diabetes mellitus in a black-footed ferret.diabetes mellitus was tentatively diagnosed in a black-footed ferret with polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, dehydration, and weight loss. laboratory findings (marked hyperglycemia (724 mg/100 ml), glycosuria, and ketonuria) and the subsequent favorable response to insulin therapy confirmed the diagnosis. although lesions were not observed in the pancreas, gross and histologic findings concomitant with diabetes mellitus included arteriosclerosis, with calcification of the aorta and other major ve ...1977924862
enterotoxigenic escherichia coli infection in captive black-footed ferrets.enterotoxigenic escherichia coli with genes for heat stabile toxins sta and stb was isolated from the gastrointestinal tract and multiple visceral organs of three adult and three juvenile black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) that died in a captive breeding colony between 24 may 1998 and 2 july 1998. similar isolates were obtained from rectal swabs of one adult and one juvenile that were clinically ill. all were fed a diet composed of mink chow, raw rabbit meat, beef liver powder, blood meal a ...200111504237
susceptibility of the siberian polecat to subcutaneous and oral yersinia pestis determine if the siberian polecat (mustela eversmannii) represents a suitable model for the study of plague pathogenesis and prevention in the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes), polecats were exposed to 10(3), 10(7), or 10(10) yersinia pestis organisms by subcutaneous injection; an additional group was exposed to y. pestis via ingestion of a plague-killed mouse. plague killed 88% of polecats exposed to y. pestis (71% mortality in the 10(3) group, 100% mortality in the 10(7) and 10(10) gr ...200111763738
plague in a black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes).diagnosis of sylvatic plague in a captive black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) was based on gross and microscopic lesions, fluorescent antibody tests, culture of yersinia pestis, and immunohistochemistry. gross lesions consisted of acute hemorrhage and necrosis associated with cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes, subcutaneous hemorrhages, and pulmonary edema. acute edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis with numerous bacteria in blood vessels and sinusoids characterized microscopic lesions. occurrenc ...19947760495
challenges to reestablishment of free-ranging populations of black-footed ferrets.the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) of north america is critically endangered due in part to its extreme specialization on formerly stable and abundant prairie dogs (cynomys). its close relative, the siberian polecat (m. eversmannii) seems to have been subjected to a varying environment that was not conductive to specialization. one source of environmental variation in asian steppes was plague (caused by yersina pestis), which was absent from north america. introduction of plague to north ...200314558458
vaccine-induced canine distemper virus in black-footed ferrets. 1977556720
recombinant f1-v fusion protein protects black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) against virulent yersinia pestis ferrets (mustela nigripes) are highly susceptible to sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis, and this disease has severely hampered efforts to restore ferrets to their historic range. a study was conducted to assess the efficacy of vaccination of black-footed ferrets against plague using a recombinant protein vaccine, designated f1-v, developed by personnel at the u.s. army medical research institute of infectious diseases. seven postreproductive black-footed ferre ...200415305507
vaccination of black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) x siberian polecat (m. eversmanni) hybrids and domestic ferrets (m. putorius furo)against canine inactivated canine distemper vaccine with adjuvant and a modified-live virus (mlv) vaccine were evaluated using black-footed ferret (mustegla nigripes) x siberian polecat (mustela eversmanni) hybrids us surrogates for endangered black-footed ferrets. for comparative purposes, we also vaccinated domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo) with the mlv vaccine. response to vaccination was measured by clinical observation, hematology, dynamics of serum virus neutralizing antibodies, and challenge w ...19968827666
subepidermal vesiculobullous filarial dermatitis in free-ranging american badgers (taxidea taxus).skin and superficial lymph nodes from the 65 juvenile (< 1 year old) and adult free-ranging american badgers (taxidea taxus) of both sexes that were killed from late july to late october 1991 as part of the recovery program for the endangered black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) were examined for evidence of filaria taxideae. fifty-one badgers (51/64, 80%) were infected. both adult badgers (30/32, 94%) and juvenile badgers (21/32, 67%) were infected by adult filarial worms, which occurred most ...19938212456
metastatic, papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the mammary gland in a black-footed ferret.a simple, papillary cystic adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland with metastases to the internal iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and spleen was observed in a 12 to 13 year old female black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes). histologically, the tumor was aggressive, and lymphatic invasion was found. attempts at virus isolation were negative. other findings were bilateral infarcts in the kidneys, apparently resulting in acute renal shutdown and death, multiple thrombi in the right atrium, ao ...19807463613
experimental infection of domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo) and siberian polecats (mustela eversmanni) with yersinia pestis.eight domestic ferrets (mustela putorius furo) and two siberian polecats (m. eversmanni) were inoculated subcutaneously with 12 to 1.2 x 10(7) yersinia pestis originally isolated during an epizootic of plague in white-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys leucurus) near meeteetse, park county, wyoming (usa) in 1985. none of the ferrets or polecats developed clinical signs of disease which suggested that black-footed ferrets (m. nigripes), a congener, also would be resistant to plague. all animals receivi ...19911920664
comparative vaginal cytology of the estrous cycle of black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes), siberian polecats (m. eversmanni), and domestic ferrets (m. putorius furo).vaginal cytology and vulva size were used to characterize the reproductive cycle of female black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes), siberian polecats (m. eversmanni), and domestic ferrets (m. putorius furo). emphasis was on black-footed ferrets because of the need to breed these critically endangered animals and on siberian polecats because of the close taxonomic relationship to black-footed ferrets. vaginal cytology of the 3 species of ferret is similar. proestrus was characterized by an increa ...19921554767
[musculature of the pelvic limb of the american weasel (mustela nigripes, audubon and bachman)].the origins and insertions of the muscles of the pelvic limb of the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) are illustrated and described. the results based on the dissection of two adult specimens are compared with those of other investigations on the myology of the mustelids. the musculature of the pelvic limb of mustela nigripes is substantially similar to that of other mustelids investigated except for slight differences of individual muscles. the most obvious differences involve the tendons ...1976984445
evaluation of oral and subcutaneous delivery of an experimental canarypox recombinant canine distemper vaccine in the siberian polecat (mustela eversmanni).we assessed the safety and efficacy of an experimental canarypox-vectored recombinant canine distemper virus (cdv) subunit vaccine in the siberian polecat (mustela eversmanni), a close relative of the black-footed ferret, (m. nigripes), an endangered species that is highly susceptible to the virus. siberian polecats were randomized into six treatment groups. recombinant canine distemper vaccine was administered s.c. at three dose levels (10(4.5), 10(5.0), and 10(5.5) plaque-forming units [pfu] p ...200312723797
genetic diversity and fitness in black-footed ferrets before and during a bottleneck.the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) is an endangered north american carnivore that underwent a well-documented population bottleneck in the mid-1980s. to better understand the effects of a bottleneck on a free-ranging carnivore population, we used 24 microsatellite loci to compare genetic diversity before versus during the bottleneck, and compare the last wild population to two historical populations. we also compared genetic diversity in black-footed ferrets to that of two sibling specie ...200212407208
linkage of reproductive sciences: from 'quick fix' to 'integrated' conservation.our laboratory has experienced four phases in understanding how the reproductive sciences contribute to genuine conservation of biodiversity. the first is the 'quick fix phase' in which the erroneous assumption is made that extant knowledge and techniques are readily adaptable to an unstudied wild animal to produce offspring rapidly. the second is the 'species-specificity phase' in which it is recognized that every species has evolved unique reproductive mechanisms that must be mastered before p ...200111787164
lack of relay toxicity in ferret hybrids fed carbaryl-treated prairie dogs.carbaryl (1-napthol methylcarbamate) is being considered for control of fleas on prairie dogs (cynomys spp.) used in black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) recovery in the western united states. the potential for relay toxicity in ferrets was determined by feeding carbaryl treated prairie dogs to black-footed ferret x siberian polecat (m. eversmanni) hybrids. adult prairie dogs were treated topically with 2.5 g of commercial 5% carbaryl dust sold as flea powder. after 14 days prairie dogs were k ...19989577785
exploratory behaviour of the black-footed ferret. 195813608338
black-footed ferret recovery. 200010841720
reproductive inefficiency in male black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes).the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes), once considered extinct, has benefited from captive breeding and subsequent reintroduction into native habitat. a high proportion of females (>90%) exhibit estrus in captivity during the spring breeding season. however, many males considered to be prime-breeding age (1-3 years old) fail to sire offspring. breeding records in 1995 revealed that 40 of 73 males (55%) managed under the black-footed ferret species survival plan did not reproduce, despite be ...200011180413
spontaneous neoplasia in the ferret (mustela putorius furo).thirteen spontaneous tumours in ferrets from two laboratory breeding colonies are described, including two types not previously reported in this species, namely, uterine teratoma and neurilemmoma. the literature on tumours in laboratory and domestic ferrets is comprehensively reviewed from the first reported case in 1950. only 20 cases were reported from 1950 to 1979, nearly all from laboratory or zoological collections. in the following 10 years more than 170 further cases were reported, about ...19938473565
gastroenteritis associated with clostridium perfringens type a in black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes). 19938333113
a plague epizootic in the white-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys leucurus) of meeteetse, wyoming.surveillance for sylvatic plague (yersinia pestis) was conducted near meeteetse, wyoming (usa) from 24 may to 14 june 1985. ten species of fleas were collected from white-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys leucurus), and from their burrows and associated rodents. five of these flea species and two adult prairie dogs were positive for plague. the progression of this plague epizootic appeared to be slower and the intensity was less than in previous epizootics in other prairie dog colonies. the plague ep ...19883411698
canine distemper in black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) from september and october 1985, six black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) were captured from the only known population, located near meeteetse, wyoming for captive propagation. two days following capture an adult male showed signs of canine distemper and an adult female displayed similar signs 7 days postcapture; these infections were undoubtedly acquired prior to capture. subsequently the four remaining captive black-footed ferrets also developed canine distemper and all eventually died. clini ...19883411697
age-dependent changes in sperm production, semen quality, and testicular volume in the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes).the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes), which was extirpated from its native north american prairie habitat during the 1980s, is being reintroduced to the wild because of a successful captive-breeding program. to enhance propagation, the reproductive biology of this endangered species is being studied intensively. the typical life span of the black-footed ferret is approximately 7 yr. female fecundity declines after 3 yr of age, but the influence of age on male reproduction is unknown. in th ...200010859258
toxoplasma gondii infections in captive black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes), 1992-1998: clinical signs, serology, pathology, and epizootic of toxoplasmosis occurred among 22 adult and 30 kit black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) maintained under quarantine conditions at the louisville zoological garden (louisville, kentucky, usa) in june, 1992. black-footed ferrets appear to be highly susceptible to acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. clinical signs were observed in 19 adults and six kits and included anorexia, lethargy, corneal edema, and ataxia. two adults and six kits died with acute disease. high antibody titers to ...200314733273
infectious and parasitic diseases of captive carnivores, with special emphasis on the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes).captive carnivores are susceptible to a wide array of infectious and parasitic diseases, which reflects the diversity of the seven families of carnivora. unfortunately, relatively few in-depth studies have been conducted on diseases of non-domestic carnivores, and much remains to be learned, especially regarding diseases of small carnivores (e.g. mustelids, viverrids and procyonids). the more important infectious diseases of carnivores include rabies, canine distemper, and diseases caused by par ...19968924718
vaccination with f1-v fusion protein protects black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) against plague upon oral challenge with yersinia pestis.previous studies have established that vaccination of black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) with f1-v fusion protein by subcutaneous (sc) injection protects the animals against plague upon injection of the bacterium yersinia pestis. this study demonstrates that the f1-v antigen can also protect ferrets against plague contracted via ingestion of a y. pestis-infected mouse, a probable route for natural infection. eight black-footed ferret kits were vaccinated with f1-v protein by sc injection at ...200818263816
noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical activity in carnivores by fecal glucocorticoid analyses.measurement of glucocorticoid metabolites in feces has become an accepted method for the noninvasive evaluation of adrenocortical activity. the objective of this study was to determine if a simple cortisol enzyme immunoassay (eia) was suitable for monitoring adrenocortical activity in a variety of carnivore species. performance of the cortisol eia was gauged by comparison to a corticosterone radioimmunoassay (ria) that has been used for measuring glucocorticoid metabolites in feces of numerous s ...200415158127
the effect of the breeding season, cryopreservation and physiological extender on selected sperm and semen parameters of four ferret species: implications for captive breeding in the endangered black-footed the present investigation, comparative baseline information on selected sperm characteristics of ejaculate spermatozoa of the domestic (mustela putorius furo), fitch (mustela sp.) and black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) and the siberian polecat (mustela eversmanni) are presented. the main emphasis was to establish differences and similarities among these species in relation to semen and sperm quality during the breeding season, in cryopreservation success and in supporting sperm motility ...200919210927
noninvasive monitoring of fetal growth and development in the siberian polecat (mustela eversmanni).the siberian polecat (mustela eversmanni) is the preferred species to assess procedures and establish normative values for application in the related and endangered black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes). this study was undertaken to physically, ultrasonographically, and radiographically evaluate fetal development in a spontaneously breeding captive siberian polecat population. ultrasonographically, fetal sac enlargement allowed presumptive pregnancy detection as early as 12 days of gestation, t ...199810065851
quantitative light and scanning electron microscopy of ferret sperm.sperm were obtained via electroejaculation from domestic ferret, (mustela putorius furo), siberian ferret (m. eversmanni), black-footed ferret (m. nigripes), and a hybrid between siberian and domestic, called the fitch ferret (m. sp.). comparisons of sperm were made by four different microscopy techniques to determine whether differences exist among species. first, nomarski differential interference microscopy could be used to distinguish domestic ferret sperm from the others on the basis of the ...19911793602
pathogenicity of morbilliviruses for terrestrial carnivores.many different species of the order carnivora are susceptible to canine distemper and the mortality rate varies greatly between species. ailuridae, canidae, hyaenidae, mustelidae, procyonidae, ursidae, viverridae and now felidae have been reported to be susceptible to canine distemper virus infection. although distemper outbreaks in dogs, fur farms and in zoo carnivores have been greatly reduced in recent years due to vaccination, there are still regular outbreaks in free-living carnivores. unex ...19958588312
advances in reproductive science for wild carnivore conservation.knowledge about reproduction is critical for predicting the viability of wildlife populations in nature and for managing breeding programmes in captivity. intensive species-based studies are the priority, because reproductive mechanisms are extraordinarily diverse, even within the same taxonomic family. carnivores deserve more attention as such species are highly vulnerable to environmental change and human persecution. the present review provides contemporary illustrations of how reproductive s ...200919754535
environmental enrichment affects adrenocortical stress responses in the endangered black-footed ferret.potential stressors of wildlife living in captivity, such as artificial living conditions and frequent human contact, may lead to a higher occurrence of disease and reduced reproductive function. one successful method used by wildlife managers to improve general well-being is the provision of environmental enrichment, which is the practice of providing animals under managed care with environmental stimuli. the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) is a highly-endangered carnivore species that w ...201121549121
enzootic plague reduces black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) survival in ferrets (mustela nigripes) require extensive prairie dog colonies (cynomys spp.) to provide habitat and prey. epizootic plague kills both prairie dogs and ferrets and is a major factor limiting recovery of the highly endangered ferret. in addition to epizootics, we hypothesized that enzootic plague, that is, presence of disease-causing yersinia pestis without any noticeable prairie dog die off, may also affect ferret survival. we reduced risk of plague on portions of two ferret rein ...201020158329
a road map for 21st century genetic restoration: gene pool enrichment of the black-footed ferret.interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iscnt) could benefit recovery programs of critically endangered species but must be weighed with the risks of failure. to weigh the risks and benefits, a decision-making process that evaluates progress is needed. experiments that evaluate the efficiency and efficacy of blastocyst, fetal, and post-parturition development are necessary to determine the success or failure or species-specific iscnt programs. here, we use the black-footed ferret (mustela ni ...201526304983
cloned ferrets produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.somatic cell nuclear transfer (scnt) offers great potential for developing better animal models of human disease. the domestic ferret (mustela putorius furo) is an ideal animal model for influenza infections and potentially other human respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis, where mouse models have failed to reproduce the human disease phenotype. here, we report the successful production of live cloned, reproductively competent, ferrets using species-specific scnt methodologies. critical t ...200616584722
season of deltamethrin application affects flea and plague control in white-tailed prairie dog (cynomys leucurus) colonies, colorado, 2008 and 2009, we evaluated the duration of prophylactic deltamethrin treatments in white-tailed prairie dog ( cynomys leucurus ) colonies and compared effects of autumn or spring dust application in suppressing flea numbers and plague. plague occurred before and during our experiment. overall, flea abundance tended to increase from may or june to september, but it was affected by deltamethrin treatment and plague dynamics. success in trapping prairie dogs (animals caught/trap days) declined ...201627195680
sperm viability in the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) is influenced by seminal and medium osmolality.fundamental knowledge of spermatozoa cryobiology can assist with optimizing cryopreservation protocols needed for genetic management of the endangered black-footed ferret. objectives were to characterize semen osmolality and assess the influence of two media at various osmolalities on sperm viability. we examined the influence of ham's f10 +hepes medium (h) at 270, 400, 500 or 700 mosm (adjusted with sucrose, a nonpermeating cryoprotectant) and test yolk buffer (tyb) with 0% (300 mosm) versus 4% ...200616712829
amyloidosis in the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes).this study describes clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic features of amyloid a amyloidosis occurring in black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) from eight u.s. zoological institutions. ferrets had nonregenerative anemia, serum chemistries consistent with chronic renal disease, and proteinuria. amyloid was present in a variety of tissues, but it was most severe in renal glomeruli and associated with tubular protein loss and emaciation. congo red/potassium permangana ...200717469273
a comparison of sperm morphology and silver nitrate staining characteristics in the domestic ferret and the black-footed ferret.ejaculated sperm from the domestic ferret (mustela putorius furo) and the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) were compared for differences in morphological abnormalities and argentophilic protein distribution. thawed domestic ferret sperm was also compared to fresh sperm to determine whether there were any effects on cell morphology due to cryopreservation. there were statistically significant differences between the two species of ferret in two of the categories scored. the domestic ferret ...19892465262
factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret (mustela putorius furo).embryo transfer (et) to recipient females is a foundational strategy for a number of assisted reproductive technologies, including cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. in an attempt to develop efficient et in domestic ferrets, factors affecting development of transferred embryo were investigated. unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts in the oviduct or uterus was evaluated in recipient nulliparous or primiparous females. developing fetuses were collected from recipient ...200616330092
a rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals.plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. the most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to yersinia pestis f1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (canis latrans). current serologic tests for y. pestis, hemagglutination (ha) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), are expensive and labor intensive. to address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow dev ...201424484483
biobanking efforts and new advances in male fertility preservation for rare and endangered species.understanding and sustaining biodiversity is a multi-disciplinary science that benefits highly from the creation of organized and accessible collections of biomaterials (genome resource banks). large cryo-collections are invaluable tools for understanding, cataloging, and protecting the genetic diversity of the world's unique animals and plants. specifically, the systematic collection and preservation of semen from rare species has been developed significantly in recent decades with some biobank ...201725966625
slow cooling prevents cold-induced damage to sperm motility and acrosomal integrity in the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes).the endangered black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) has benefited from artificial insemination; however, improved sperm cryopreservation protocols are still needed. the present study focused on identifying factors influencing gamete survival during processing before cryopreservation, including: (1) the presence or absence of seminal plasma; (2) temperature (25 degrees c v. 37 degrees c); (3) type of medium (ham's f10 medium v. test yolk buffer [tyb]); (4) cooling rate (slow, rapid and ultra-ra ...200717601413
neoplasia in ferrets: eleven cases with a review.records from a veterinary diagnostic laboratory in south florida, u.s.a. were reviewed for cases of neoplasia in pet ferrets. twelve ferret tumours were received over a four-year period; one case, a ferret with lymphocytic leukaemia and multi-organ involvement, had been reported previously. the other eleven tumours were: two chordomas of the tail, two sebaceous adenomas of the skin, a sebaceous epithelioma of the skin, a cutaneous mastocytoma, a malignant fibrous histiocytoma from the eyelid, a ...19892654203
retention time of chlorophacinone in black-tailed prairie dogs informs secondary hazards from a prairie dog rodenticide bait.secondary toxicity in mammals and birds that consume animals containing residues of anticoagulant rodenticides represents a persistent conflict between conservation, agriculture and environmental contamination. chlorophacinone residues in black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) represent a secondary exposure hazard to predatory and scavenging avian and mammalian species in the central plains of the united states, especially considering efforts to re-establish black-footed ferrets (muste ...201625997570
mortality of captive black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) at smithsonian's national zoological park, ferret (mustela nigripes) mortality was investigated retrospectively based on the pathology records of 107 captive animals held at smithsonian's national zoological park from 1989 to 2004. the majority of deaths in neonates were due to cannibalism (n = 42; 64.6%) and maternal trauma (n = 11; 16.9%); both of these causes of mortality decreased during the study period. prior to 2001, juvenile mortality was most often caused by gastrointestinal disease (n = 11; 52.4%), including coccid ...200717679500
fleas of black-footed ferrets and their potential role in the movement of plague.sylvatic plague is one of the major impediments to the recovery of the black-footed ferret ( mustela nigripes ) because it decimates their primary prey species, prairie dogs ( cynomys spp.), and directly causes mortality in ferrets. fleas are the primary vector of yersinia pestis , the causative agent of sylvatic plague. the goal of this research was to better understand the flea fauna of ferrets and the factors that might influence flea abundance on ferrets. fleas from ferrets were tested for y ...201728384062
challenges in cryopreserving endangered mammal spermatozoa: morphology and the value of acrosomal integrity as markers of cryo-survival.the science of cryobiology is essential to the effective, practical use of semen for assisted breeding to help manage small populations of rare wildlife species. in this review, we describe challenges associated with cryopreserving gametes from wild fauna. based on more than 25 years of experience across a diversity of mammals, it appears that the primary driving force dictating cryo-survival of a spermatozoon is its initial pre-freeze quality and morphology, especially having a morphologically ...200717644982
an unidentified filarial species and its impact on fitness in wild populations of the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes).disease can threaten the restoration of endangered species directly by substantially decreasing host survival or indirectly via incremental decreases in survival and reproduction. during a biomedical survey of reintroduced populations of the highly endangered black-footed ferret from 2002 to 2005, microfilariae discovered in the blood were putatively identified as dirofilaria immitis, and widespread screening was initiated using a commercially available antigen-based elisa test. a subset of anim ...200818263821
fatal vaccine-induced canine distemper virus infection in black-footed ferrets.four black-footed ferrets that were live-trapped in south dakota and transported to the patuxent wildlife research center died within 21 days after vaccination with modified live canine distemper virus. immunofluorescence, european ferret inoculation, virus isolation attempts, and serum-neutralization tests indicated insufficient attenuation of the vaccine for this species.1976988011
reproduction and advances in reproductive studies in carnivores.reproductive mechanisms are extraordinarily diverse among species, even within the same phylogenetic clade. due to this, it has been difficult to directly apply reproductive technologies developed in human and livestock to genetically manage ex situ wildlife, including carnivores. to date, more common, closely related species, e.g., domestic cats, dogs and ferrets have served as valuable models for developing reproductive technologies for managing rare, endangered carnivores. artificial insemina ...201425091912
environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and european mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. we show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environment ...201324282547
benefits of a ball and chain: simple environmental enrichments improve welfare and reproductive success in farmed american mink (neovison vison).can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains) identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. our main experiment started with 2032 black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (e) with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (ne) control. at 8 mo ...201425386726
sylvatic plague vaccine: a new tool for conservation of threatened and endangered species?plague, a disease caused by yersinia pestis introduced into north america about 100 years ago, is devastating to prairie dogs and the highly endangered black-footed ferret. current attempts to control plague in these species have historically relied on insecticidal dusting of prairie dog burrows to kill the fleas that spread the disease. although successful in curtailing outbreaks in most instances, this method of plague control has significant limitations. alternative approaches to plague manag ...201222846964
use of a business excellence model to improve conservation programs.the current shortfall in effectiveness within conservation biology is illustrated by increasing interest in "evidence-based conservation," whose proponents have identified the need to benchmark conservation initiatives against actions that lead to proven positive effects. the effectiveness of conservation policies, approaches, and evaluation is under increasing scrutiny, and in these areas models of excellence used in business could prove valuable. typically, conservation programs require years ...201020825449
epidemiology of neoplasia in captive black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes), 1986-1996.the epidemiology of neoplastic disease was studied retrospectively in the captive population of black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes). postmortem reports were reviewed and archived tissues examined from 184 of the 227 adult (>1 yr old) black-footed ferrets that died from the beginning of the current captive propagation program in late 1985 to the end of 1996. a total of 185 neoplasms, of 28 distinct phenotypes, were seen in 102 (55.4%) of these ferrets. there was more than one tumor type prese ...200212462486
the complete mitochondrial genome of black-footed ferret, mustela nigripes (mustela, mustelinae).in this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black-footed ferret, mustela nigripes, is determined for the first time. this mitogenome is 16,556 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer rna genes, 2 ribosomal rna genes, and 1 control region (d-loop). the overall base composition is a (32.9%), c (26.1%), g (13.8%), and t (27.2%), so the percentage of a and t (60.1%) is higher than that of g and c. most of the genes are encoded on h-strand, except for the nd6 s ...201625208186
ectoparasites in black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) from the largest reintroduced population of the conata basin, south dakota, usa.the black-footed ferret, mustela nigripes, is an endangered carnivore endemic to the grasslands of north america. we present the first investigation of ectoparasites associated with black-footed ferrets since reintroduction. we sampled more than 200 individuals from one of the largest and most successful reintroduced populations located in the conata basin of south dakota, usa. we compared our findings with ectoparasite assemblages of sympatric carnivores and historic ferret records. we collecte ...201424499333
compassionate conservation and the ethics of species research and preservation: hamsters, black-footed ferrets, and a response to rob irvine : comment on "ethics of species research and preservation" by rob irvine. 201324092401
the black-footed ferret: on the brink of recovery?in an attempt to save the species from extinction, the last remaining 18 black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) were trapped up from the wild to initiate a captive breeding program. nearly 30 years later more than 8,000 black-footed ferrets have been produced in captivity and approximately 4,100 animals have been reintroduced into 20 sites in eight us states (arizona, new mexico, utah, colorado, kansas, wyoming, south dakota and montana), mexico and canada. however, full recovery of the species ...201425091909
rapid population growth of a critically endangered carnivore.reintroductions of endangered species are controversial because of high costs and frequent failures. however, the population of black-footed ferrets descended from animals released in shirley basin, wyoming, from 1991 to 1994 has grown rapidly after a decline to a low of five animals in 1997. beginning around 2000, the population grew rapidly to an estimated 223 (95% confidence interval is 192 to 401) individuals in 2006. matrix population modeling shows the importance of survival and reproducti ...200717690288
renal tubular-cell neoplasms in black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes)--38 cases.thirty-eight cases of renal tubular cell neoplasms were diagnosed in 184 captive, adult (>1-year-old), black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) examined from 1985 to 1996. this prevalence (20.7%) is one of the highest reported for this neoplasm in a population of animals. these tumors rarely metastasized (1/38), and usually were incidental postmortem findings, associated clinical disease being present in only 3 (8%) of the 38 cases. the prevalence of renal tubular cell neoplasms found at postmort ...200616672574
resistance to deltamethrin in prairie dog ( cynomys ludovicianus) fleas in the field and in the laboratory.sylvatic plague poses a substantial risk to black-tailed prairie dogs ( cynomys ludovicianus) and their obligate predator, the black-footed ferret ( mustela nigripes). the effects of plague on prairie dogs and ferrets are mitigated using a deltamethrin pulicide dust that reduces the spread of plague by killing fleas, the vector for the plague bacterium. in portions of conata basin, buffalo gap national grassland, and badlands national park, south dakota, us, 0.05% deltamethrin has been infused i ...201829723100
identifying genome-wide immune gene variation underlying infectious disease in wildlife populations - a next generation sequencing approach in the gopher tortoise.infectious disease is the single greatest threat to taxa such as amphibians (chytrid fungus), bats (white nose syndrome), tasmanian devils (devil facial tumor disease), and black-footed ferrets (canine distemper virus, plague). although understanding the genetic basis to disease susceptibility is important for the long-term persistence of these groups, most research has been limited to major-histocompatibility and toll-like receptor genes. to better understand the genetic basis of infectious dis ...201829351737
evaluation of five pulicides to suppress fleas on black-tailed prairie dogs: encouraging long-term results with systemic 0.005% fipronil.plague, a flea-borne disease, hampers efforts to restore populations of black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes), which occupy colonies of prairie dogs (cynomys spp.) in north america. plague is managed by infusing prairie dog burrows with deltadust® 0.05% deltamethrin, a pulicide that kills fleas. experiments are needed to identify pulicides that can be used in rotation with deltadust for integrated plague management. in south dakota, usa, we tested the efficacy of four pulicide dusts when appli ...201930620249
vaccines for conservation: plague, prairie dogs & black-footed ferrets as a case study.the endangered black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) is affected by plague, caused by yersinia pestis, both directly, as a cause of mortality, and indirectly, because of the impacts of plague on its prairie dog (cynomys spp.) prey base. recent developments in vaccines and vaccine delivery have raised the possibility of plague control in prairie dog populations, thereby protecting ferret populations. a large-scale experimental investigation across the western us shows that sylvatic plague vaccin ...201728879613
fatal gastric dilation in two adult black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes).acute gastric dilation resulting in death was identified in two adult black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes) housed at the smithsonian conservation biology institute in front royal, virginia. both individuals were adult males (3 and 5 yr) and previously clinically healthy prior to the event. the etiology of gastric dilation in both cases could not be definitively determined, and necropsy revealed severe cardiovascular compromise secondary to bloat. limited literature is available regarding a sy ...201627010305
implementing the use of a biobank in the endangered black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes).in the current global health climate, many conservation biologists are managing crisis situations, including increased species extinction rates. one strategy for securing wildlife populations into the future is to preserve biomaterials in genome resource banks (grb; or 'biobanks'). however, for grbs to be successful we must understand the fundamental reproductive biology of species, along with developing assisted reproductive techniques (arts), including ai and semen cryopreservation. art has be ...201626953795
spatial interactions between sympatric carnivores: asymmetric avoidance of an intraguild predator.interactions between intraguild species that act as both competitors and predator-prey can be especially complex. we studied patterns of space use by the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes), a prairie dog (cynomys spp.) specialist, and the american badger (taxidea taxus), a larger generalist carnivore that competes for prairie dogs and is known to kill ferrets. we expected that ferrets would spatially avoid badgers because of the risk of predation, that these patterns of avoidance might diffe ...201526306165
effect of dietary vitamin e and prey supplementation on semen quality in male black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes).over the recent years, the captive population of the endangered black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes; ferret) has experienced a decline in normal sperm (ns) morphology (from 50% to 16%), which may be linked to inbreeding depression or it may have been a dietary change. we examined the role of dietary vitamin e, selenium (se), and vitamin a on serum levels of vitamin e, se, and vitamin a and semen quality. ferrets (n = 55 males) were randomly assigned to one of five diet treatments (n = 11 per t ...201525890779
climate change impacts on the conservation outlook of populations on the poleward periphery of species ranges: a case study of canadian black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus).given climate change, species' climatically suitable habitats are increasingly expected to shift poleward. some imperilled populations towards the poleward edge of their species' range might therefore conceivably benefit from climate change. interactions between climate and population dynamics may be complex, however, with climate exerting effects both indirectly via influence over food availability and more directly, via effects on physiology and its implications for survival and reproduction. ...201728976626
morphological and molecular characterisation of eimeria vison-like oocysts (apicomplexa:eimeriidae) in farmed mink (neovison vison) in denmark.a survey was conducted on 30 danish mink farms from april to october 2016 to determine the prevalence and species of eimeria in danish farmed mink. in total, 2.6% of mink faecal samples (108/4140) were positive for eimeria vison-like oocysts by microscopy, with 24.8% (78/315) of mink being positive at least once during the study period. morphological analysis of sporulated oocysts (n = 20) identified eimeria vison-like oocysts measuring 21.0 × 13.8 μm with a length/width (l/w) ratio of 1.5. phyl ...201830003331
plague management of prairie dog colonies: degree and duration of deltamethrin flea control.plague is a flea-borne disease of mammalian hosts. on the grasslands of western north america, plague stifles populations of cynomys spp. prairie dogs (pds). to manage plague, pd burrows are treated with 0.05% deltamethrin dust that can suppress flea numbers and plague transmission. here, we evaluate the degree and duration of deltamethrin flea control with three pd species at six sites across four u.s. states. data were simultaneously collected at paired plots. burrows from one randomly assigne ...201931124240
long-term preservation of testicular tissue integrity and viability using vitrification in the endangered black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes).systematic cryo-banking of semen and testicular tissues is critical to preserve the genetic value of recently deceased or neutered black-footed ferrets (bffs). specifically, recovering or producing mature sperm cells from vitrified-warmed issues offers additional options in assisted reproduction. this could, in turn, enhance the genetic management of this rare and endangered species over multiple generations. the objective of the study was to evaluate structural properties, dna fragmentation, ce ...202033066219
influence of vitamin e and carcass feeding supplementation on fecal glucocorticoid and androgen metabolites in male black-footed ferrets (mustela nigripes).in recent years, the ex situ population of the endangered black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes; ferret) has experienced a decline in normal sperm morphology (from 50% to 20%), which may be linked to inbreeding depression and/or a dietary change. we examined the effects of adding carcass and vitamin e to the diet on stress and reproductive biomarkers in male ferrets (n = 42 males including 16 juveniles and 26 adults) housed at the u.s. fish and wildlife national black-footed ferret conservation ...202033095820
a comparison of sevoflurane and isoflurane for short-term anesthesia in polecats (mustela eversmanni).twenty-four siberian polecats (mustela eversmanni) from 12 litters were anesthetized with either inhaled sevoflurane or isoflurane. with 7% delivered sevoflurane and 5% delivered isoflurane, time to loss of righting reflex (mean +/- se) with sevoflurane (1.9 +/- 0.1 min) was significantly shorter compared with isoflurane (2.6 +/- 0.1 min). during maintenance at a light plane of anesthesia, systolic arterial pressure was significantly higher with sevoflurane (83 +/- 2 mm hg) compared with isoflur ...19979365939
urethral catheterization as an alternative method for collecting sperm in the black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes).the endangered black-footed ferret (bff; mustela nigripes) is an important example of the benefits of assisted reproduction in species conservation with both semen evaluation and artificial insemination using fresh and frozen sperm being successfully incorporated into the breeding program. currently, electroejaculation (ee) is routinely utilized for semen collection in bffs, a technique that requires custom equipment and experienced operators, and does not consistently yield viable samples in th ...202032864136
burrow dusting or oral vaccination prevents plague-associated prairie dog colony collapse.plague impacts prairie dogs (cynomys spp.), the endangered black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) and other sensitive wildlife species. we compared efficacy of prophylactic treatments (burrow dusting with deltamethrin or oral vaccination with recombinant "sylvatic plague vaccine" [rcn-f1/v307]) to placebo treatment in black-tailed prairie dog (c. ludovicianus) colonies. between 2013 and 2015, we measured prairie dog apparent survival, burrow activity and flea abundance on triplicate plots ("bloc ...201728643090
impact of sylvatic plague vaccine on non-target small rodents in grassland ecosystems.oral vaccination is an emerging management strategy to reduce the prevalence of high impact infectious diseases within wild animal populations. plague is a flea-borne zoonosis of rodents that often decimates prairie dog (cynomys spp.) colonies in the western usa. recently, an oral sylvatic plague vaccine (spv) was developed to protect prairie dogs from plague and aid recovery of the endangered black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes). although oral vaccination programs are targeted toward specific ...201829744628
encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in a black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) kit.a 47-day-old black-footed ferret (mustela nigripes) kit was found dead in june 2016. histologic examination revealed pyogranulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis, pneumonia, and encephalitis, with intralesional microsporidia. transmission electron microscopic examination showed microsporidia with ultrastructural characteristics consistent with encephalitozoon spp. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and direct sequencing confirmed the presence of encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype ii. this organism ...201931260221
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