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duck plague: a carrier state in waterfowl.healthy waterfowl were found to be carriers of duck plague (dp) virus. black ducks (anas rubripes) and canada geese (branta canadensis) surviving a natural outbreak of dp at coloma, wisconsin, in 1973 yielded dp virus in cloacal swabs taken four years postinfection. experimental infection of previously unexposed mallard ducks (anas platyrhynochos) with the coloma strain of dp virus co-wi (73) also produced cloacal virus shedding for up to four years after infection. a second dp virus strain, la- ...1979232659
[structure and blood supply of the heart valves of several domestic and wild birds].by means of a complex technique some structural and blood supply peculiarities of the valve apparatus have been studied in 118 hearts of 8 representatives of domestic (anser domesticus, anas domestica) and wild (cygnus olor, cygnus sygnus, chenopsis atrata, anser anser, anas platyrhynchos, anas strepera) waterfowls. the investigations have demonstrated that in all the waterfowl studied the right atrioventricular ostia have only one cusp consisting mainly of transversal-striated muscular fibers. ...1978718435
avian paramyxoviruses from migrating and resident ducks in coastal louisiana.cloacal and tracheal swabs were collected from 1,409 hunter-killed ducks in cameron parish, louisiana, during the 1986 and 1987 waterfowl seasons. thirty avian paramyxoviruses (pmv's) were isolated from 605 blue-winged teal (anas discors), 75 mottled ducks (a. fulvigula), 375 gadwalls (a. strepera), 334 green-winged teal (a. crecca), and 20 mallards (a. platyrhynchos). prevalence of pmv decreased (p = 0.042) from september (4%) through november (2%) to december and january (1%). juveniles had a ...19912023311
avian influenza viruses from migratory and resident ducks of coastal louisiana.cloacal and tracheal swabs were collected from 1389 hunter-killed ducks in cameron parish, louisiana, during the 1986 and 1987 waterfowl seasons. twenty-eight avian influenza viruses (aivs) were isolated from 605 blue-winged teal (anas discors), 75 mottled ducks (a. fulvigula), 375 gadwalls (a. stepera) and 334 green-winged teal (a. crecca). prevalence estimates of aiv in ducks sampled during september, november, and december through january were 3.1%, 2.0%, and 0.4%, respectively. differences i ...19902369380
gastrointestinal helminths of the mexican duck, anas platyrhynchos diazi ridgway, from north central mexico and southwestern united states.twenty-five species of helminths, recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of 129 mexican ducks from mexico and the united states, were all new host records. the species included: echinoparyphium recurvatum, echinostoma revolutum, hypoderaeum conoideum, notocotylus attenuatus, prosthogonimus cuneatus, zygocotyle lunata, anomotaenia ciliata, cloacotaenia megalops, diorchis bulbodes, diorchis sp., drepanidotaenia lanceolata, echinocotyle rosseteri, fimbriaria fasciolaris, fimbriarioides sp., hym ...19863951061
the occurrence of mycoplasmas in selected wild north american waterfowl.we determined the prevalence of mycoplasma infection in breeding mallard (anas platyrhynchos) and canvasback (aythya valisineria) hens and their broods from the central united states (1988 to 1990); and wintering american black duck (anas rubripes) and mallard hens from the eastern united states (1990 to 1993). mycoplasmas were isolated by culturing tracheal swabs from 656 live birds and tissue samples from 112 dead waterfowl. nine (18%) of 51 mycoplasma isolates were identified as mycoplasma an ...19958592358
virulence of six strains of duck plague virus in eight waterfowl species.susceptibility of new world waterfowl to the lake andes strain of duck plague virus (dpv) was assessed by intramuscular inoculation of adult muscovies (cairina moschata), mallards (anas platyrhynchos), canada geese (branta canadensis), wood ducks (aix sponsa), redheads (aythya americana), gadwalls (anas strepera), blue-winged teal (anas discors), and pintails (anas acuta). the relative virulence of dpv strains isolated from five united states and one canadian location was established in muscovie ...19968827671
[complex environmental and virological monitoring in the primorye territory in 2003-2006].the paper presents the results of monitoring of viruses of western nile (wn), japanese encephalitis (je), tick-borne encephalitis (tbe), geta, influenza a, as well as avian paramicroviruses type i (virus of newcastle disease (nd)) and type 6 (apmv-6) in the primorye territory in 2003-2006. totally throughout the period, specific antibodies to the viruses were detected by neutralization test in wild birds (7.3%, wn; 8.0%, geta; 0.7% batai; 2.8%, alpine hare (lepus timidus); by hemagglutination-in ...200718041224
wild ducks as long-distance vectors of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (h5n1).wild birds have been implicated in the expansion of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (h5n1) outbreaks across asia, the middle east, europe, and africa (in addition to traditional transmission by infected poultry, contaminated equipment, and people). such a role would require wild birds to excrete virus in the absence of debilitating disease. by experimentally infecting wild ducks, we found that tufted ducks, eurasian pochards, and mallards excreted significantly more virus than common tea ...200818394278
avian influenza in wild waterfowl and shorebirds in the donana national park: serological survey using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the indirect elisa was used to detect antibodies to influenzavirus a in the sera of wildfowl from the donana national park. of the 712 birds examined, 44 (6.2%) were seropositive. positive birds belonged to 10 of the 13 species studied. infection rates varied widely: spoonbill (platalea leucorodia, 32.2%), mallard (anas platyrhynchos, 9.9%), gadwall (anas strepera, 8.6%), red-crested pochard (netta rufina, 8.1%), pochard (aythya ferina, 6.4%), shoveler (anas clypeata, 5%), great crested grebe (p ...199418671098
taxonomic structure of digenea in wild ducks (anatinae) from west pomerania.parasitic fauna of birds connected with water environment, including digeneans, is relatively well researched in poland. the exception, however, is west pomerania, where those birds were not frequent objects of parasitological research until recently. the purpose of this work is to determine the taxonomic structure of the digenea, parasitising wild ducks living in west pomerania. the research material was 124 individuals of wild anatinae (anseriformes) belonging to 8 species: anas strepera, a. c ...200818702318
influenza a viruses in wild birds of the pacific flyway, 2005-2008.avian influenza viruses (aivs) pose a significant threat to public health, and viral subtypes circulating in natural avian reservoirs can contribute to the emergence of pathogenic influenza viruses in humans. we investigated the prevalence and distribution of aivs in 8826 migratory and resident wild birds in north america along the pacific flyway, which is a major north-south migration pathway that overlaps with four other flyways in alaska providing opportunities for mixing of eurasian and amer ...201020059316
mercury concentration in the feathers of birds from various trophic levels in fereydunkenar international wetland (iran).mercury (hg) is one of the main global pollutants that may biomagnify in food nets, especially in wetlands. birds may be useful in the biomonitoring of hg in such habitats and may even serve in vivo samples. this paper examined hg concentration in the feathers of seven bird species foraging on fereydunkenar international wetland (in 2013). mean hg concentrations found ranged from 0.005 ± 0.002 μg g(-1) d.w. (dry weight) (common hoopoe) to 0.38 ± 0.047 μg g(-1) d.w. (greylag goose). significant d ...201627838877
organochlorine insecticide residues in ducklings and their dilution by growth.residues of ddt, ddd, dde, and dieldrin in 7 species of ducklings from alberta, canada, were measured. levels of ddt and metabolites ranged from 0 to 36.48 ppm in fat of 96% of the birds and from 0 to 0.97 ppm im muscle from 67% of the birds. residue levels of dieldrin ranged from 0 to 2.62 ppm in fat and from 0 to 0.11 ppm in muscle of 43 and 19% of the birds, respectively. growth dilution was considered to be the most significant factor in reducing the insecticide residue levels in the ducklin ...1976963316
geographical gradients in the population dynamics of north american prairie ducks.1. geographic gradients in population dynamics may occur because of spatial variation in resources that affect the deterministic components of the dynamics (i.e. carrying capacity, the specific growth rate at small densities or the strength of density regulation) or because of spatial variation in the effects of environmental stochasticity. to evaluate these, we used a hierarchical bayesian approach to estimate parameters characterizing deterministic components and stochastic influences on popul ...200818631261
multilocus phylogeography of a holarctic duck: colonization of north america from eurasia by gadwall (anas strepera).more than 100 species of birds have holarctic distributions extending across eurasia and north america, and many of them likely achieved these distributions by recently colonizing one continent from the other. mitochondrial dna (mtdna) and five nuclear introns were sequenced to test the direction and timing of colonization for a holarctic duck, the gadwall (anas strepera). three lines of evidence suggest gadwalls colonized north america from eurasia. first, new world (nw) gadwalls had fewer alle ...200818346221
heterogeneity in genetic diversity among non-coding loci fails to fit neutral coalescent models of population history.inferring aspects of the population histories of species using coalescent analyses of non-coding nuclear dna has grown in popularity. these inferences, such as divergence, gene flow, and changes in population size, assume that genetic data reflect simple population histories and neutral evolutionary processes. however, violating model assumptions can result in a poor fit between empirical data and the models. we sampled 22 nuclear intron sequences from at least 19 different chromosomes (a genomi ...201222384117
winter waterbird community composition and use at created wetlands in west virginia, usa.information on nonbreeding waterbirds using created wetlands in the central appalachian region of the united states is limited. we compared waterbird communities of two managed wetlands, created in 2013 and 2001, in west virginia. we observed 27 species of waterbirds. species richness and diversity were generally similar between the wetlands, but species composition and use differed. branta canadensis (canada geese), anas strepera (gadwall), bucephala albeola (buffleheads), aythya affinis (lesse ...201728386513
integrative taxonomy of central european parasitic flatworms of the family prosthogonimidae lühe, 1909 (trematoda: plagiorchiida).species of the family prosthogonimidae are considered the most pathogenic poultry trematodes worldwide, affecting particularly low intensity farming in rural areas. adults of prosthogonimus occur mainly in the bursa of fabricius, oviduct and cloaca of ducks, geese, fowl and other birds feeding at least occasionally on dragonflies or damselflies (odonata). we analyzed the central european species of the prosthogonimidae, namely prosthogonimus cuneatus, prosthogonimus ovatus, prosthogonimus pelluc ...201525724855
organic pollutants in wild ducks from new york state: i. interspecies differences in concentrations and congener profiles of pcbs and pcdds/pcdfs.wild ducks of three species, common mergansers (mergus merganser americanus), gadwalls (anas streptera), and mallards (anas platyrhynchos), were collected near industrial sites in the massena, ny area of the st. lawrence river (slr) in 1988/89 and 1994. additional samples were collected in 1994 near a former polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) capacitor plant at fort edward, ny (a mallard and two wood ducks (aix sponsa)), and at control sites (common mergansers, mallards and wood ducks). on a lipid b ...200616290188
[low genetic differentiation and close evolutionary connection between anas platyrhynchos and anas poecilorhyncha: data from rapd-pcr analysis].using rapd-pcr, we examined genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in two groups of river ducks: anas platyrhynchos, a. poecilorhyncha, a. strepera and a. crecca, a. formosa, a. querquedula. molecular taxon-specific markers were found for teals (a. crecca, a. formosa, a. querquedula) and gadwall (a. strepera). each of the species examined was shown to exhibit high genetic diversity. the mean levels of intraspecific genetic polymorphism in the groups of mallards (p = 77%) and teals (p = ...200314658340
nuclear loci and coalescent methods support ancient hybridization as cause of mitochondrial paraphyly between gadwall and falcated duck (anas spp.).many species have mitochondrial dna lineages that are phylogenetically intermixed with other species, but studies have rarely tested the cause of such paraphyly. in this study, we tested two hypotheses that could explain mitochondrial paraphyly of holarctic gadwalls (anas strepera) with respect to asian falcated ducks (a. falcata). first, hybridization could have resulted in falcated duck mitochondrial dna (mtdna) introgressing into the gadwall gene pool. second, gadwalls and falcated ducks coul ...200717683440
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