viruses of the recently identified cuevavirus genus within the filoviridae family. however, the interaction ...201626901159
comparative phylogeography of african fruit bats (chiroptera, pteropodidae) provide new insights into the outbreak of ebola virus disease in west africa, 2014-2016.both ebolavirus and marburgvirus were detected in several fruit bat species of the family pteropodidae, suggesting that this taxon plays a key role in the life cycle of filoviruses. after four decades of zaire ebolavirus (zebov) outbreaks in central africa, the virus was detected for the first time in west africa in 2014. to better understand the role of fruit bats as potential reservoirs and circulating hosts between central and west africa, we examine here the phylogeny and comparative phyloge ...201727746072
knowledge, perceptions and attitude of a community living around a colony of straw-coloured fruit bats (eidolon helvum) in ghana after ebola virus disease outbreak in west africa.a large population of straw-coloured fruit bats (eidolon helvum) colonizes a prime area in the city of accra where several public amenities are located. although the colony is positive to several zoonotic viruses including the ebola virus, there is limited information on the social dimensions of the existence of the bats. as a step towards effective response to health risk and conservation of the bats, this study assessed the knowledge and attitude of the community living around the bats and det ...201728371424
bartonella spp. in bats, kenya.we report the presence and diversity of bartonella spp. in bats of 13 insectivorous and frugivorous species collected from various locations across kenya. bartonella isolates were obtained from 23 eidolon helvum, 22 rousettus aegyptiacus, 4 coleura afra, 7 triaenops persicus, 1 hipposideros commersoni, and 49 miniopterus spp. bats. sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene from the obtained isolates showed a wide assortment of bartonella strains. phylogenetically, isolates clustered in spec ...201021122216
long-term survival of an urban fruit bat seropositive for ebola and lagos bat viruses.ebolaviruses (ebov) (family filoviridae) cause viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates when they spill over from their wildlife reservoir hosts with case fatality rates of up to 90%. fruit bats may act as reservoirs of the filoviridae. the migratory fruit bat, eidolon helvum, is common across sub-saharan africa and lives in large colonies, often situated in cities. we screened sera from 262 e. helvum using indirect fluorescent tests for antibodies against ebov subtype zaire. we ...201020694141
henipavirus rna in african bats.henipaviruses (hendra and nipah virus) are highly pathogenic members of the family paramyxoviridae. fruit-eating bats of the pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. human henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from australia via malaysia into bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of pteropus. these bats do not occur in continental africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. one of the most abundant is eidolon helvum, th ...200919636378
establishment of reference intervals for hematology and biochemistry analytes in a captive colony of straw-colored fruit bats (eidolon helvum).straw-colored fruit bats (eidolon helvum) are an ecologically important species of megachiropteran bat that are common both in captivity and in the wild. this study attempts to determine reference intervals from a group of 45 captive individuals for a variety of hematologic and biochemistry parameters. most of the values are similar to values previously seen in other pteropodid bat species. differences included a lower than expected reference interval for the total white blood cell count, a wide ...201627010270
the close genetic relationship of lineage d betacoronavirus from nigerian and kenyan straw-colored fruit bats (eidolon helvum) is consistent with the existence of a single epidemiological unit across sub-saharan africa.straw-colored fruit bats (eidolon helvum), which have been identified as natural hosts for several zoonotic pathogens, such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, and ebolavirus, are associated with human settlements in nigeria where they are commonly consumed as a delicacy. however, information on the viruses harbored by these bats is scarce. in this study, coronavirus sequences were detected using a nested rt-pcr targeting 440 bp of the rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) in six of 79 fecal samples c ...201627059240
complex patterns of tooth replacement revealed in the fruit bat (eidolon helvum).how teeth are replaced during normal growth and development has long been an important question for comparative and developmental anatomy. non-standard model animals have become increasingly popular in this field due to the fact that the canonical model laboratory mammal, the mouse, develops only one generation of teeth (monophyodonty), whereas the majority of mammals possess two generations of teeth (diphyodonty). here we used the straw-coloured fruit bat (eidolon helvum), an old world megabat, ...201627444818
use of binaural cues for sound localization in large and small non-echolocating bats: eidolon helvum and cynopterus brachyotis.the authors determined the ability of two old-world non-echolocating bats, eidolon helvum and cynopterus brachyotis, to use binaural time and intensity difference cues for localization. the bats were trained to localize pure tones throughout most of their hearing range from loudspeakers located 30 degrees to the left and right of midline. both species easily localized high frequency tones, indicating they could use the interaural intensity difference cue. however, neither was able to localize lo ...201020550282
characterization of staphylococcus aureus isolates from faecal samples of the straw-coloured fruit bat (eidolon helvum) in obafemi awolowo university (oau), nigeria.bats (chiroptera) are one of the most diverse groups of mammals which carry out important ecological and agricultural functions that are beneficial to humans. however, they are increasingly recognized as natural vectors for a number of zoonotic pathogens and favourable hosts for zoonotic infections. large populations of the straw-coloured fruit bat (eidolon helvum) colonize the main campus of the obafemi awolowo university (oau), ile-ife, nigeria, but the public health implications of faecal con ...201223181939
attachment protein g of an african bat henipavirus is differentially restricted in chiropteran and nonchiropteran cells.henipaviruses are associated with pteropodid reservoir hosts. the glycoproteins g and f of an african henipavirus (strain m74) have been reported to induce syncytium formation in kidney cells derived from a hypsignathus monstrosus bat (hypni/1.1) but not in nonchiropteran bhk-21 and vero76 cells. here, we show that syncytia are also induced in two other pteropodid cell lines from hypsignathus monstrosus and eidolon helvum bats upon coexpression of the m74 glycoproteins. the g protein was transpo ...201425100832
histochemistry of blood and bone marrow smears of the straw-coloured fruit-eating bat, eidolon helvum.blood and bone marrow cells of the straw-coloured fruit bat, eidolon helvum were examined for sudan black b and periodic acid-schiff (pas)-positive material, peroxidase, naphthol asd chloroacetate esterase and beta-glucuronidase. a strong peroxidase reaction was given by developing granulocytes and monocytes in bone marrow smears, but the mature cells in the peripheral blood smears showed no reactivity. further, developing and mature erythrocytes in both blood and bone marrow smears showed inten ...1977914703
studies on the digestive enzymes of the african fruit bat eidolon helvum (kerr). 19769251
functional anatomy of the heart of the fruit-eating bat, eidolon helvum, kerr. 19676081916
[biology of eidolon helvum kerr (megachiroptera)]. 196514297275
pronounced seasonal changes in the movement ecology of a highly gregarious central-place forager, the african straw-coloured fruit bat (eidolon helvum).straw-coloured fruit bats (eidolon helvum) migrate over vast distances across the african continent, probably following seasonal bursts of resource availability. this causes enormous fluctuations in population size, which in turn may influence the bats' impact on local ecosystems. we studied the movement ecology of this central-place forager with state-of-the-art gps/acceleration loggers and concurrently monitored the seasonal fluctuation of the colony in accra, ghana. habitat use on the landsca ...201526465139
characteristics and risk perceptions of ghanaians potentially exposed to bat-borne zoonoses through bushmeat.emerging zoonotic pathogens from wildlife pose increasing public health threats globally. bats, in particular, host an array of zoonotic pathogens, yet there is little research on how bats and humans interact, how people perceive bats and their accompanying disease risk, or who is most at risk. eidolon helvum, the largest and most abundant african fruit bat species, is widely hunted and eaten in ghana and also carries potentially zoonotic pathogens. this combination raises concerns, as hunting a ...201525266774
seroepidemiological prevalence of multiple species of filoviruses in fruit bats (eidolon helvum) migrating in africa.fruit bats are suspected to be a natural reservoir of filoviruses, including ebola and marburg viruses. using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the viral glycoprotein antigens, we detected filovirus-specific immunoglobulin g antibodies in 71 of 748 serum samples collected from migratory fruit bats (eidolon helvum) in zambia during 2006-2013. although antibodies to african filoviruses (eg, zaire ebolavirus) were most prevalent, some serum samples showed distinct specificity for reston ...201525786916
presence of rhodanese in the cytosolic fraction of the fruit bat (eidolon helvum) liver.rhodanese was isolated and purified from the cytosolic fraction of liver tissue homogenate of the fruit bat, eidolon helvum, by using ammonium sulphate precipitation and cm-sephadex c-50 ion exchange chromatography. the specific activity was increased 130-fold with a 53% recovery. the k(m) values for kcn and na(2)s(2)o(3) as substrates were 13.5 +/- 2.2mm and 19.5 +/- 0.7 mm, respectively. the apparent molecular weight was estimated by gel filtration on a sephadex g-100 column to be 36,000 da. t ...200415469707
sex differences in the bony pelvis of the fruit-eating bat, eidolon helvum.investigation into the bony pelvis of the fruit-eating bat, eidolon helvum, revealed differences in the pelvic dimensions. the pubic joint of the female consists of interpubic ligament that increased in length until puberty. in the juvenile male eidolon the pubic joint consists of ligament. ossification of the interpubic ligament in the male is not an adult phenomenon but begins at the juvenile stage. in the adult the distance from the ischial tuberosity to the iliac crest, from the ischial tube ...200011107701
the os penis of the frugivorous bat, eidolon helvum (kerr).the os penis reported in some species of the mammalian order was observed in the juvenile and adult penes of the friguvorous african bat, eidolon helvum. the morphology of the os penis in eidolon helvum differs from that observed in bat species and other mammalian order. in the adult form it is large, disc-shaped and located at the distal segment of the penile organ. the proximal segment of the penis does not contain any bone. in the juvenile bat the os penis is made of two separate bones locate ...200010974783
can survival analyses detect hunting pressure in a highly connected species? lessons from straw-coloured fruit bats.animal behaviour, social structure and population dynamics affect community structure, interspecific interactions, and a species' resilience to harvesting. building on new life history information for the straw-coloured fruit bat (eidolon helvum) from multiple localities across africa, we used survival analyses based on tooth-cementum annuli data to test alternative hypotheses relating to hunting pressure, demography and population connectivity. the estimated annual survival probability across a ...201627499548
highly diverse population of picornaviridae and other members of the picornavirales, in cameroonian fruit bats.the order picornavirales represents a diverse group of positive-stranded rna viruses with small non-enveloped icosahedral virions. recently, bats have been identified as an important reservoir of several highly pathogenic human viruses. since many members of the picornaviridae family cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals, this study aimed to characterize members of the order picornavirales in fruit bat populations located in the southwest region of cameroon. these bat populations ...201728335731
isolation and properties of creatine kinase from the breast muscle of tropical fruit bat, eidolon helvum (kerr).creatine kinase, from fruit bat breast muscle, has been purified to homogeneity. the mol. wt of the enzyme was estimated to be about 78,000-80,000 with two subunits of 42,500. there are nine thiol residues/mol of the enzyme and two of these react readily with dtnb leading to total inactivation of the enzyme. the metal ion specificity was in order mg2+ greater than zn2+ greater than co2+. initial velocity and product inhibition studies of the reverse reaction are consistent with sequential reacti ...19863780189
diurnal variations of the glycogen and fat stores in the liver and breast muscle of the fruit bat, eidolon helvum (kerr). 1978566444
gross morphometric studies on the tongue, buccal cavity and hard palate of the fruit bat (eidolon helvum).this study was designed to assess the gross morphometric studies of the tongue, hard palate and buccal cavity of the fruit bat (eidolon helvum). sixty bats of both sexes were used for this study. the tongue was excised, and the weight and various linear measurements were determined. linear measurements were also determined on the hard palate. the gross distribution of the lingual papillae was observed to be the same in both sexes; values obtained for the weight and length of the tongue were high ...201525115593
gross and morphometric anatomy of the male reproductive system of bats (eidolon helvum).the present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (eidolon helvum). thirty male bats (adults n = 17 and juveniles n = 13) were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were 235.31 ± 6.30 g, 12.14 ± 0.19 cm and 69.54 ± 7.68 g, 7.77 ± 0.29 cm, respectively. the testicles were complet ...201424800105
commuting fruit bats beneficially modulate their flight in relation to wind.when animals move, their tracks may be strongly influenced by the motion of air or water, and this may affect the speed, energetics and prospects of the journey. flying organisms, such as bats, may thus benefit from modifying their flight in response to the wind vector. yet, practical difficulties have so far limited the understanding of this response for free-ranging bats. we tracked nine straw-coloured fruit bats (eidolon helvum) that flew 42.5 ± 17.5 km (mean ± s.d.) to and from their roost n ...201424648227
the movement ecology of the straw-colored fruit bat, eidolon helvum, in sub-saharan africa assessed by stable isotope ratios.flying foxes (pteropodidae) are key seed dispersers on the african continent, yet their migratory behavior is largely unknown. here, we studied the movement ecology of the straw-colored fruit bat, eidolon helvum, and other fruit bats by analyzing stable isotope ratios in fur collected from museum specimens. in a triple-isotope approach based on samples of two ecologically similar non-migratory pteropodids, we first confirmed that a stable isotope approach is capable of delineating between geogra ...201223029206
a comparative study of the lateral geniculate body of rat (rattus norvegicus), bat (eidolon helvum) and pangolin (manis tricuspis).in this study, the lateral geniculate bodies (lgb) of rats, bats and pangolins were compared using histological and quantitative histochemical parameters to observe possible modifications that enable these mammals to cope with their habitation particularly with respect to their diet. the study was conducted using ten adult wistar rats, ten fruit bats and eight pangolins comprising of both sexes. after being sacrificed by cervical dislocation, their skulls were opened using bone forceps to expose ...201222980348
cameroonian fruit bats harbor divergent viruses, including rotavirus h, bastroviruses, and picobirnaviruses using an alternative genetic code.most human emerging infectious diseases originate from wildlife and bats are a major reservoir of viruses, a few of which have been highly pathogenic to humans. in some regions of cameroon, bats are hunted and eaten as a delicacy. this close proximity between human and bats provides ample opportunity for zoonotic events. to elucidate the viral diversity of cameroonian fruit bats, we collected and metagenomically screened eighty-seven fecal samples of eidolon helvum and epomophorus gambianus frui ...201829644096
phenological patterns in a natural population of a tropical timber tree species, milicia excelsa (moraceae): evidence of isolation by time and its interaction with feeding strategies of dispersers.population genetic structuring over limited timescales is commonly viewed as a consequence of spatial constraints. indirect approaches have recently revealed reproductive isolation resulting from flowering time (so-called isolation by time, ibt). since phenological processes can be subject to selection, the persistence of flowering asynchrony may be due to opposing selective pressures during mating, dispersal, and regeneration phases. our study aimed to investigate phenology, fruit handling by a ...201222912370
uncovering the fruit bat bushmeat commodity chain and the true extent of fruit bat hunting in ghana, west africa.harvesting, consumption and trade of bushmeat are important causes of both biodiversity loss and potential zoonotic disease emergence. in order to identify possible ways to mitigate these threats, it is essential to improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which bushmeat gets from the site of capture to the consumer's table. in this paper we highlight the previously unrecognized scale of hunting of the african straw-colored fruit bat, eidolon helvum, a species which is important in both ec ...201122514356
bartonella species in bat flies (diptera: nycteribiidae) from western africa.bat flies are obligate ectoparasites of bats and it has been hypothesized that they may be involved in the transmission of bartonella species between bats. a survey was conducted to identify whether cyclopodia greefi greefi (diptera: nycteribiidae) collected from ghana and 2 islands in the gulf of guinea harbour bartonella. in total, 137 adult flies removed from eidolon helvum, the straw-coloured fruit bat, were screened for the presence of bartonella by culture and pcr analysis. bartonella dna ...201222309510
forest refugia revisited: nssrs and cpdna sequences support historical isolation in a wide-spread african tree with high colonization capacity, milicia excelsa (moraceae).the impact of the pleistocene climate oscillations on the structure of biodiversity in tropical regions remains poorly understood. in this study, the forest refuge theory is examined at the molecular level in milicia excelsa, a dioecious tree with a continuous range throughout tropical africa. eight nuclear microsatellites (nssrs) and two sequences and one microsatellite from chloroplast dna (cpdna) showed a deep divide between samples from benin and those from lower guinea. this suggests that t ...201020854478
nuclear organization of cholinergic, putative catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems in the brains of two megachiropteran species.the nuclear organization of the cholinergic, putative catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems within the brains of the megachiropteran straw-coloured fruit bat (eidolon helvum) and wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (epomophorus wahlbergi) were identified following immunohistochemistry for cholineacetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin. the aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in the nuclear complement of the neuromodulatory systems of these species in c ...201020566331
effect of tannic acid on iron absorption in straw-colored fruit bats (eidolon helvum).excessive absorption and subsequent storage of dietary iron has been found in a variety of captively held birds and mammals, including fruit bats. it is thought that feeding a diet that is low in iron can prevent the onset of this disease; however, manufacturing a diet with commonly available foodstuffs that contains a sufficiently low iron concentration is difficult. an alternative is to feed captive animals that may be susceptible to this disease potential iron chelators such as tannins that m ...201319598244
highly diverse and antimicrobial susceptible escherichia coli display a naïve bacterial population in fruit bats from the republic of congo.bats are suspected to be a reservoir of several bacterial and viral pathogens relevant to animal and human health, but studies on escherichia coli in these animals are sparse. we investigated the presence of e. coli in tissue samples (liver, lung and intestines) collected from 50 fruit bats of five different species (eidolon helvum, epomops franqueti, hypsignathus monstrosus, myonycteris torquata, rousettus aegyptiacus) of two different areas in the republic of congo between 2009 and 2010. to as ...201728700648
novel highly divergent sapoviruses detected by metagenomics analysis in straw-colored fruit bats in cameroon.sapoviruses (savs) belong to the sapovirus genus, in the family caliciviridae. they have been associated with gastroenteritis in humans and in pigs but not in other animals. in addition, some strains from pigs, chimpanzees and rodents show close sequence identity with human savs thereby suggesting the possibility of interspecies transmissions. bats are known to be a major reservoir of zoonotic viruses, however, very little is known about the genetic diversity of savs in bats. to explore the gene ...201728536431
novel highly divergent reassortant bat rotaviruses in cameroon, without evidence of zoonosis.bats are an important reservoir for zoonotic viruses. to date, only three rva strains have been reported in bats in kenya and china. in the current study we investigated the genetic diversity of rvas in fecal samples from 87 straw-colored fruit bats living in close contact with humans in cameroon using viral metagenomics. five (near) complete rva genomes were obtained. a single rva strain showed a partial relationship with the kenyan bat rva strain, whereas the other strains were completely nove ...201627666390
demography of straw-colored fruit bats in ghana.eidolon helvum is widely distributed across sub-saharan africa where it forms large, dense colonies. the species is migratory and satellite telemetry studies have demonstrated that individuals can migrate over 2,500 km. it is a common source of bush meat in west africa and evidence of infection with potentially zoonotic viruses has been found in west african colonies. the species, therefore, is of interest to both ecologists and those interested in public health. despite this, demographic parame ...201223525358
support for viral persistence in bats from age-specific serology and models of maternal immunity.spatiotemporally-localised prediction of virus emergence from wildlife requires focused studies on the ecology and immunology of reservoir hosts in their native habitat. reliable predictions from mathematical models remain difficult in most systems due to a dearth of appropriate empirical data. our goal was to study the circulation and immune dynamics of zoonotic viruses in bat populations and investigate the effects of maternally-derived and acquired immunity on viral persistence. using rare ag ...201829497106
lagos bat virus infection dynamics in free-ranging straw-colored fruit bats (eidolon helvum).bats are key species for ecological function, but they are also reservoirs of zoonotic agents, such as lyssaviruses that cause rabies. little is known about the maintenance and transmission of lyssaviruses in bats, although the observation of clinically sick bats, both in experimental studies and wild bats, has at least demonstrated that lyssaviruses are capable of causing clinical disease in bat species. despite this, extensive surveillance for diseased bats has not yielded lyssaviruses, whilst ...201730270883
subgenomic flavivirus rna (sfrna) associated with asian lineage zika virus identified in three species of ugandan bats (family pteropodidae).serological cross-reactivity among flaviviruses makes determining the prior arbovirus exposure of animals challenging in areas where multiple flavivirus strains are circulating. we hypothesized that prior infection with zikv could be confirmed through the presence of subgenomic flavivirus rna (sfrna) of the 3' untranslated region (utr), which persists in tissues due to xrn-1 stalling during rna decay. we amplified zikv sfrna but not ns5 from three experimentally-infected jamaican fruit bats, sup ...202133863991
characterization of a novel bat adenovirus isolated from straw-colored fruit bat (eidolon helvum).bats are important reservoirs for emerging zoonotic viruses. for extensive surveys of potential pathogens in straw-colored fruit bats (eidolon helvum) in zambia, a total of 107 spleen samples ofe. helvumin 2006 were inoculated onto vero e6 cells. the cell culture inoculated with one of the samples (zfb06-106) exhibited remarkable cytopathic changes. based on the ultrastructural property in negative staining and cross-reactivity in immunofluorescence assays, the virus was suspected to be an adeno ...201729207524
a viral metagenomic survey identifies known and novel mammalian viruses in bats from saudi arabia.bats are implicated as natural reservoirs for a wide range of zoonotic viruses including sars and mers coronaviruses, ebola, marburg, nipah, hendra, rabies and other lyssaviruses. accordingly, many one health surveillance and viral discovery programs have focused on bats. in this report we present viral metagenomic data from bats collected in the kingdom of saudi arabia [ksa]. unbiased high throughput sequencing of fecal samples from 72 bat individuals comprising four species; lesser mouse-taile ...201930969980
survey of ebola viruses in frugivorous and insectivorous bats in guinea, cameroon, and the democratic republic of the congo, clarify the role of bats in the ecology of ebola viruses, we assessed the prevalence of ebola virus antibodies in a large-scale sample of bats collected during 2015-2017 from countries in africa that have had previous ebola outbreaks (guinea, the democratic republic of the congo) or are at high risk for outbreaks (cameroon). we analyzed 4,022 blood samples of bats from >12 frugivorous and 27 insectivorous species; 2-37 (0.05%-0.92%) bats were seropositive for zaire and 0-30 (0%-0.75%) bats fo ...201830307845
identification of group a rotaviruses from zambian fruit bats provides evidence for long-distance dispersal events in a rotavirus (rva) is a major cause of diarrhea in children worldwide. although rva infects many animals, little is known about rva in bats. the present study investigated the genetic diversity of rva in zambian bats. we identified rva from two straw-colored fruit bats (eidolon helvum) and an egyptian fruit bat (rousettus aegyptiacus), and analyzed the genome sequences of these strains. genome segments of the rva strains from zambian e. helvum showed 97%-99% nucleotide sequence identity wit ...201829792990
iron storage disease (hemochromatosis) and hepcidin response to iron load in two species of pteropodid fruit bats relative to the common vampire bat.hepcidin is the key regulator of iron homeostasis in the body. iron storage disease (hemochromatosis) is a frequent cause of liver disease and mortality in captive egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus), but reasons underlying this condition are unknown. hereditary hemochromatosis in humans is due to deficiency of hepcidin or resistance to the action of hepcidin. here, we investigated the role of hepcidin in iron metabolism in one species of pteropodid bat that is prone to iron storage dise ...201829594459
bartonella species in bats (chiroptera) and bat flies (nycteribiidae) from nigeria, west africa.previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. to date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in nigeria. to elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of barton ...201425229701
a novel rhabdovirus isolated from the straw-colored fruit bat eidolon helvum, with signs of antibodies in swine and humans.bats have been implicated as reservoirs of emerging viruses. bat species forming large social groups and roosting in proximity to human communities are of particular interest. in this study, we sampled a colony of ca. 350,000 individuals of the straw-colored fruit bat eidolon helvum in kumasi, the second largest city of ghana. a novel rhabdovirus (kumasi rhabdovirus [krv]) was isolated in e. helvum cell cultures and passaged to vero cells as well as interferon-competent human and primate cells ( ...201525673701
a single bat species in cameroon harbors multiple highly divergent papillomaviruses in stool identified by metagenomics analysis.a number of pvs have been described in bats but to the best of our knowledge not from feces. using a previously described netovir protocol, eidolon helvum pooled fecal samples (eh) were treated and sequenced by illumina next generation sequencing technology. two complete genomes of novel pvs (ehpv2 and ehpv3) and 3 partial sequences (batpv61, batpv890a and batpv890b) were obtained and analysis showed that the ehpv2 and ehpv3 major capsid proteins cluster with and share 60-64% nucleotide identity ...201632289018
gross description and osteometrics of the axial skeleton (ribs and vertebrae) of eidolon helvum (african fruit bat).the eidolon helvum is a straw coloured fruit bat, also known as the african fruit bat. this study details theanatomical peculiarities, gross description and morphometrics of the ribs. fifteen adult bats were used for this study. thevertebral formula was c7t13-14l3-4s7cd3-4. spinous process was rudimentary on thoracic vertebrae 1 to 7. the numbers ofthe ribs ranged from 13 to 14, with the longest being rib 7, and the shortest being rib 14. twenty percent of the males and50% of the females had 14 ...201830837774
host-adapted cryptosporidium and enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in straw-colored fruit bats in nigeria.few data are available on the distribution and human infective potential of cryptosporidium and enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in bats. in this preliminary study, we collected 109 fecal specimens during april-july 2011 from a colony of straw-colored fruit bats (eidolon helvum) in an urban park (agodi gardens) of ibadan, nigeria, and analyzed for cryptosporidium spp., giardia duodenalis and e. bieneusi using pcr targeting the small subunit rrna gene, triosephosphate isomerase gene, and ribosom ...201930560054
suspected carbaryl toxicity in a captive colony of straw-colored fruit bats ( eidolon helvum).carbaryl was the first carbamate insecticide produced and remains the most widely used due to its perceived low level of toxicity in nontarget species. this report describes the management and evaluation of a group of straw-colored fruit bats, eidolon helvum, that were exposed to carbaryl. cholinesterase activity of blood, retina, and brain was evaluated to further investigate whether carbaryl was the causative agent. decreased whole blood and retinal cholinesterase activity coupled with the res ...201729297804
bat lung epithelial cells show greater host species-specific innate resistance than mdck cells to human and avian influenza viruses.with the recent discovery of novel h17n10 and h18n11 influenza viral rna in bats and report on high frequency of avian h9 seroconversion in a species of free ranging bats, an important issue to address is the extent bats are susceptible to conventional avian and human influenza a viruses.201829636078
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