hematotropic parasites of translocated raccoons in the southeast.ninety-four raccoons (procyon lotor) from 6 southeastern states were examined for hematotropic parasites, to evaluate the carrier potential of these animals as they relate to translocation and release for hunting purposes. four species of hematotropic parasites were identified, viz, babesia procyonis, haemobartonella procyoni, hepatozoon procyonis, and trypanosoma cruzi. lesions in infected raccoons were associated only with h procyonis. babesia procyonis was enzootic in populations of raccoons ...1978104938
[additional observations to the biology of hepatozoon erhardovae krampitz 1964 in bank voles from the south-western styria and from areas around the neusiedlersee (burgenland) (author's transl)].the incidence of hepatozoon erhardovae in the blood of bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) captured in the investigated areas is examined. the biology of schizonts, their distribution in the lobes of the lung and the further development of natural infections in vertebrate hosts kept strictly free of ectoparasites are observed. the accumulation of gametocytes in larvae of the tick ixodes ricinus and of the mite neotrombicula zachvatkini after sucking on strongly infected bank voles is pointed ou ...1977413270
[the importance of laelaps agilis c.l. koch 1836 (mesostigmata: parasitiformae) as a vector of hepatozoon sylvatici coles 1914 (sporozoa: haemogregarinidae) (author's transl)].the importance of the mite laelaps agilis (parasitiformae) for the transmission of the hepatozoon species living in the blood of apodemus sylvaticus and apodemus flavicollis (hepatozoon sylvatici) is examined. with this mite the experimental transfer of the parasite to bred hosts of the same species was successful five times; for once, the transmission to a non-specific host (clethrionomys glareolus) was also possible. besides, an eventual stimulating effect emanating from the gonads of female m ...1977413271
naturally occurring hepatozoonosis in a coyote.schizonts of hepatozoon sp. were found in the myocardium of an adult cyote (canis latrans) collected from the aransas national wildlife refuge, austwell, texas. this constitutes the first time hepatozoonosis has been recorded in canidae in the western hemisphere.1978650792
hepatozoon canis infection in dogs: clinical, radiographic, and hematologic findings.hepatozoon canis gametocytes were identified in circulating neutrophils of 3 dogs from different parts of texas. clinical signs included intermittent fever, stiffness, and inappetence. the dogs had marked neutrophilic leukocytosis (35,000--51,000/mm3). parasitemia varied from less than 1% to 60% of the circulating neutrophils. two of the dogs had periosteal new born reaction on the vertebrae, ilia, ribs, and bones of the limbs proximal to the carpus and tarsus. there was no evidence that specifi ...1978721677
[protozoa of small mammals in the neusiedlersee region].during the years 1975 and 1976, 169 mammals (26 species) were investigated for their parasites. it was possible to recognise 33 different species of protozoans, belonging to the following genera: trypanosoma, giardia, hexamita, entamoeba, eimeria, isospora, toxoplasma frenkelia, hepatozoon, babesia, balantidium, pneumocytis, grahamella, eperythrozoon.--epidemiology and eventual pathogenic effects are briefly discussed.1978727554
dna synthesis, reduction, and elimination during life cycles of the eimeriine cocidian, eimeria tenella and the haemogregarine, hepatozoon domeruei. 1975809292
hepatozoon sp. infection in mink from southwestern ontario.schizonts of hepatozoon sp. were found in the lungs of 10 of 18 (56%) mink (mustela vison). schizonts were located in microgranulomas within the pulmonary parenchyma, occasionally in peribronchiolar or perivascular sites.1975811814
[evolution cycle of hepatozoon triatomae (sporozoa, haemogregarinidae) parasite of triatominea]. 1975814611
hepatozoon griseisciuri infection in gray squirrels of the southeastern united states.blood films and selected tissue sections from 270 gray squirrels (sciurus carolinensis) from 18 sites in 11 southeastern states were examined for hepatozoan griseisciuri. this parasite was found in 110 (41%) squirrels from 17 of the 18 sites. data suggested transmission of the parasite apparently occurs throughout the year and increases from spring to late summer. the infection was more prevalent in subadults and adults than in juveniles. schizogonic stages were found only in the lungs, suggesti ...1976815571
observations on naturally acquired hepatozoonosis of wild carnivores and dogs in the republic of south africa.hepatozoonosis was studied in hyaenas, lions, jackals, cheetahs and one leopard in the kruger national park and compared with the condition seen in dogs in the republic of south africa. hepatozoon schizonts were found in the wild carnivores. the genesis of microschizonts was followed and is illustrated. the schizonts were sometimes very plentiful in the lung, myocardium and skeletal muscle, and were also encountered in the spleen, liver and lymph nodes. gametocytes were present in leucocytes. th ...19751221330
[the origin of heteroxeny in sporozoa].hypothesis on the origin of sporozoa from spiromonadida ancestors is discussed on the basis of the data on their ultrastructure. the phylum sporozoa comprises three large distinct groups of organisms as follows: perkinsemorpha, gregarinomorpha and coccidiomorpha. advanced coccidiomorpha have not descended directly from gregarinomorpha. gregarinomorpha and coccidiomorpha have common ancestors, protospiromonadida. heteroxeny is quite common among coccidiomorpha. the formation of heteroxeny in cocc ...19921297964
concurrent hepatozoon canis and toxoplasma gondii infections in a dog.a female 1-year-old dog died suddenly and was submitted for necropsy. numerous grey-tan-colored nodules were seen in the lungs, brain and lymph nodes. microscopically, the predominant lesion was necrosis associated with numerous toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. the parasites reacted positively with anti-t. gondii serum in an immunohistochemical test. schizonts of hepatozoon canis were seen in sections of lymph nodes and the spleen.19921496795
a host-parasite catalogue of the haematozoa of the sub-saharan birds.the prevalence of avian haematozoa in 826 species of birds representing 73 families of sub-saharan birds as recorded in the literature or in the files of the international reference centre for avian haematozoa and the veterinary research institute is presented. the most commonly occurring blood parasites were members of the genus haemoproteus which were represented by 63 species which occurred in 19.1% of the sample. twenty-five species of leucocytozoon were recorded in 8.3% of the birds and rep ...19921589208
the fate of hepatozoon species naturally infecting florida black racers and watersnakes in potential mosquito and soft tick vectors, and histological evidence of pathogenicity in unnatural host species.haemogregarine parasites, derived from the florida snakes coluber constrictor and nerodia fasciata and ingested by aedes aegypti, completed sporogony within the hemocoeles of nearly all fed mosquitoes in 14-18 days, and produced oocysts typical of hepatozoon. however, mortalities and morbidity were high in the culex which had fed on the coluber. oocysts were not found in any ornithodoros turicata (argasidae) which fed upon either snake host, but many sections of fed ticks had gametocyte-like cel ...19911683862
first case of hepatozoon canis infection of a dog in japan. 19911790224
splenomegaly and reticulocytosis caused by babesia microti infections in natural populations of the montane vole, microtus montanus.a survey for babesia microti in rodents was conducted at six sites within grand teton national park, wyoming. blood and spleen smears, hematocrits, and reticulocyte counts were made on all of the animals to evaluate parameters for the diagnosis of babesiosis. ticks were removed for identification. of 257 microtus montanus, 103 were infected with b. microti. in addition, five of 12 microtus pennsylvanicus and one of three arvicola richardsoni were parasitized by b. microti. peromyscus maniculatus ...19911818201
life cycle of hepatozoon mehlhorni sp. nov. in the viper echis carinatus and the mosquito culex pipiens.hepatozoon mehlhori sp. nov. and its developmental stages from the tissues of the egyptian viper echis carinatus and the mosquito culex pipiens are described. the erythrocytic parasites were differentiated into the small form (trophozoite) measuring 14.5 +/- 0.6 x 4 +/- 0.12 micron and the mature form (gametocyte) measuring 17.2 +/- 1.6 x 5.4 +/- 0.5 micron. merogony took place in the pulmonary endothelial cells and in the parenchyma cells of the liver and spleen of the infected vipers. two type ...19911891449
avian hematozoa from west-central bolivia.a total of 641 birds representing 135 species of 25 families from noel kempff mercado national park in west-central bolivia was examined for hematozoa; only 33 (5.1%) harbored blood parasites. microfilariae were the most commonly encountered hematozoans, followed, in numerical sequence, by species of haemoproteus and plasmodium; trypanosoma, atoxoplasma, and hepatozoon were seen infrequently. the survey included 13 new host-parasite records, and 58 species of birds were examined for blood parasi ...19911901358
the prevalence of blood parasites in helmeted guineafowls, numida meleagris, in the kruger national park.bloodsmears were taken from separate groups of five helmeted guineafowls, numida meleagris, shot at approximately monthly intervals at skukuza and near lower sabie in the kruger national park during the period august 1988 to august 1990. ninety-eight (86%) of 114 guineafowls had single or multiple infections of aegyptianella sp., haemoproteus pratasi, hepatozoon sp., leucocytozoon neavei, plasmodium circumflexum and trypanosoma numidae. the apparent seasonal prevalence of aegyptianella sp., h. p ...19911923376
tissue "cysts" of hepatozoon griseisciuri in the grey squirrel, sciurus carolinensis: the significance of these cysts in species of hepatozoon.the lungs of a grey squirrel infected with hepatozoon griseisciuri contained, in addition to typical haemogregarine schizonts, small cysts, each of which contained a single cystozoite. the presence of these cysts, which resemble those recorded in hepatozoon species in reptiles, suggests that they may be a common feature in all hepatozoon species and that these parasites may be transmitted by predation as well as by ingestion of infected arthropod vectors.19902319428
blood parasites of mammals from papua new guinea.thin blood smears were collected from 126 mammals representing four genera of marsupials and six genera of murid rodents. a species of hepatozoon was discovered in the new guinea spiny bandicoot (echymipera kalubu), trypanosome infections were found in three genera of rodent hosts and the prevalence of a rickettsial parasite of the genus grahamella was recorded in rodents from the genera rattus and melomys. dried blood samples also were taken and screened serologically for antibodies to arenavir ...19902338736
diagnostic parasitology.diagnosis of parasitic infections in small animals is challenging, interesting, and fun, and involves the recognition of parasite stages based on size, morphology, color, and movement. size and morphology are the major diagnostic parameters, and a calibrated microscope is the essential tool in the diagnostic laboratory. the fecal flotation technique is used routinely for the diagnosis of most parasites that reside within the gastrointestinal tract. the specific gravity and type of solution used ...19892678716
experimental treatment of hepatozoon infections with the anticoccidial agent toltrazuril. 19883048020
triatoma spinolai in chile: a new host for hepatozoon triatomae. 19863099438
hepatozoon canis in a dog with oral pyogranulomas and neurologic disease.a ten-month-old cocker spaniel presented for fever, difficulty walking, and oral lesions. muscle pain, bloody diarrhea, respiratory disease and central nervous system inflammation were found while the animal was hospitalized. merozoites of hepatozoon canis were discovered in association with pyogranulomas in a muscle biopsy. no other etiologic agent for the clinical signs was identified.19883131065
notes on parasites in penguins (spheniscidae) and petrels (procellariidae) in the antarctic and sub-antarctic.blood smears were examined from 143 penguins of four species (aptenodytes patagonicus, eudyptes chrysolophus, e. schlegeli, and pygoscelis gentoo) from sub-antarctic macquarie island and heard island. no blood parasites were reported. the vectors of hepatozoon albatrossi (reported from three species of albatross) are probably shared by penguins, and it is suggested that the latter are not susceptible to infection with this protozoan. cestodes of the genus tetrabothrius were present in large numb ...19883352088
hepatozoonosis in foxes from portugal.hepatozoon, sp. is described for the first time in foxes (vulpes vulpes silacea) in portugal. of 301 foxes examined, 143 (48%) were infected. the gametocyte was the predominant stage of the life cycle and was found in every organ except the bone marrow, where schizonts were the most abundant stage. the morphological similarity of this parasite's gametocytes to hepatozoon canis is emphasized.19883373641
hepatozoon sp. in wild carnivores in texas.twelve coyotes (canis latrans), three bobcats (lynx rufus) and six ocelots (felis pardalis) from the gulf coast of texas were infected with hepatozoon sp. the geographic distribution of infected wild animals coincides with the highest prevalence of hepatozoon canis infection in domestic dogs for which the wild species may act as a reservoir.19883411720
seasonal and age distributions of babesia, hepatozoon, trypanosoma and grahamella species in clethrionomys glareolus and apodemus sylvaticus populations.four common blood parasites belonging to the genera babesia, hepatozoon, trypanosoma and grahamella were detected in sympatric populations of clethrionomys glareolus and apodemus sylvaticus. seasonal changes in the abundance of hosts and parasites were monitored in a longitudinal field survey for 18 months. all parasites in both hosts showed similar seasonal patterns with most transmission occurring in summer and autumn and ceasing in winter. amongst aged subsets of each host population, hepatoz ...19863537923
the incidence of canine haematozoa in peninsular 3 urban areas in selangor, peninsular malaysia between 1973 and 1981, blood from 4084 dogs was examined for haematozoa. the following frequencies were found: babesia gibsoni 17.7%; microfilariae of dirofilaria immitis 9.6%; hepatozoon canis 1.2%; b. canis 1.1%; ehrlichia canis 0.2%; trypanosoma evansi 0.1%. a detailed examination of b. gibsoni infections and microfilariasis due to d. immitis with regards to monthly distribution, breed frequency, sex and age, revealed that pedigree and non-ped ...19853922103
the complete development of the sporogonous stages of hepatozoon rarefaciens cultured in a culex pipiens cell line. 19734197135
[hepatozoon mauritanicum (et. and ed. sergent, 1904) n. comb., a parasite of testude graeca: a new description of sporogony in hyalomma aegyptium and of tissular schizogony drawn from the material of e. brumpt]. 19734199546
hepatozoon-like parasite (schizonts) in the myocardium of the domestic cat. 19734205108
a comparison of the life cycles of toxoplasma and hepatozoon, with reference to the general phenomenon and the role of cyst formation in the coccidia. 19734207103
[cytological studies on host-parasite relationships in sporozoa (eimeria, toxoplasma, sarcocystis, frenkelia, hepatozoon, plasmodium, and babesia) by means of different methods (author's transl)]. 19744209368
the life history of hepatozoon rarefaciens (sambon and seligmann, 1907) from drymarchon corais (colubridae), and its experimental transfer to constrictor constrictor (boidae). 19674383539
transfer of hepatozoon rarefaciens (sambon and seligmann, 1907) from the indigo snake to a gopher snake by a mosquito vector. 19694389300
role of haemogamasus reidi (acari: mesostigmata) in the life cycle of the gray squirrel protozoan, hepatozoon griseisciuri (sporozoa: haemogregarinidae). 19724623381
[the life-history of hepatozoon domerguei; comments on the fundamental characteristics of a coccidian life-cycle]. 19724625622
hepatozoon procyonis infections in texas. 19734633758
hepatozoon fusifex sp. n., a mehogregarine from boa constrictor producing marked morphological changes in infected erythrocytes. 19694980775
syngamy and sporogony of hepatozoon griseisciuri clark, 1958 (sporozoa:haemogregarinidae), in its natural vector, haemogamasus reidi ewing, 1925 (acari: mesostigmata). 19715002524
[infection with hepatozoon muris balf. (protozoa, adeleidae) in wild varieties of rattus norvegicus in trieste]. 19715125942
hepatozoon sp. in northern voles, microtus oeconomus, on st. lawrence island, alaska. 19715167766
[distribution of hepatozoon miller, 1908 (protozoa, adeleidae) in east african wild mammals]. 19685731189
parasitic protozoa of the blood of rodents. vi. two new hemogregarines of the pygmy flying squirrel idiurus macrotis (rodentia: theridomyomorpha: anomaluridae) in west africa.descriptions are given of two new species of hepatozoon miller, 1908 found in the pygmy squirrel, idiurus macrotis, in the ivory coast. gamonts of both are parasites of monocytes. the size and shape of the gamonts of one, h. normani n. sp., are similar to those of a number of gamonts of other species of rodent hemogregarines and the separate identity of the parasite is based on the host restriction of mammalian hemogregarines. the gamonts of the other species, h. dolichomorphon n. sp., are remar ...19846096538
kala-azar in portugal. v. the sylvatic cycle in the enzootic endemic focus of arrabida.leishmania parasites were found in three of 43 foxes examined in the arrabida region of the setúbal peninsula in portugal, this brings the total number of cases of vulpine leishmaniasis to four in 71 animals examined in this area, a prevalence rate of 5.63%. the three parasitized foxes found in this study were all symptomless and nnn cultures inoculated with tissue extracts were positive for all three animals. the immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat) was positive with titres greater than or e ...19846530708
experimental transmission of the texas strain of hepatozoon canis.nine dogs were fed hepatozoon canis-exposed rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks; 6 showed clinical signs suggestive of canine hepatozoonosis, and the parasite was found in sections of muscle tissue from 2 of the dogs. schizont-like cysts were found in the skeletal muscle of both infected dogs as were gametocytes in the circulating leucocytes. periosteal new-bone lesions were seen in 1 dog. attempts to infect a raccoon, 3 cats, 6 laboratory mice, and tick- or canine-cells in vitro, failed.19846542719
hepatozoon sp infection in bobcats. 19836643261
the type material of the international reference centre for avian haematozoa.the type, paratype, and reference material of avian hematozoa in the reference collection of the international reference centre for avian haematozoa is listed. this material includes one species of atoxoplasma, 41 species of haemoproteus, one species of hepatozoon, two species of lankesterella, 15 species of leucocytozoon, 31 species of plamodium, one species of spirogregarina, and three species of trypanosoma.19806767830
infections with blood parasites in the small british rodents apodemus sylvaticus, clethrionomys glareolus and microtus agrestis.three populations of small wild british rodents were studied by capture-recapture methods over a period of 3 years, a fourth group was studied for 1 year and a fifth was sampled annually for 4 years. blood smears were taken from 3 species of rodents: the woodmouse apodemus sylvaticus, the bank vole clethrionomys glareolus (and an island sub-species c.g. skomerensis) and the short-tailed vole microtus agrestis. the smears were examined microscopically. four genera of haemoparasites babesia, hepat ...19817022328
hepatozoon infection in a wild fox (vulpes vulpes schrencki kishida) in japan. 19827098235
[pathologic anatomy of hepatozoon canis infection]. 19827178884
development of hepatozoon erhardovae krampitz, 1964 (protozoa: haemogregarinidae) in experimental mammalian and arthropod hosts. ii. sexual development in fleas and sporozoite indices in xenodiagnosis. 19817268855
incidence of brown dog ticks, rhipicephalus sanguineus, at a kennel in okayama prefecture.twenty two adult dogs suffered from tick infestation at a kennel in okayama prefecture in the summer of 1994. four of them had been introduced from u.s.a. some dogs showed pyoderma, anemia, neutrophilia or eosinophilia. neither babesia gibsoni nor hepatozoon canis was detected on the smear samples of peripheral blood. the ticks detected were morphologically identified as rhipicephalus sanguineus. this case was a rare incidence of the tick in the other areas of japan than okinawa.19957548423
an investigation into the health status and diseases of wild dogs (lycaon pictus) in the kruger national park.many factors have been cited as possible reasons for the decline in the number of wild dogs (lycaon pictus), but few studies have provided supportive data. between 1990 and 1993, the dynamics of 10 wild dog packs in the southern district of the kruger national park in south africa were monitored. casual observations of the causes of disease and mortality in the entire population were also recorded. during the same period, 46 wild dogs were immobilised, weighed, and subjected to physical examinat ...19957629782
the life history, ultrastructure, and experimental transmission of hepatozoon catesbianae n. comb., an apicomplexan parasite of the bullfrog, rana catesbeiana and the mosquito, culex territans in algonquin park, ontario.gametogenesis and sporogonic development of a haemogregarine parasite of bullfrogs (rana catesbeiana) was observed in cells of the malpighian tubules of laboratory-reared culex territans that had fed on naturally infected bullfrogs. mature oocysts, which varied considerably in size, were multisporocystic with ellipsoidal sporocysts that contained 4 sporozoites. sporogonic development was completed in about 20 days. mature meronts were observed in the liver and merozoites in erythrocytes of labor ...19957707196
detection of hepatozoon canis oocyst from ticks collected from the infected dogs.we collected 220 ticks from 58 dogs infected with hepatozoon canis from 1990 to 1992 in yamaguchi and fukuoka prefectures, the western provinces of japan. these ticks were identified as haemaphysalis campanulata, h. longicornis, h. flava, ixodes ovata, and i. nipponensis. by histopathological examination of these ticks, two oocysts which seemed to be those of h. canis were observed in the haemocoele of an adult female h. longicornis and a nymph h. flava tick. the oocyst, about 300 x 150 microns ...19957756400
the development of hepatozoon sipedon sp. nov. (apicomplexa: adeleina: hepatozoidae) in its natural host, the northern water snake (nerodia sipedon sipedon), in the culicine vectors culex pipiens and c. territans, and in an intermediate host, the northern leopard frog (rana pipiens).the life cycle of hepatozoon sipedon sp. nov. was studied in two snake species, the northern water snake and the eastern garter snake, in its mosquito hosts culex pipiens and c. territans, and in the northern leopard frog. gametogenesis, fertilization and sporogony occurred within fat body cells in the haemocoel of mosquitoes that had fed on infected water snakes. mature oocysts averaging 263 microns in diameter and containing more than 500 sporocysts were observed in mosquitoes 28 days post-fee ...19947855120
circulating antibodies to hepatozoon canis demonstrated by immunofluorescence. 19948011770
detection of neospora caninum in tissue sections using a murine monoclonal antibody.a murine monoclonal antibody (mab 6g7), isotype igg2a, produced against tachyzoites of neospora caninum (isolate nc-1) reacted specifically with tachyzoites of n. caninum in an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. mab 6g7 did not react with tachyzoites of toxoplasma gondii, sporozoites of isospora suis, eimeria bovis, or e. tenella, or merozoites of e. bovis in the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. mab 6g7 reacted positively with both tachyzoites and bradyzoites of n. caninum in an ...19938286458
seasonal periodical appearance of hepatozoon canis gamont in the peripheral blood.we investigated the appearance of gamonts in peripheral leukocytes of 13 hepatozoon canis infected dogs from june 1990 to december 1992. in almost all the dogs, the numbers of gamonts increased from spring to autumn, and decreased from autumn to winter. particularly in the dogs used for hare hunting, a large number of gamonts was detected from spring to autumn. this finding reveals that the gamont increases in number in the dog which ingested the infected ticks during the hunting season.19938286552
ultrastructure of hepatozoon canis in the dog.the ultrastructure of several stages of hepatozoon canis found in dogs with clinically diagnosed infections was determined using transmission electron microscopy. stages were found in skeletal muscle tissue that corresponded to the 'onion skin' cyst stage, as described at the light microscopic level, and were composed of an electron-transparent material that appeared to radiate from a central core. larger cysts, walled off by fibroblasts, contained a transformed host cell located centrally withi ...19938291199
trypanosoma manulis n. sp. from the russian pallas cat felis manul.the morphology of trypanosoma manulis n. sp. is described from living and stained specimens obtained from the blood of a pallas cat, felis manul, from kazakhstan. the cat was also infected with a hepatozoon sp. and feline immunodeficiency virus. the morphology of the trypanosome most closely resembles that of trypanosoma mpapuense reichenow and trypanosoma heybergi rodhain found in bats. trypanosoma manulis does not grow well in conventional media, but co-culture with african green monkey kidney ...19938389639
gametogenesis and sporogony of hepatozoon mocassini (apicomplexa: adeleina: hepatozoidae) in an experimental mosquito host, aedes aegypti.the sexual life cycle of the hemogregarine hepatozoon mocassini was studied in aedes aegypti, an experimental mosquito host, using transmission electron microscopy. gamonts were observed leaving the host snake erythrocyte as early as 30 min after mosquitoes ingested infected blood, and some gamonts had penetrated the gut epithelial cells by this time. six hours post-feeding, gamonts were identified within cells of the abdominal fat body. twenty-four hours post-feeding, gamonts were often entrapp ...19938508167
histopathologic features of naturally occurring hepatozoonosis in wild martens (martes melampus) in japan.nodular lesions containing hepatozoon sp. schizonts or merozoite-gametocytes were found in the tissues of 67 (96%) of 70 wild-caught martens (martes melampus) examined in gifu, japan, 1991 and 1992. the heart was the most commonly parasitized organ (96%), followed by the perirenal adipose tissue (36%); the diaphragm, mesentery, tongue, omentum and perisplenic adipose tissue generally had a prevalence of 10 to 15%. in the heart, two types of nodular lesions were differentiated based on developmen ...19958583643
characterization of the clinical and anatomical pathological changes associated with hepatozoon mocassini infections in unnatural reptilian hosts.laboratory-reared aedes aegypti mosquitoes were employed in the successful transmission of hepatozoon mocassini from a cotton-mouth moccasin (agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma) to 3 lizard species (sceloporus undulatus, eumeces obsoletus and sceloporus poinsetti). marked to severe lethargy and anorexia developed in the s. undulatus, e. obsoletus and s. poinsetti at 15, 38, and 96 days postinfection (pi), respectively. all 3 lizards developed a leukocytosis and had increased plasma aspartate amin ...19968690537
the first record of a member of the genus hepatozoon in the eastern barred bandicoot (perameles gunnii) in tasmania.of 220 wild eastern barred bandicoots (perameles gunnii) captured in two locations in tasmania, australia, 55 (25%) had a detectable parasitaemia with gametocytes of the protozoan genus hepatozoon in blood films. blood films were stained with leishman stain and acridine orange o. gamonts were commonly found as intracellular forms and occasionally observed as extracellular forms in peripheral erythrocytes. this is the first record of a member of the genus hepatozoon in any temperate bandicoot and ...19968885895
hepatozoonosis in dogs: 22 cases (1989-1994).to document hepatozoonosis in dogs from alabama and georgia and to report associated clinical signs, method of diagnosis, response to treatment, and course of disease.19979096720
ultrastructural findings in natural canine hepatozoonosis.the ultrastructure of several stages of hepatozoon canis found in dogs with clinically and histologically diagnosed infections was determined using transmission electron microscopy. merozoites, macro- and microschizonts and gamonts were found in spleen, liver, kidneys and lungs. macro- and micromeronts were characterized by their size and by the presence of intracytoplasmic amylopectin granules. gamonts, which provide the basis for clinical diagnosis of the disease, were observed within mononucl ...19979151537
hepatozoon canis infection of wild carnivores in brazil.hepatozoon canis was diagnosed in a crab-eating fox (cerdocyon thous) found on a highway in the region of botucatu, são paulo, brazil, after being hit by a car. the fox had bilateral fractures of the olecranon, which was corrected by osteosynthesis. hematologic findings included a neutrophilia, eosinophilia, monocytosis and mild anemia. in the leishman-stained blood film, gametocytes of hepatozoon canis in neutrophils were identified measuring 9.1 +/- 0.54 x 5.3 +/- 0.46 microns.19979211653
[hepatozoon canis infection of dogs in germany: case report and epidemiology].this paper reports on a case of hepatozoonosis of a dog imported from italy to germany being additionally infected with ehrlichia canis and babesia canis. furthermore, a survey of the epidemiology of the hepatozoon canis infection is presented.19979289886
a new hepatozoon species from dogs: description of the causative agent of canine hepatozoonosis in north america.a new species of adeleina, hepatozoon americanum, is described from the skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, visceral organs, and blood of dogs (canis familiaris) in the southern united states. the organism was previously identified as hepatozoon canis (james, 1905) wenyon, 1926; however, differences in clinical signs, histopathological and serological findings, gamont size, and ultrastructure define the new species of hepatozoon. attempts to transmit the protozoan from infected dogs to nymphal rhip ...19979406796
retrospective case-control study of hepatozoonosis in dogs in israel.signalment, clinical signs, and physical examination and clinicopathologic findings in dogs diagnosed with hepatozoon canis parasitemia (n = 100) were compared with those in hepatozoon-negative dogs (n = 180). a subset (n = 15) of hepatozoon-positive dogs with unusually high (> 800 h canis gametocytes/microl of whole blood) parasitemia was compared with dogs that had low parasitemia (n = 85) and with hepatozoon-negative dogs (n = 180). hepatozoon-positive dogs significantly differed from hepatoz ...19979470163
trypanosomiasis in raccoons from georgia.trypanosoma cruzi frequently infects wild mammals in the southern united states but little is known about the effect of the parasite on reservoir hosts such as the raccoon (procyon lotor). to investigate this issue, 30 raccoons trapped on st. catherine's island (georgia, usa) during september, 1994 were tested for t. cruzi infection by examination of wet mounts of fresh blood and by culturing blood in liver infusion tryptose medium. thirteen animals (43%) were found to be infected with t. cruzi. ...19989476234
[imported arthropod-borne parasites and parasitic arthropods in dogs. species spectrum and epidemiologic analysis of the cases diagnosed in 1995/96].between january 1995 and december 1996 nonendemic or only regionally occurring arthropodborne parasites including ehrlichiae and parasitic arthropods in germany were detected in 484 dogs, whereby at least 15 species were involved. listed in decreasing order, leishmania infections occurred most frequently, followed by infections/infestations with babesia canis, ehrlichia canis, rhipicephalus sanguineus, dirofilaria immitis and dermacentor reticulatus. the other species, namely babesia gibsoni, tr ...19989531673
antibody response to hepatozoon canis in experimentally infected dogs.canine hepatozoonosis is a disease caused by the tick-borne protozoan hepatozoon canis. five puppies were inoculated by ingestion of rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks experimentally infected with h. canis, and all became infected with h. canis: gametocytes were detected in blood smears from four dogs and schizonts were observed in the spleen and bone marrow of the fifth. antibodies reactive with h. canis gametocytes were detected by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifa), with igm detected in ...19989561714
demonstration of common and stage-specific anti-hepatozoon mocassini antibodies in experimentally infected unnatural lizard hosts.this study examines the immunological response to hepatozoon mocassini in lizards. three lizard species were infected experimentally with h. mocassini. baseline and post-infection (pi) sera were assayed for anti-h. mocassini meront and gametocyte antibody by immunohistochemistry and ifa. seroconversion occurred at 38 d pi with endpoint ifa titers of 1:64. antisera from non-parasitaemic and parisitaemic lizards exhibited similar affinities for merozite and gametocyte antigens. antibody specific f ...19969198590
hepatozoon canis infection in a litter of dalmatian dogs.infection with hepatozoon canis is described in a litter of seven dalmatians. four littermates were presented with concurrent hepatozoonosis and parvoviral enteritis and the remaining three puppies were parasitemic with h. canis with no other concurrent disease. parasitemia ranged between 3% and 67% of the blood neutrophils. the mean number of parasitized neutrophils per microliter among littermates with concurrent hepatozoonosis and parvoviral enteritis was 1139 (+/-447 sd) on the day of admiss ...19979195724
survey of tick-borne diseases in dogs infested with rhipicephalus sanguineus at a kennel in okayama prefecture, japan.serological tests were performed to investigate extent of tick-borne diseases in dogs infested with rhipicephalus sanguineus at a kennel in okayama prefecture. three of 22 dogs (13.6%) were positive for ehrlichia canis. two of 19 dogs (10.5%) were positive for rickettsia japonica. three of 22 dogs (13.6%) were positive for babesia gibsoni. none of these animals were positive for coxiella burnetii or hepatozoon canis. a microfilaria was detected in a drop smear of hemolymph from an engorged femal ...19989673953
hepatozoon canis: the prevalence of antibodies and gametocytes in dogs in israel.a survey for the prevalence of antibodies to hepatozoon canis and for intraneutrophilic h. canis gametocytes in the peripheral blood neutrophils of dogs in israel showed that 33.1% were seropositive, while only 1% of the dogs sampled had detectable parasites in their blood smears. exposure to h. canis is widespread but it appears that most infected dogs undergo a subclinical infection and only a small proportion develop clinical disease.19968693700
the life history and host specificity of hepatozoon clamatae (apicomplexa: adeleorina) and its-1 nucleotide sequence variation of hepatozoon species of frogs and mosquitoes from ontario.the life cycle of an intraerythrocytic hemogregarine, hepatozoon clamatae, was studied in green frogs (rana clamitans melanota), bullfrogs (rana catesbeiana), northern leopard frogs (rana pipiens), and in the mosquito, culex territans. gametogenesis, fertilization, and sporogony occurred within cells of the malpighian tubules of laboratory-reared cx. territans that had fed on naturally infected frogs. mature oocysts containing hundreds of sporocysts were observed in mosquitoes 30 days postfeedin ...19989714212
observations on tissue stages of hepatozoon americanum in 19 naturally infected dogs.lesions and associated tissue stages of hepatozoon americanum in 19 naturally infected dogs are described. schizogony takes place in an unidentified host cell which, during the early stages of the asexual cycle, is contained within a broad, multilamellar mucopolysaccharide 'cyst.' material forming the cyst appears to be host-derived. an intense inflammatory response follows rupture of the schizont and disintegration of the cyst wall. there is unusually intense angiogenesis associated with the re ...19989786627
hepatozoon species infection in domestic cats: a retrospective study.hepatozoon sp. is a protozoan parasite of peripheral blood neutrophils in cats. feline hepatozoonosis has been reported infrequently and little is known about the pathogenesis of this infection. in order to further clarify clinicopathological characteristics of hepatozoonosis in domestic cats, a retrospecitve study of hepatozoonosis in cats admitted during 1989-1995 to the hebrew university school of veterinary medicine was conducted. the study population comprised all the cats whose medical rec ...19989806492
experimental transmission of hepatozoon americanum vincent-johnson et al., 1997 to dogs by the gulf coast tick, amblyomma maculatum koch.experimental transmission of hepatozoon americanum to dogs was attempted with four ixodid ticks, viz., rhipicephalus sanguineus, amblyomma americanum, amblyomma maculatum and dermacentor variabilis. ticks that dogs ingested included some that were laboratory-reared and experimentally fed as nymphs on a dog with naturally occurring hepatozoonosis; other ticks were collected as replete or partially engorged larvae, nymphs and adults from dogs that had hepatozoonosis and natural infestations of tic ...19989877066
vertical transmission of hepatozoon canis in dogs.we experienced vertical infections of puppies with hepatozoon canis from 1990 to 1992. in 23 of 29 (79.3%) puppies from a total of 6 deliveries, gamonts or meronts were detected from 16 to 60 days after birth. the mother dogs were delivered of the puppies under tick-free conditions treated with an acaricide. there was no chance of infection of the puppies with h. canis after birth. therefore, the vertical transmission of h. canis was supposed to be established in the family of dog.19938286548
[hepatozoon canis: an important parasitic infection in dogs].this paper reports on a case of hepatozoonosis of a dog imported from italy to germany. a survey of the biology and ecology of the causative agent as well as the pathogenesis, clinics, diagnosis, therapy and prophylaxis of hepatozoon canis infection is presented.19948209369
naturally occurring hepatozoonosis in coyotes from oklahoma.nine of 16 free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) from central oklahoma (usa) had naturally acquired infections of hepatozoon americanum. infections were confirmed by recognition of tissue stages closely resembling h. americanum in skeletal and cardiac muscle. at the time coyotes were collected they were infested with a variety of ticks, including adult gulf coast ticks (amblyomma maculatum). we propose that the high prevalence of h. americanum in this small sample of free-ranging coyotes and the ...199910073352
microbesnoitia leoni bwangamoi, 1989, from the african lion (panthera leo) redetermined as a junior synonym of hepatozoon canis (james, 1905) wenyon, 1926.hepatozoon canis-like schizonts were found in the hearts of 2 lionesses (panthera leo) from kenya. the parasite, initially described as a new genus and new species microbesnoitia leoni bwangamoi, 1989, is determined to be a junior synonym of hapatozoon canis (james, 1905) wenyon, 1926.19948158481
canine hepatozoonosis: comparison of lesions and parasites in skeletal muscle of dogs experimentally or naturally infected with hepatozoon americanum.we report previously undescribed, early lesions in skeletal muscle of dogs experimentally infected with hepatozoon americanum by ingestion of laboratory-reared, infected amblyomma maculatum. the earliest muscle lesion was recognized at the first interval of examination 3 weeks following exposure. the lesion consisted of a large, modified host cell whose cytoplasm frequently contained a demonstrable parasite. in skeletal muscle, the cell was consistently located between muscle fibers or in loose ...199910384901
[blood parasites of small wild mammals in steiermark and burgenland].a total of 488 wild small mammals (16 species) trapped in two federate units of austria, steiermark and burgenland, were examined on the presence of blood parasites. in steiermark grahamelles were detected in neomys fodiens, clethrionomys glareolus, microtus arvalis, m. agrestis, apodemus flavicollis and a. sylvaticus, while trypanosoma evotomys and hepatozoon erhardovae were found in c. glareolus, and babesia microti in pitymys subterraneus and m. agrestis. in burgenland grahamelles were demons ...19806778802
sporogonic development of hepatozoon americanum (apicomplexa) in its definitive host, amblyomma maculatum (acarina).light microscopic observations of the sporogonic development of hepatozoon americanum are described in its acarine host, amblyomma maculatum. laboratory-reared nymphal ticks were fed on 2 dogs infected with h. americanum. nymphal ticks were sampled daily, starting 3 days after being placed on a parasitemic dog, until 18 days after infestation (pi), and then every 3 or 4 days until replete nymphs molted. ticks were examined as unstained wet mounts and hematoxylin-eosin-stained paraffin sections. ...199910647032
naturally occurring and experimentally transmitted hepatozoon americanum in coyotes from oklahoma.twenty free-ranging coyotes (canis latrans) in oklahoma (usa) were examined for the presence of naturally occurring infections with hepatozoon americanum and to determine if bone lesions attributable to h. americanum were present. although eight of the 20 free-ranging coyotes were found to be naturally infected with h. americanum, no bone lesions were detected. in addition, two coyote pups were exposed to h. americanum oocysts collected from experimentally infected ticks and the course of the re ...200010682757
genetic and antigenic evidence supports the separation of hepatozoon canis and hepatozoon americanum at the species level.recognition of hepatozoon canis and hepatozoon americanum as distinct species was supported by the results of western immunoblotting of canine anti-h. canis and anti-h. americanum sera against h. canis gamonts. sequence analysis of 368 bases near the 3' end of the 18s rrna gene from each species revealed a pairwise difference of 13.59%.200010699047
erhardorina n. g., ascogregarina polynesiensis n. sp., eimeria golemanskii n. sp., isospora tamariscini n. sp., gregarina kazumii n. nom., new combinations and emendations in the names of apicomplexan protozoa.on the basis of a review of the approximately 4300 species of apicomplexan protozoa, the following new species, new names, new combinations, and emendations are given: new genus, erhardovina; new species, ascogregarina polynesiensis, eimeria golemanskii, isospora tamariscini; new name, gregarina kazumii; new combinations, ascogregarina brachyceri (purrini, 1980), erhardovina euzeti (lipa, 1981), e. scutovertexi (erhardová, 1955), haemorhormidium batrachi (chaudhuri & choudhury, 1983); emendation ...19853925135
neutrophil myeloperoxidase deficiency associated with canine hepatozoonosis.hepatozoonosis is a very important disease in dogs in nigeria. hepatozoonosis was reported in nigeria in 18 dogs. the clinical signs included fever, anorexia, loss of weight, lameness, oculonasal discharge and conjunctivitis. hematologic findings included leukocytosis due to neutrophilia and eosinophilia. parasitemia varied from 1 to 9% of the circulating neutrophils in the peripheral blood smears of the dogs examined. hepatozoon canis gametocytes were identified in circulating neutrophils of do ...19892561399
antigenic analysis of gamonts of hepatozoon canis purified from leukocytes.hepatozoon canis is a tick-borne apicomplexan parasite of dogs that infects neutrophils and parenchymal tissues. to study the antigenic characteristics of this parasite, a technique was devised for the purification of gamonts from peripheral blood neutrophils. white blood cells were separated on ficoll-hypaque density gradients and the gamonts were released from the host neutrophils by nitrogen cavitation. the blood used for purification originated from dogs with natural or experimental infectio ...200010780547
phylogenetic relationships of hepatozoon (apicomplexa: adeleorina) based on molecular, morphologic, and life-cycle evaluate higher-level affinities of hepatozoon species within apicomplexa, we sequenced the 18s rrna gene from 2 parasites (hepatozoon americanum and hepatozoon canis) of dogs and 1 (hepatozoon catesbianae) of bullfrogs. sequences from other apicomplexans among the sarcocystiidae, eimeriidae, theileriidae, plasmodiidae, cryptosporiidae, and babesiidae, a perkinsus species and 2 dinoflagellates were obtained from genbank. phylogenetic analysis indicated that plasmodium, cryptosporidium, and he ...200010780559
phylogenetic analysis of the class sporozoea (phylum apicomplexa levine, 1970): evidence for the independent evolution of heteroxenous life cycles.a phylogenetic analysis of representative genera in the class sporozoea was undertaken using biological and morphological features to infer evolutionary relationships among the widely recognized groups in the class. gregarines were used as a functional outgroup to the remaining sporozoa (adeleids, eimeriorins, haemosporinids, and piroplasms). the piroplasms were shown to be closely related to the adeleid parasites. species of babesia and theileria were shown not to form a sister group to the hae ...19892494316
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