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avian pox infection in an american green-winged teal (anas crecca carolinensis) in alaska.poxvirus infection was diagnosed on the basis of gross and microscopic appearance plus the presence of typical inclusion bodies in a juvenile american green-winged teal (anas crecca carolinensis) in alaska. this constitutes the first known report of avian pox in migratory ducks and the first report of poxvirus infection in wild birds in alaska.1979228090
the opossum (didelphis virginiana) as a host for sarcocystis debonei from cowbirds (molothrus ater) and grackles (cassidix mexicanus, quiscalus quiscula).sarcocystis-infected muscles from ducks, cowbirds, and grackles were fed to cats, opossums, rats, and a dog. only the opossum (didelphis virginiana) was a suitable definitive host. all opossums that were fed sarcocystis-infected cowbirds (molothrus ater) and grackles (cassidix mexicanus and quiscalus quiscula) passed sporocysts in their feces. opossums that ate the cowbirds had prepatent periods of 5 and 10 days and remained patent for at least 105 days. opossums that ate the grackles became pat ...1978417165
hematozoa of the anatidae of the atlantic flyway. ii. tthe maritime provinces of canada.the prevalence of hematozoa (diagnosed from blood films) in a sample of 4200 anatids representing 14 species collected in new brunswick, nova scotia and prince edward island during the period 1969-1973 is given. thirty percent of the birds harboured hematozoa; the commonest blood parasite was haemoproteus (parahaemoproteus) nettionis (in 18% of the sample), followed by leucocytozoom simondi (in 14% of the sample). four species of plasmodium occurred in 5% of the sample-plasmodium circumflexum wa ...1975806712
avian paramyxoviruses from migrating and resident ducks in coastal louisiana.cloacal and tracheal swabs were collected from 1,409 hunter-killed ducks in cameron parish, louisiana, during the 1986 and 1987 waterfowl seasons. thirty avian paramyxoviruses (pmv's) were isolated from 605 blue-winged teal (anas discors), 75 mottled ducks (a. fulvigula), 375 gadwalls (a. strepera), 334 green-winged teal (a. crecca), and 20 mallards (a. platyrhynchos). prevalence of pmv decreased (p = 0.042) from september (4%) through november (2%) to december and january (1%). juveniles had a ...19912023311
avian influenza viruses from migratory and resident ducks of coastal louisiana.cloacal and tracheal swabs were collected from 1389 hunter-killed ducks in cameron parish, louisiana, during the 1986 and 1987 waterfowl seasons. twenty-eight avian influenza viruses (aivs) were isolated from 605 blue-winged teal (anas discors), 75 mottled ducks (a. fulvigula), 375 gadwalls (a. stepera) and 334 green-winged teal (a. crecca). prevalence estimates of aiv in ducks sampled during september, november, and december through january were 3.1%, 2.0%, and 0.4%, respectively. differences i ...19902369380
migratory birds of central washington as reservoirs of campylobacter jejuni.migratory ducks, canada geese, and sandhill crane from the pacific north american flyway have been screened for campylobacter spp. samples (298) from these birds were examined and the incidence of campylobacter spp. in the samples were as follows: sandhill crane (grus canadensis tabida), 81%; ducks (aythya collaris, anas carolinensis, aythya americana, and anas platyrhynchos), 73%; and canada geese (branta canadensis), 5%. all isolates were identified as campylobacter jejuni. to our knowledge th ...19883378202
gastrointestinal helminths of the mexican duck, anas platyrhynchos diazi ridgway, from north central mexico and southwestern united states.twenty-five species of helminths, recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of 129 mexican ducks from mexico and the united states, were all new host records. the species included: echinoparyphium recurvatum, echinostoma revolutum, hypoderaeum conoideum, notocotylus attenuatus, prosthogonimus cuneatus, zygocotyle lunata, anomotaenia ciliata, cloacotaenia megalops, diorchis bulbodes, diorchis sp., drepanidotaenia lanceolata, echinocotyle rosseteri, fimbriaria fasciolaris, fimbriarioides sp., hym ...19863951061
parasites of waterfowl, from southwest texas: iii. the green-winged teal, anas crecca.seventy of 72 green-winged teal, anas crecca, from southwest texas were infected with parasites. seventeen species of endoparasites were recorded: notocotylus attenuatus, zygocotyle lunata, typhlocoelum sisowi, echinostoma revolutum, hypoderaeum conoideum, dendritobilharzia pulverulenta, cloacotaenia megalops, sobolevicanthus gracilis, sobolevicanthus krabbeella, gastrotaenia cygni, amidostomum acutum, amidostomum anseris, tetrameres crami, echinuria uncinata, corynosoma constrictum, polymorphus ...19816788963
trichobilharzia physellae (digenea: schistosomatidae) from endemic waterfowl on the high plains of texas.adult trichobilharzia physellae were recovered from the liver and mesenteric veins of green-winged teal, anas creca, blue-winged teal, a. discors, and pintail, a. acuta, breeding on the high plains of texas. wild ducks naturally-infected with these schistosomes were emaciated with mild to severe atrophy of the breast musculature. the liver was considerably enlarged, pale and somewhat friable. numerous viable and dead t. physellae were recovered from the cut surface. on histologic examination, vi ...19827097873
helminth fauna of waterfowl in central oklahoma.free-ranging waterfowl wintering in and migrating through central oklahoma were collected and examined for intestinal helminths. seventy-one ducks, including mallards (anas platyrhynchos), american widgeons (anas americana), blue-winged teal (anas discors), and green-winged teal (anas crecca) were examined; 64 (90.1%) harbored one or more species of metazoa. six cestodes, 6 trematodes, 6 nematodes, and 1 acanthocephalan were identified, an experimental, non-flying population of ducks was establi ...19807373725
effects of contaminants in dredge material from the lower savannah river.contaminants entering aquatic systems from agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities are generally sequestered in bottom sediments. the environmental significance of contaminants associated with sediments dredged from savannah harbor, georgia, usa, are unknown. to evaluate potential effects of contaminants in river sediments and sediments dredged and stored in upland disposal areas on fish and wildlife species, solid-phase sediment and sediment pore water from front river, back river, a ...200010556380
efficacy of a type c botulism vaccine in green-winged teal.we tested the efficacy of a single dose of botumink toxoid for protecting wild green-winged teal (anas crecca) during botulism epizootics caused by clostridium botulinum type c. we challenged control and immunized ducks with four different doses of type c botulinum toxin to determine the ld50 for this species and to evaluate vaccine protection. fewer immunized ducks were affected with botulism than control ducks, indicating that a single dose of botumink toxoid could increase the survival of duc ...200010941734
impacts of disturbance from construction work on the densities and feeding behavior of waterbirds using the intertidal mudflats of cardiff bay, uk.the impact of disturbance from construction work around cardiff bay, south wales, on the densities and feeding behavior of seven waterbird species was studied over an 11-year period. construction of a barrage across the mouth of the bay has subsequently resulted in its impoundment; other major works included the construction of a bridge carrying a divided highway. construction work disturbance significantly reduced the densities of five species--green-winged teal (anas crecca), eurasian oysterca ...200212402100
avian influenza surveillance in hunter-harvested waterfowl from the gulf coast of texas (november 2005-january 2006).the objectives of our study were to determine prevalence of avian influenza viruses (aiv) on wintering grounds on the texas gulf coast, usa, and to compare real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rrt-pcr) and virus isolation for detection of aiv in cloacal swabs from wild waterfowl. cloacal swabs were collected from hunter-harvested waterfowl from november 2005 to january 2006 at four wildlife management areas. seven aiv were isolated from four species of ducks: green-winged t ...200818436675
trace element concentrations in wintering waterfowl from the great salt lake, utah.the great salt lake (gsl) is an important region for millions of migratory waterbirds. however, high concentrations of some trace elements, including hg and se, have been detected within the gsl, and baseline ecotoxicological data are lacking for avian species in this system. we collected common goldeneye (bucephala clangula), northern shoveler (anas clypeata), and green-winged teal (a. crecca) from the gsl during the winters of 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 to evaluate sources of variation in liver t ...200918560923
characterization of h5n1 influenza a viruses isolated from domestic green-winged teal.two avian influenza virus strains, a/domestic green-winged teal/hunan/67/2005 (h5n1) (d-gwt/67) and a/domestic green-winged teal/hunan/79/2005 (h5n1) (d-gwt/79), were isolated from healthy domestic green-winged teals (anas crecca) in hunan province, south china. genomic analysis showed that both isolates were reassortants. the hemagglutinin (ha) genes of the two isolates were closely related to that of an h5n1 strain isolated from tree sparrow (a/tree sparrow/henan/1/04). the neuraminidase (na) ...200918825495
phylogenetic analysis of newcastle disease viruses isolated from waterfowl in the upper midwest region of the united states.this study was conducted to characterize newcastle disease virus (ndv) isolates obtained from waterfowl from the upper midwest region of the united states. a total of 43 ndvs were isolated by inoculation of cloacal samples in embryonated chicken eggs. these isolates were obtained from 24 mallards, seven american green-winged teals, six northern pintails, four blue-winged teals, and two wood ducks. partial sequences of fusion gene were analyzed to determine the pathotypes and genotypes involved.200919891788
mx gene diversity and influenza association among five wild dabbling duck species (anas spp.) in alaska.mx (myxovirus-resistant) proteins are induced by interferon and inhibit viral replication as part of the innate immune response to viral infection in many vertebrates. influenza a virus appears to be especially susceptible to mx antiviral effects. we characterized exon 13 and the 3' utr of the mx gene in wild ducks, the natural reservoir of influenza virus and explored its potential relevance to influenza infection. we observed a wide range of intra- and interspecies variations. total nucleotide ...201020621205
ingestion of lead and nontoxic shot by green-winged teal (anas crecca) and northern shovelers (anas clypeata) from the mid-gulf coast of texas, usa.ninety-eight green-winged teal (anas crecca) and 84 northern shoveler (anas clypeata) gizzards were examined for ingested shot. one northern shoveler had lead and three had steel shot; 24 teal and 17 shovelers had composite nontoxic shot or nonlead metal fragments. prevalence of ingested lead appears minimal and consistent with other studies conducted after lead-shot bans.201121719854
interspecies transmission and limited persistence of low pathogenic avian influenza genomes among alaska dabbling ducks.the reassortment and geographic distribution of low pathogenic avian influenza (lpai) virus genes are well documented, but little is known about the persistence of intact lpai genomes among species and locations. to examine persistence of entire lpai genome constellations in alaska, we calculated the genetic identities among 161 full-genome lpai viruses isolated across 4 years from five species of duck: northern pintail (anas acuta), mallard (anas platyrhynchos), american green-winged teal (anas ...201121964597
genetic characterization of a rare h12n3 avian influenza virus isolated from a green-winged teal in japan.this study reports on the genetic characterization of an avian influenza virus, subtype h12n3, isolated from an eurasian green-winged teal (anas crecca) in japan in 2009. the entire genome sequence of the isolate was analyzed, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to characterize the evolutionary history of the isolate. phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes indicated that the virus belonged to the eurasian-like avian lineage. molecular dating indicated that this h ...201525557930
complete genome sequence of a novel reassortant h3n6 avian influenza virus isolated from domestic green-winged teal.an avian influenza virus strain, a/domestic green-winged teal/hunan/2036/2007(h3n6) (dgw-t2036), was isolated from healthy domestic green-winged teals (anas crecca) in hunan province, south china. all eight gene segments of the isolate were sequenced. genomic analysis demonstrated that this h3n6 virus is a novel reassortant avian influenza virus with a gene constellation originating from multiple ancestors.201323682150
identification of type a influenza viruses from wild birds on the delmarva peninsula, 2007-10.wild waterfowl and shorebirds in the delaware-maryland-virginia (delmarva) peninsula region within the atlantic flyway were sampled as part of the early detection of highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza (ai) in wild migratory birds program. the u.s. department of agriculture (usda) and state wildlife agencies submitted 7858 samples for ai virus (aiv) testing by real-time reverse transcription pcr (rrt-pcr) to the university of delaware poultry health system from april 2007 to march 2011. virus ...201728301233
surveillance of avian influenza viruses in migratory birds in egypt, 2003-09.migratory (particularly aquatic) birds are the major natural reservoirs for type a influenza viruses. however, their role in transmitting highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) viruses is unclear. egypt is a "funnel" zone of wild bird migration pathways from central asia and europe to eastern and central africa ending in south africa. we sought to detect and isolate avian influenza viruses in migratory birds in egypt. during september 2003-february 2009, the us naval medical research unit numb ...201222740532
identification of migratory bird flyways in north america using community detection on biological networks.migratory behavior of waterfowl populations in north america has traditionally been broadly characterized by four north-south flyways, and these flyways have been central to the management of waterfowl populations for more than 80 yr. however, previous flyway characterizations are not easily updated with current bird movement data and fail to provide assessments of the importance of specific geographical regions to the identification of flyways. here, we developed a network model of migratory mo ...201627411247
genetic characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza a h5n8 viruses isolated from wild birds in egypt.a newly emerged h5n8 influenza virus was isolated from green-winged teal in egypt during december 2016. in this study, we provide a detailed characterization of full genomes of egyptian h5n8 viruses and some virological features. genetic analysis demonstrated that the egyptian h5n8 viruses are highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. phylogenetic analysis revealed that the genome of the egyptian h5n8 viruses was related to recently characterized reassortant h5n8 viruses of clade 2.3.4.4 isolat ...201728721841
mercury and selenium in livers of waterfowl harvested in northern canada.total mercury and selenium were measured in livers of green-winged teal, northern pintails, buffleheads, king eiders, barrow's and common goldeneyes, surf and white-winged scoters collected from 12 sites across northern canada between 1988 and 1994. hepatic mercury concentrations were <1.0 mg x kg(-1) ww in 80% of the birds analyzed. mercury levels did not vary much among species, with green-winged teal, northern pintails, and white-winged scoters, in particular, generally having quite low level ...200616170446
a parapatric propensity for breeding precludes the completion of speciation in common teal (anas crecca, sensu lato).speciation is a process in which genetic drift and selection cause divergence over time. however, there is no rule dictating the time required for speciation, and even low levels of gene flow hinder divergence, so that taxa may be poised at the threshold of speciation for long periods of evolutionary time. we sequenced mitochondrial dna (mtdna) and eight nuclear introns (nudna) to estimate genomic levels of differentiation and gene flow between the eurasian common teal (anas crecca crecca) and t ...201222849532
heteropatric speciation in a duck, anas crecca.heteropatric differentiation is a mode of speciation with gene flow in which divergence occurs between lineages that are in sympatry and allopatry at different times during cyclic spatial movements. empirical evidence suggests that heteropatric differentiation may prove to be common among seasonally migratory organisms. we examined genetic differentiation between the sedentary aleutian islands population of green-winged teal (anas crecca-nimia) and its close migratory relative, the eurasian, or ...201324102809
avian influenza virus prevalence in migratory waterfowl in the united states, 2007-2009.we analyzed 155,535 samples collected for surveillance of avian influenza viruses (aivs), in the united states from 2007 to 2009, from migratory waterfowl (ducks, geese, and swans). the goal was to elucidate patterns of prevalence by flyway and functional groups to determine targets for future surveillance. apparent prevalence of aiv was highest in the pacific flyway in 2007-2008 (14.2% and 14.1%, respectively), in the mississippi flyway in 2009 (16.8%), and lowest each year in the atlantic flyw ...201425618997
gastrointestinal helminthes of green-winged teal (anas crecca) from north iran.to determine the helminth parasites of anas crecca (a. crecca) in one of proper refuges of iran, fereydunkenar.201425183069
genome sequence of a reassortant h5n1 avian influenza virus isolated from domestic green-winged teal.an avian influenza virus strain, a/domestic green-winged teal/hunan/3450/2006(h5n1) (dgw-t3450), was isolated from domestic green-winged teals. genome analysis demonstrated that dgw-t3450 is a novel reassortant strain. the hemagglutinin (ha) and neuraminidase (na) genes of this strain originated from h5n1 viruses circulating in poultry, while its remaining genes are derived from multiple ancestors, including viruses like those that infect wild birds.201323950136
novel h5 clade 2.3.4.4 reassortant (h5n1) virus from a green-winged teal in washington, usa.eurasian (ea)-origin h5n8 clade 2.3.4.4 avian influenza viruses were first detected in north america during december 2014. subsequent reassortment with north american (am) low-pathogenic wild-bird-origin avian influenza has generated at least two reassortants, including an ea/am h5n1 from an apparently healthy wild green-winged teal, suggesting continued ongoing reassortment.201525838478
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