the ornithodoros (alectorobius) capensis group (acarina: ixodoidea: argasidae) of the palearctic and oriental regions. o. (a.) maritimus: identity, marine bird hosts, virus infections, and distribution in western europe and northwestern 1967, vermeil and marguet described ornithodoros coniceps maritimus from larvae reared from larvae taken from marine birds on dumet island (atlantic ocean), basse bretagne, france. we collected o. (a.) coniceps canestrini, 1890, from the type locality (venice, italy) and determined that the taxons coniceps and maritimus each require full species status. we selected a lectotype and paralectotypes for the taxon maritimus from the original dumet island material. the larva of maritimus is redescr ...1976978368
[the occurrence and characterization of campylobacter spp. in silver gulls (larus argentatus), three-toed gulls (rissa tridactyla) and house sparrows (passer domesticus)].altogether 16 campylobacter (c.) isolates could be recovered from 65 herring gulls: 5 x c. laridis, 2 x c. jejuni biovar 1, 4 x c. jejuni biovar 2 and 5 x c. coli. campylobacter spp. were isolated from 15 out of 51 samples from kittiwakes: 2 x c. jejuni biovar 1 and 13 x c. laridis. all c. coli isolates grew on agar containing 1.5% nacl. two campylobacter isolates from 50 house sparrows differed from all other isolates by a distinct beta-hemolysis and other phenotypic characteristics and could n ...19892750361
[the "diseased" or "dead" guillemots (uria aalge), three-toed gulls (rissa tridactyla), silver gulls (larus argentatus) and laughing gulls (larus ridibundus) found in the area of the german bay, 1982-1985].between 1982 and 1985 the cadavers of 50 guillemots (uria aalge), 41 kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla), 26 herring gulls (larus argentatus) and 34 black-headed gulls (larus ridibundus) were examined pathological, bacteriological and virological. the probable cause of death was established. parasitosis were particularly prevalent in herring gulls (49%), where the main infection--as in black-headed gulls--was with cestoides. in kittiwakes and guillemots mainly spiruroideae were recorded. the commonest ...19892752934
avalon virus, sakhalin group (nairovirus, bunyaviridae) from the seabird tick ixodes (ceratixodes) uriae white 1852 in france.nine strains of avalon virus were isolated from ixodes uriae ticks collected in the cape sizun seabird reserve, brittany, from 1979 to 1985, during a longitudinal study of consequences of tick-borne infections for kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla). avalon virus strains isolated in france proved difficult to study owing to the weak infectious titres they exhibited in suckling mice or cultured cells. however, some interesting data concerning the ecology of virus infection and the morphology of the vir ...19862878589
the effect of salt gland removal on cloacal ion and water excretion in the growing kittiwake, rissa tridactyla. 19725027186
studies on bunyaviridae including zaliv terpeniya virus isolated from ixodes uriae ticks (acarina: ixodidae) in brittany, france.three viruses were isolated from ticks parasitizing nesting seabirds on cape sizun, brittany, france, during the spring of 1979: soldado like virus (bunyaviridae, nairovirus genus) from ornithodoros (alectorobius) maritimus (argasidae), zaliv terpeniya (zt) virus (bunyaviridae, uukuvirus genus) from ixodes (ceratixodes) uriae (ixodidae) parasitizing chicks of the kittiwake (rissa tridactyla), and a virus of the sakhalin group from i. (c.) uriae. certain virological and ultrastructural properties ...19816173027
orbiviruses and bunyaviruses from a seabird colony in scotland.viruses isolated from ticks (ixodes uriae) and a kittiwake (rissa tridactyla) from a seabird colony at st. abb's head, scotland, were shown by complement fixation tests (cft) to be antigenically related to the uukuniemi and kemerovo serogroups. electron microscopic examination of cell cultures infected with the kemerovo group viruses revealed particles characteristic of orbiviruses, 72 +/- 3 nm in diam., with an inner core 37 +/- 3 nm in diam., in association with intracytoplasmic, densely stain ...19817320703
[the life cycle and fine morphology of the embryophores in microsomacanthus paraparvula (cestoda: hymenolepididae), a parasite of diving ducks in chukotka].it was found out, that the cestode microsomacanthus paraparvula regel, 1994 being a common parasite of diving ducks in chukotka uses a caddisfly grensia praeteria (trichoptera) as an intermediate host in its life cycle. mature fragments of the cestode have been collected from droppings of the experimentally infected nestling of the kittiwake rissa tridactyla (non-specific host) and used for the fine morphology study of embryonic shells and for an infection of intermediate hosts.19958984430
isolation and characterisation of a mycoplasma from a kittiwake (rissa tridactyla). 200010706315
an evaluation of marine bird population trends following the exxon valdez oil spill, prince william sound, alaska.we examined post-spill trends (1989-1998) of marine bird populations in prince william sound (pws) following the exxon valdez oil spill (evos) to evaluate recovery of injured taxa. two criteria were employed. first, we examined population trends of injured taxa only in the oiled area of pws using regression models. second, we examined population trends of injured taxa in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area using homogeneity of the slopes tests. we considered a population recovering if th ...200111381751
biomagnification of organochlorines along a barents sea food trace the biomagnification of organochlorines in marine food chains near svalbard, which may lead to the high organochlorine concentrations in top predators from the area, we compared concentrations and patterns of organochlorines in selected taxa. the pelagic crustaceans, calanus spp. (copepods), thysanoessa spp. (euphausiids), parathemisto libellula (amphipod), and the fish species, boreogadus saida (polar cod) and gadus morhua (cod) were selected to represent the lower trophic levels in th ...200111383336
chlordane components and metabolites in seven species of arctic seabirds from the northwater polynya: relationships with stable isotopes of nitrogen and enantiomeric fractions of chiral components.the northwater polynya (now) is a large area of year-round open water found in the high arctic between ellesmere island and greenland. now has high biological productivity compared with other arctic marine areas, and supports large populations of several seabird species. seven species of seabirds, dovekie (alle alle, dove), thick-billed murre (uria lomvia, tbmu), black guillemot (cepphus grylle, blgu), black-legged kittiwake (rissa tridactyla, blki), ivory gull (pagophila eburnea, ivgu), glaucou ...200111383340
contaminant residues in seabird eggs from the canadian arctic. ii. spatial trends and evidence from stable isotopes for intercolony differences.eggs of glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus), black-legged kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla), thick-billed murres (uria lomvia) and black guillemots (cepphus grylle) were collected from several sites throughout the canadian arctic. samples were analyzed for organochlorines as well as mercury and selenium. glaucous gulls breeding at sites in the high arctic showed higher levels of organochlorine contamination than those in the western low arctic. this was likely due to dietary differences among colonie ...200211843528
polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) congener concentrations in seabirds found dead in mortality incidents around the british coast.livers from 121 birds killed in mortality incidents in u.k. coastal waters between 1991 and 1996 were analyzed for 16 pcb congeners (iupac numbers 8, 18, 28, 31, 52, 77, 101, 118, 126, 128, 138, 149, 153, 169, 170, and 180). species analyzed were guillemot (uria aalge), shag (phalacrocorax arisotelis), kittiwake (rissa tridactyla), puffin (fratercula arctica), razorbill (alca torda), fulmar (fulmarus glacialis), gannet (sula bassana), and herring gull (larus argentatus). this is the first report ...200312948183
tick-borne great island virus: (i) identification of seabird host and evidence for co-feeding and viraemic transmission.great island virus (giv) is an arbovirus present in the tick ixodes uriae, a common ectoparasite of nesting seabirds. common guillemot (uria aalge) and black-legged kittiwake (rissa tridactyla) are the preferred and most abundant hosts of i. uriae on the isle of may, scotland. as part of a study to understand the epidemiology of giv, the ability of guillemot and kittiwake to support tick-borne transmission of giv was examined. giv was present in ticks feeding in isolated guillemot colonies and g ...200616216136
[a comparative analysis of the helminth fauna of kittiwake rissa tridactyla (linnaeus, 1758) and glaucous gull larus hyperboreus gunnerus, 1767 from different parts of the barents sea].the article is based on the results of helminthological observations made on kittiwake rissa tridactyla and glaucous gull larus hyperboreus in 1991-2001 in different areas of the barents sea (eastern murman coast, franz josef land, novaya zemlya, spitzbergen). 18 helminth species (2 trematodes, 11 cestodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) were recorded in the kittiwakes and 19 (3 trematodes, 9 cestodes, 5 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans) species were recorded in the glaucous gulls. tremato ...200516396393
trace element and metallothionein concentrations in seabirds from the canadian arctic.livers and kidneys were collected for five seabird species from the canadian arctic during the 1983 and 1991 to 1993 breeding seasons. livers were analyzed for cd, hg, pb, and se, and kidneys were analyzed for cd, cu, zn, and metallothionein (mt). concentrations of the essential elements, cu and zn, were in agreement with those previously published in the literature. thick-billed murres (uria lomvia) from ivujivik on the hudson strait/hudson bay coast in northwestern quebec (canada) had the high ...200817944549
serosurvey for toxoplasma gondii in arctic foxes and possible sources of infection in the high arctic of svalbard.samples (blood or tissue fluid) from 594 arctic foxes (alopex lagopus), 390 svalbard reindeer (rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), 361 sibling voles (microtus rossiaemeridionalis), 17 walruses (odobenus rosmarus), 149 barnacle geese (branta leucopsis), 58 kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla), and 27 glaucous gulls (larus hyperboreus) from svalbard and nearby waters were assayed for antibodies against toxoplasma gondii using a direct agglutination test. the proportion of seropositive animals was 43% in ar ...200717950534
variable exposure and immunological response to lyme disease borrelia among north atlantic seabird species.colonial seabirds often breed in large aggregations. these individuals can be exposed to parasitism by the tick ixodes uriae, but little is known about the circulation of pathogens carried by this ectoparasite, including lyme disease borrelia. here we investigated the prevalence of antibodies (ab) against borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in seabird species sampled at eight locations across the north atlantic. using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests, we found that the prevalence of anti-borr ...200818577503
sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird.ecology letters (2010) 13: 1515-1524 abstract: sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. we experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitte ...201020961376
determining seabird body condition using nonlethal measures.abstract energy stores are critical for successful breeding, and longitudinal studies require nonlethal methods to measure energy stores ("body condition"). nonlethal techniques for measuring energy reserves are seldom verified independently. we compare body mass, size-corrected mass (scm), plasma lipids, and isotopic dilution with extracted total body lipid content in three seabird species (thick-billed murres uria lomvia, all four measures; northern fulmars fulmarus glacialis, three measures; ...201222237292
isolation of an english uukuvirus (family bunyaviridae).a virus of the uukuniemi serogroup was isolated from various organs of a moribund kittiwake (rissa tridactyla) and from ticks (ixodes uriae) that were feeding on the bird. the kittiwake was found on marsden beach, north-east england. this is the first virus in the family bunyaviridae to have been isolated in england and only the second english arthropod-borne virus after louping ill virus, family togaviridae (smith & varma, 1981). the possibility of infection of humans by uukuviruses is discusse ...06501877
bioaccumulation of pcbs in arctic seabirds: influence of dietary exposure and congener biotransformation.four seabird species and their prey (zooplankton or fish) were collected in the barents sea to determine how dietary exposure, cytochrome p450 (cyp) enzyme activities and sex influenced their hepatic pcb concentrations and accumulation patterns. five males and five females from each seabird species (little auk (alle alle), brunnich's guillemot (uria lomvia), black guillemot (cepphus grylle) and black-legged kittiwake (rissa tridactyla)) were analysed. pcb concentrations could not be explained di ...200515620585
female choice of young sperm in a genetically monogamous bird.when females copulate with multiple males the potential exists for female sperm choice. females may increase the probability of being fertilized by preferred males by selectively retaining their sperm while ejecting the sperm of unfavoured males. an alternative criterion to male quality for female sperm choice may be sperm age because old sperm degrade and can lead to zygote death or unhealthy offspring. here, we report that in a genetically monogamous bird, the black-legged kittiwake rissa trid ...200415252964
differential responses of arctic vegetation to nutrient enrichment by plankton- and fish-eating colonial seabirds in spitsbergen.the role of seabirds as sea-land biovectors of nutrients is well documented. however, no studies have examined whether and how colonial seabirds that differ in diet may influence terrestrial vegetation. therefore, the purpose of the study was to describe and compare plant communities located in the vicinity of the two most common types of seabird colonies in arctic, occupied by piscivorous or planktivorous species. within 46 plots arranged in four transects in the vicinity of planktivorous (litt ...201628083002
low density of top predators (seabirds and marine mammals) in the high arctic pack ice.the at-sea distribution of top predators, seabirds and marine mammals, was determined in the high arctic pack ice on board the icebreaker rv polarstern in july to september 2014. in total, 1,620 transect counts were realised, lasting 30 min each. the five most numerous seabird species represented 74% of the total of 15,150 individuals registered: kittiwake rissa tridactyla, fulmar fulmarus glacialis, puffin fratercula arctica, ross's gull rhodostethia rosea, and little auk alle alle. eight cetac ...201627777810
host-dependent genetic structure of parasite populations: differential dispersal of seabird tick host races.despite the fact that parasite dispersal is likely to be one of the most important processes influencing the dynamics and coevolution of host-parasite interactions, little information is available on the factors that affect it. in most cases, opportunities for parasite dispersal should be closely linked to host biology. here we use microsatellite genetic markers to compare the population structure and dispersal of two host races of the seabird tick ixodes uriae at the scale of the north atlantic ...200312683525
contaminant residues in seabird eggs from the canadian arctic. part i. temporal trends 1975-1998.concentrations of total mercury, selenium and a suite of organochlorine compounds were measured in eggs of thick-billed murres (uria lomvia), northern fulmars (fulmarus glacialis) and black-legged kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla) collected on prince leopold island in lancaster sound, nunavut, canada, between 1975 and 1998. mercury levels in thick-billed murre and northern fulmar eggs increased significantly during this period while selenium concentrations decreased significantly in northern fulmar ...200111444005
induced maternal response to the lyme disease spirochaete borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in a colonial seabird, the kittiwake rissa tridactyla.mothers are predicted to invest in their offspring depending on the quality of their mate, their opportunity to invest in future reproduction and the characteristics of the habitat in which their offspring will be born. recent studies have suggested a transfer of maternal immunity to offspring as an induced response to the local presence of parasites in the environment, but evidence has been indirect. here, we show the presence of antibodies against the lyme disease agent borrelia burgdorferi se ...200111297183
dispersal and distribution of the tick ixodes uriae within and among seabird host populations: the need for a population genetic approach.the aim of this study was to characterize the spatial distribution of the tick ixodes uriae within and among populations of its seabird hosts and to consider the potential insight that could be gained by a population genetic approach to the issue of dispersal of this tick. analyses of data collected around the avalon peninsula, newfoundland, indicated that both the prevalence and mean abundance of ticks varied significantly among sample locations. whereas ticks were found on all 4 host species e ...199910219295
isolation of soldado virus from a seabird (rissa tridactyla l.) in france. 19901975718
mercury concentrations in seabirds from colonies in the northeast mercury concentrations were determined in samples of body feathers from a range of common seabird species breeding at låtrabjarg, northwest iceland, st. kilda, foula and the firth of forth, scotland and bleiksøy, syltefjord, and hornøy, norway. seabirds from låtrabjarg generally exhibited the highest mercury concentrations, with a trend of decreasing mercury concentrations in a southwest to northeast direction in seabirds at the other colonies; seabirds at hornøy were generally found to ha ...19921456785
evaluation of seabirds in newfoundland and labrador, canada, as hosts of influenza a viruses.influenza a viruses infect a wide range of hosts, including many species of birds. avian influenza a virus (aiv) infection appears to be most common in anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans) and some charadriiformes (shorebirds and gulls), but many other birds also serve as hosts of aiv. here, we evaluated the role of seabirds as hosts for aiv. we tested 3,160 swab samples from 13 seabird species between may 2008 and december 2011 in newfoundland and labrador, canada. we also tested 156 serum sa ...201424171570
climate, copepods and seabirds in the boreal northeast atlantic - current state and future outlook.the boreal northeast atlantic is strongly affected by current climate change, and large shifts in abundance and distribution of many organisms have been observed, including the dominant copepod calanus finmarchicus, which supports the grazing food web and thus many fish populations. at the same time, large-scale declines have been observed in many piscivorous seabirds, which depend on abundant small pelagic fish. here, we combine predictions from a niche model of c. finmarchicus with long-term d ...201223504776
within and between species competition in a seabird community: statistical exploration and modeling of time-series a changing environment, the maintenance of communities is subject to many constraints (phenology, resources, climate, etc.). one such constraint is the relationship between conspecifics and competitors. in mixed colonies, seabirds may have to cope with interspecific and intraspecific competition for both space and food resources. we applied competitive interaction models to data on three seabird breeding populations: black-legged kittiwake (rissa tridactyla), common guillemot (uria aalge) and ...201122179331
hepatic antioxidant responses related to levels of pcbs and metals in chicks of three arctic seabird species.the efficiency of antioxidant defenses and relationship with body burden of metal and organic contaminants has not been previously investigated in arctic seabirds, neither in chicks nor in adults. the objective of this study was to compare such defenses in chicks from three species, black-legged kittiwake (rissa tridactyla), northern fulmar (fulmarus glacialis), and herring gull (larus argentatus), and the relationship with tissue concentrations of essential metals such as selenium and iron and ...201121377543
virological and serological surveillance for type a influenza in the black-legged kittiwake (rissa tridactyla).the epidemiology of avian influenza viruses (aivs) in gulls is only partially known. the role of the world's most numerous gull species, the black-legged kittiwake (rissa tridactyla), as a potential aiv reservoir species has been unclear. the prevalence of aiv and humoral response against aiv were therefore studied in a colony of apparently healthy black-legged kittiwakes breeding in a nesting cliff in the south west barents region of norway (70°22' n, 31°10' e), in 2008 and 2009.201121241499
changes in body composition during breeding: reproductive strategies of three species of seabirds under poor environmental conditions.seabirds differ dramatically in life history traits and breeding strategies. for example, gulls have short incubation shifts (several hours) and high metabolic rates, auks have medium-length incubation shifts (12-24h) and high metabolic rates, and petrels have long incubation shifts (days) and low metabolic rates. how these different strategies affect the dynamics of body components is poorly known. we compared body, organ and lipid mass changes among three different seabirds (gull: black-legged ...201020888927
current state of the populations of black-legged kittiwakes rissa tridactyla l., 1758 and guillemots uria aalge pontoppidan, 1763 and uria lomvia l., 1758 in colonies on the murman coast. 200919650325
levels and temporal trends (1983-2003) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecanes in seabird eggs from north norway.the present study assessed temporal trends (1983-2003) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) and hexabromocyclododecanes (hbcds) in eggs of herring gulls (larus argentatus), atlantic puffins (fratercula arctica), and black-legged kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla) in north norway. generally, pbde concentrations increased between 1983 and 1993 and then leveled out, although species-specific trends were reported. levels of alpha-hbcd increased in all species throughout the 20-year period. levels of ...200919102583
levels and temporal trends (1983-2003) of persistent organic pollutants (pops) and mercury (hg) in seabird eggs from northern norway.the main objective of this study was to investigate possible temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (pops) and mercury in eggs of herring gulls (larus argentatus), black-legged kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla), common guillemots (uria aalge) and atlantic puffins (fratercula arctica) in northern norway. eggs were collected in 1983, 1993 and 2003. egg concentrations of pops (pcb congeners iupac numbers: cb-28, 74, 66, 101, 99, 110, 149, 118, 153, 105, 141, 138, 187, 128, 156, 157, 180, 170, ...200818262696
interannual dynamics of antibody levels in naturally infected long-lived colonial birds.little is known about the long-term persistence of specific antibodies (ab) in natural host-parasite systems despite its potential epidemiological and ecological importance. in long-lived species, knowledge of the dynamics of individual immunological profiles can be important not only for interpreting serology results, but also for assessing transmission dynamics and the potential selective pressures acting on parasites. the aim of this paper was to investigate temporal variation in levels of sp ...200718229852
evidence of an interannual effect of maternal immunization on the immune response of juveniles in a long-lived colonial bird.little is known about the maternal transfer of antibodies in natural host-parasite systems despite its possible evolutionary and ecological implications. in domestic animals, the maternal transfer of antibodies can enhance offspring survival via a temporary protection against parasites, but it can also interfere with the juvenile immune response to antigens. we tested the functional role of maternal antibodies in a natural population of a long-lived colonial seabird, the kittiwake (rissa tridact ...200717922718
regional and species specific bioaccumulation of major and trace elements in arctic seabirds.twenty-five essential and nonessential elements were analyzed in arctic seabirds to study the influence of phylogeny, tissue, arctic region, and diet on avian element accumulation and to identify co-occurrence among metals. muscle and liver concentrations were positively correlated, generally being higher in liver than in muscle, and generally did not differ by sex. zinc showed the highest absolute concentrations in all samples (mean, 11.2-26.7 microg/g in muscle, depending on species and area), ...200617089716
a pelagic outbreak of avian cholera in north american gulls: scavenging as a primary mechanism for transmission?avian cholera, caused by the bacterium pasteurella multocida , is an endemic disease globally, often causing annual epizootics in north american wild bird populations with thousands of mortalities. from december 2006 to march 2007, an avian cholera outbreak caused mortality in marine birds off the coast of atlantic canada, largely centered 300-400 km off the coast of the island of newfoundland. scavenging gulls ( larus spp.) were the primary species detected; however, mortality was also identifi ...201627455197
organochlorine contaminants in seven species of arctic seabirds from northern baffin bay.organochlorine contaminants (ocs) were determined in liver and fat of seven species of seabirds (alle alle, uria lomvia, cepphus grylle, rissa tridactyla, pagophila eburnea, larus hyperboreus, and fulmaris glacialis) collected in may/june 1998 from the northwater polynya in northern baffin bay. oc concentrations ranged over an order of magnitude between seabird species and oc groups, with pcbs having the highest concentrations followed by ddt, chlordane, hch and clbz. positive relationships betw ...200414720475
examination of the bioaccumulation of halogenated dimethyl bipyrroles in an arctic marine food web using stable nitrogen isotope analysis.concentrations of four possibly naturally produced organohalogens--1,1'-dimethyl-3,3',4-tribromo-4,5,5'-trichloro-2,2'-bipyrrole (dbp-br3cl3), 1,1'-dimethyl-3,3',4,4'-tetrabromo-5,5'-dichloro-2,2'-bipyrrole (dbp-br4cl2), 1,1'-dimethyl-3,3',4,4',5-pentabromo-5'-chloro-2,2'-bipyrrole (dbp-br5cl) and 1,1'-dimethyl-3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexabromo-2,2'-bipyrrole (dbp-br6)--were quantitated and the extent of their magnification through an entire arctic marine food web [measured as integrated trophic magnific ...200211808557
relationships between persistent organic pollutants and circulating immunoglobulin-y in black-legged kittiwakes and atlantic puffins.have although persistent organic pollutants (pops) may affect the immune system, few field studies actually examined this effect. there are indications that pop exert effects on the immune system; however, in the arctic ecosystem data are scarce. the aim of this study was to examine immune functions in two medium trophic-positioned seabirds, the black-legged kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla) and atlantic puffins (fratercula arctica). overall pop concentrations were higher in kittiwakes than puffins ...201424754386
exposure of black-legged kittiwakes to lyme disease spirochetes: dynamics of the immune status of adult hosts and effects on their survival.1. despite a growing interest in wildlife disease ecology, there is a surprising lack of knowledge about the exposure dynamics of individual animals to naturally circulating infectious agents and the impact of such agents on host life-history traits. 2. the exploration of these questions requires detailed longitudinal data on individual animals that can be captured multiple times during their life but also requires being able to account for several sources of uncertainty, notably the partial obs ...201222428953
trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in eggs of canadian arctic seabirds reflect changing use patterns.due to the substantial use and release of polybrominated diphenyl ether (pbde) flame retardants in north america, pbde concentrations in north american marine biota are among the highest in the world. in this study, we compared pbde concentrations and congener patterns in eggs of five seabird species (thick-billed murres, northern fulmars, black guillemots, glaucous gulls, black-legged kittiwakes) breeding at a colony in the canadian arctic in 1993, 2008 and 2013. temporal trends of pbdes (1975- ...201526342589
persistent organic pollutant concentrations in fledglings of two arctic seabird species.persistent organic pollutants (pops) and stable isotopes were measured in muscle from fledglings of two arctic seabird species, northern fulmar (fulmarus glacialis) and black-legged kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla). the purpose was to compare pop concentrations between species, in an age class that is highly vulnerable to pops but little studied, relate to diet using stable isotopes, and quantify differences across life stages (egg to adult). northern fulmar fledglings had significantly higher pop ...201424121265
halogenated organic contaminants and their correlations with circulating thyroid hormones in developing arctic seabirds.thyroid hormones are essential for normal growth and development and disruption of thyroid homeostasis can be critical to young developing individuals. the aim of the present study was to assess plasma concentrations of halogenated organic contaminants (hocs) in chicks of two seabird species and to investigate possible correlations of hocs with circulating thyroid hormone (th) concentrations. plasma from black-legged kittiwake (rissa tridactyla) and northern fulmar (fulmarus glacialis) chicks we ...201222154184
lysosomal and lipid-associated parameters in the livers of three species of arctic seabird chicks: species differences and relationships with contaminant levels.lysosomal membrane stability, lipofuscin (lf), malondialdehyde (mda), neutral lipid (nl) levels, as well as halogenated organic compounds (hocs), cr, cd, pb and fe concentrations were analyzed in liver of black-legged kittiwake (bk), herring gull (hg), and northern fulmar (nf) chicks. there were significant species differences in the levels of nl, lf and lysosomal membrane stability. these parameters were not associated with the respective hoc concentrations. lf accumulation was associated with ...201121724205
biotransformation of pcbs in arctic seabirds: characterization of phase i and ii pathways at transcriptional, translational and activity levels.arctic seabirds are exposed to a wide range of halogenated organic contaminants (hocs). exposure occurs mainly through food intake, and many pollutants accumulate in lipid-rich tissues. little is known about how hocs are biotransformed in arctic seabirds. in this study, we characterized biotransformation enzymes in chicks of northern fulmars (fulmarus glacialis) and black-legged kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla) from kongsfjorden (svalbard, norway). phase i and ii enzymes were analyzed at the transc ...201020176133
differential effects of a local industrial sand lance fishery on seabird breeding performance.fisheries management across the world is moving toward an ecosystem-based approach, implying that fishery effects on nontarget species should be taken into account. however, such effects are often not well understood, partly because, they can be difficult to distinguish from impacts of environmental fluctuations. we evaluated the effects of an industrial sand lance (ammodytes marinus) fishery off the north sea coast of the united kingdom, which has been opened and closed in a quasi-experimental ...200818488628
a new species of coccidium (eimeria rissae n. sp. eimeriidae, sporozoa) from the kittiwake, rissa tridactyla tridactyla (l). 195713483609
maternal effects as drivers of sibling competition in a parent-offspring conflict context? an experimental test.maternal effects occur when the mother's phenotype influences her offspring's phenotype. in birds, differential allocation in egg yolk components can allow mothers to compensate for the competitive disadvantage of junior chicks. we hypothesize that the parent-older chick conflict peaks at intermediate conditions: parents benefit from the younger chick(s) survival, but its death benefits the older chick in terms of growth and survival. we thus expect maternal compensation to follow a bell-shaped ...201628725354
selective bioaccumulation of chlorinated pesticides and metabolites in arctic seabirds.chlorinated pesticides and metabolites (cps) were quantified in the seabird species: little auk (alle alle), brünnich's guillemot (uria lomvia), black guillemot (cepphus grylle) and black-legged kittiwake (rissa tridactyla). the purpose was to evaluate avian accumulation of selected cps based on their concentrations and relative patterns, their relation to dietary descriptors (stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen), to enzymes involved in biotransformation, as well as cps' accumulation potentia ...200716890332
effect of diet, location and sampling year on bioaccumulation of mercury, selenium and cadmium in pelagic feeding seabirds in svalbard.hepatic concentrations of mercury (hg), selenium (se) and cadmium (cd) were determined in black-legged kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla) and little auks (alle alle) from two fjords in svalbard (kongsfjorden; 78°57'n, 12°12'e and liefdefjorden; 79°37'n, 13°20'e). the inflow of arctic and atlantic water differs between the two fjords, potentially affecting element accumulation. trophic positions (tp) were derived from stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ(15)n), and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)c) w ...201525441931
migration and opportunistic feeding increase pcb accumulation in arctic is widely accepted that body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (pops) tend to increase with trophic level (tl). yet, little attention has been paid to the causes in the underlying differences in pop body concentrations between species occupying similar tls. in this paper we use two modeling approaches to quantify the importance of migration and opportunistic feeding, relative to that of trophic level, in explaining interspecific differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) body ...201324024972
temporal dynamics of top predators interactions in the barents sea.the barents sea system is often depicted as a simple food web in terms of number of dominant feeding links. the most conspicuous feeding link is between the northeast arctic cod gadus morhua, the world's largest cod stock which is presently at a historical high level, and capelin mallotus villosus. the system also holds diverse seabird and marine mammal communities. previous diet studies may suggest that these top predators (cod, bird and sea mammals) compete for food particularly with respect t ...201425365430
prey patch patterns predict habitat use by top marine predators with diverse foraging strategies.spatial coherence between predators and prey has rarely been observed in pelagic marine ecosystems. we used measures of the environment, prey abundance, prey quality, and prey distribution to explain the observed distributions of three co-occurring predator species breeding on islands in the southeastern bering sea: black-legged kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla), thick-billed murres (uria lomvia), and northern fur seals (callorhinus ursinus). predictions of statistical models were tested using movem ...201323301063
levels of ingested debris vary across species in canadian arctic seabirds.plastic debris has become a major pollutant in the world's oceans and is found in many seabird species from low to high latitudes. here we compare levels of plastic ingestion from two surface feeders, northern fulmars (fulmarus glacialis) and black-legged kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla), and two pursuit diving species, thick-billed murres (uria lomvia) and black guillemots (cepphus grylle) in the canadian high arctic. this is the first report quantifying plastic ingestion in kittiwakes in this reg ...201728069276
temporal trends of mercury in eggs of five sympatrically breeding seabird species in the canadian arctic.we compared temporal trends of total mercury (hg) in eggs of five seabird species breeding at prince leopold island in the canadian high arctic. as changes in trophic position over time have the potential to influence contaminant temporal trends, hg concentrations were adjusted for trophic position (measured as δ(15)n). adjusted hg concentrations in eggs of thick-billed murres (uria lomvia) and northern fulmars (fulmarus glacialis) increased from 1975 to the 1990s, followed by a plateauing of le ...201627074200
perfluorinated sulfonate and carboxylate compounds in eggs of seabirds breeding in the canadian arctic: temporal trends (1975-2011) and interspecies comparison.perfluorinated sulfonates (pfsas) and perfluorinated carboxylates (pfcas), as well as selected precursor compounds, were measured in eggs of thick-billed murres (uria lomvia) and northern fulmars (fulmarus glacialis) from prince leopold island in the canadian arctic between 1975 and 2011 as well as in eggs of three additional species (black guillemot cepphus grylle, black-legged kittiwake rissa tridactyla, glaucous gull larus hyperboreus) sampled in 2008. σpfca concentrations increased significa ...201323215357
arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in feathers of black-legged kittiwake (rissa tridactyla) and black oystercatcher (haematopus bachmani) from prince william sound, alaska.arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of black-legged kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla) from shoup bay in prince william sound, alaska to determine if there were age-related differences in metal levels, and in black oystercatchers (haematopus bachmani)) from the same region to determine if there were differences in oiled and unoiled birds. except for mercury, there were no age-related differences in metals levels in the feathers of kittiwakes ...200818440597
perfluorinated substances and telomeres in an arctic seabird: cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches.telomeres are non-coding dna repeats located at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes, regulated by dynamic processes balancing shortening and maintenance. despite a mechanism to slow-down telomere shortening, cell division leads to progressive attrition of chromosomes, leading to the onset of cellular senescence or apoptosis. however, telomere restoration based on telomerase activity is the primary mechanism for telomere maintenance. telomere length is associated to health and survival and can ...201728672148
contaminants and energy expenditure in an arctic seabird: organochlorine pesticides and perfluoroalkyl substances are associated with metabolic rate in a contrasted manner.basal metabolic rate (bmr), the minimal energetic cost of living in endotherms, is known to be influenced by thyroid hormones (ths) which are known to stimulate in vitro oxygen consumption of tissues in birds and mammals. several environmental contaminants may act on energy expenditure through their thyroid hormone-disrupting properties. however, the effect of contaminants on bmr is still poorly documented for wildlife. here, we investigated the relationships between three groups of contaminants ...201728554005
circumpolar dynamics of a marine top-predator track ocean warming warming is a nonlinear process, and temperature may increase in a stepwise manner. periods of abrupt warming can trigger persistent changes in the state of ecosystems, also called regime shifts. the responses of organisms to abrupt warming and associated regime shifts can be unlike responses to periods of slow or moderate change. understanding of nonlinearity in the biological responses to climate warming is needed to assess the consequences of ongoing climate change. here, we demonstrate ...201728387042
effects of developmental conditions on growth, stress and telomeres in black-legged kittiwake chicks.early-life conditions can drive ageing patterns and life history strategies throughout the lifespan. certain social, genetic and nutritional developmental conditions are more likely to produce high-quality offspring: those with good likelihood of recruitment and productivity. here, we call such conditions "favoured states" and explore their relationship with physiological variables during development in a long-lived seabird, the black-legged kittiwake (rissa tridactyla). two favoured states were ...201728370751
subglacial discharges create fluctuating foraging hotspots for sea birds in tidewater glacier bays.although the processes occurring at the front of an ice face in tidewater glacier bays still await thorough investigation, their importance to the rapidly changing polar environment is spurring a considerable research effort. glacier melting, sediment delivery and the formation of seabird foraging hotspots are governed by subglacial discharges of meltwater. we have combined the results of tracking black-legged kittiwakes rissa tridactyla equipped with gps loggers, analyses of satellite images an ...201728266602
temporal variation in circulating concentrations of organochlorine pollutants in a pelagic seabird breeding in the high arctic.the present study explored short-term temporal variations in circulating concentrations of 3 legacy organochlorines with different physicochemical properties (polychlorinated biphenyl 153 [pcb-153], p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [dde], and hexachlorobenzene [hcb]) in breeding kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla) in a colony in svalbard (78°n), norwegian arctic. concentrations were measured in blood of a large number (n = 412-521 blood samples, depending on the data analyses) of prebreeding, inc ...201727431537
estimating transitions between states using measurements with imperfect detection: application to serological data.classifying the states of an individual and quantifying transitions between states are crucial while modeling animal behavior, movement, and physiologic status. when these states are hidden or imperfectly known, it is particularly convenient to relate them to appropriate quantitative measurements taken on the individual. this task is, however, challenging when quantitative measurements are not available at each sampling occasion. for capture-recapture data, various ways of incorporating such non ...201324358701
dioxins, furans, and non-ortho pcbs in canadian arctic seabirds.this is the first account of pcdds, pcdfs, and non-ortho pcbs in canadian arctic seabirds. livers and eggs of thick-billed murres, northern fulmars, and black-legged kittiwakes were collected in 1975 and 1993 from prince leopold island in lancaster sound, canada. detectable concentrations of pcdds, pcdfs, and non-ortho pcbs were found in all the arctic seabird samples analyzed. of the pcdd congeners assayed, only 2,3,7,8-substituted pcdds were detected in the samples, whereas non-2,3,7,8-substit ...200312901652
cadmium, zinc, copper, arsenic, selenium and mercury in seabirds from the barents sea: levels, inter-specific and geographical differences.trace elements cd, zn, cu, as, se and hg were analysed in muscle and liver of brünnich's guillemot, common guillemot, puffin, black guillemot, little auk, razorbill, common eider, king eider, glaucous gull, herring gull, black-legged kittiwake, northern fulmar and arctic tern collected in 1991-1992 at the main breeding colonies in the barents sea. the highest levels of the most toxic elements cd and hg were found in birds nesting north of spitsbergen. extremely high levels of as were detected in ...200312699923
exposure to oxychlordane is associated with shorter telomeres in arctic breeding kittiwakes.telomeres are dna-protein complexes located at the end of chromosomes, which play an important role in maintaining the genomic integrity. telomeres shorten at each cell division and previous studies have shown that telomere length is related to health and lifespan and can be affected by a wide range of environmental factors. among them, some persistent organic pollutants (pops) have the potential to damage dna. however, the effect of pops on telomeres is poorly known for wildlife. here, we inves ...201627135574
wintering north pacific black-legged kittiwakes balance spatial flexibility and consistency.marine environments are inherently dynamic, yet marine predators are often long-lived and employ strategies where consistency, individual specialization, routine migrations, and spatial memory are key components to their foraging and life-history strategies. intrinsic determinates of animal movements are linked to physiological and life-history traits (e.g. sex, colony, experience), while extrinsic influences occur as the result of an animal's interactions with either other animals or the enviro ...201526500778
breeding density, fine-scale tracking, and large-scale modeling reveal the regional distribution of four seabird species.population-level estimates of species' distributions can reveal fundamental ecological processes and facilitate conservation. however, these may be difficult to obtain for mobile species, especially colonial central-place foragers (ccpfs; e.g., bats, corvids, social insects), because it is often impractical to determine the provenance of individuals observed beyond breeding sites. moreover, some ccpfs, especially in the marine realm (e.g., pinnipeds, turtles, and seabirds) are difficult to obser ...201728653410
influence of climate change and trophic coupling across four trophic levels in the celtic sea.climate change has had profound effects upon marine ecosystems, impacting across all trophic levels from plankton to apex predators. determining the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems requires understanding the direct effects on all trophic levels as well as indirect effects mediated by trophic coupling. the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of climate change on the pelagic food web in the celtic sea, a productive shelf region in the northeast atlantic. using long-term ...201223091621
an experimental test of host specialization in a ubiquitous polar ectoparasite: a role for adaptation?the evolution of host specificity is considered to be an essential mechanism driving parasite diversity. it may be governed by adaptive constraints that lead to host-dependent fitness trade-offs. alternatively, specificity may arise via transmission constraints that isolate parasite populations, without necessarily involving adaptation per se. here, we ask whether the repeated observation of host-associated genetic races across the worldwide distribution of the seabird ectoparasite ixodes uriae ...201424467400
carry-over effects of food supplementation on recruitment and breeding performance of long-lived seabirds.supplementation of food to wild animals is extensively applied as a conservation tool to increase local production of young. however, in long-lived migratory animals, the carry-over effects of food supplementation early in life on the subsequent recruitment of individuals into natal populations and their lifetime reproductive success are largely unknown. we examine how experimental food supplementation early in life affects: (i) recruitment as breeders of kittiwakes rissa tridactyla born in a co ...201526180065
opportunistic sampling to quantify plastics in the diet of unfledged black legged kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla), northern fulmars (fulmarus glacialis) and great cormorants (phalacrocorax carbo).seabirds can interact with marine litter, mainly by entanglement or ingestion. the ingestion of plastics can lead to starvation or physical damage to the digestive tract. for chicks, it could additionally lead to reduced growth, affecting survival and fledging. this study quantified the ingestion of plastics by seabird chicks via an opportunistic sampling strategy. when ringing is carried out at colonies, birds may spontaneously regurgitate their stomach contents due to the stress or as a defenc ...201728431743
increased adrenal responsiveness and delayed hatching date in relation to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in arctic-breeding black-legged kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla).high levels of environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), organochlorine pesticides (ocps) and mercury (hg) have been reported in some arctic top predators such as seabirds. chronic exposure to these contaminants might alter the response to environmental changes through interference with the regulation of corticosterone (cort), a glucocorticoid stress hormone released by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (hpa) axis. positive and negative relationships between cort and e ...201525796954
sources of organochlorine contaminants and mercury in seabirds from the aleutian archipelago of alaska: inferences from spatial and trophic variation.persistent organochlorine compounds and mercury (hg) have been detected in numerous coastal organisms of the aleutian archipelago of alaska, yet sources of these contaminants are unclear. we collected glaucous-winged gulls, northern fulmars, and tufted puffins along a natural longitudinal gradient across the western and central aleutian islands (buldir, kiska, amchitka, adak), and an additional 8 seabird species representing different foraging and migratory guilds from buldir island to evaluate: ...200818692865
survival rate and breeding outputs in a high arctic seabird exposed to legacy persistent organic pollutants and mercury.chronic exposure to pollutants may represent a threat for wildlife. we tested whether adult survival rate, breeding probability and breeding success the year of sampling and the following year were affected by blood levels of mercury or persistent organic pollutants in svalbard black-legged kittiwake rissa tridactyla, by using capture-mark-recapture models over a five-year period. survival rate was negatively linked to hcb levels in females, to chlordane mixture and oxychlordane, tended to decre ...201525686882
temporal trends of organochlorines and mercury in seabird eggs from the canadian arctic, 1975-2003.organochlorine pesticides, pcbs, total mercury and selenium were measured in eggs of thick-billed murres, northern fulmars and black-legged kittiwakes collected from prince leopold island in the canadian high arctic between 1975 and 2003. the primary organochlorines found were sigmapcb, p,p'-dde, oxychlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (hcb). most of organochlorines analyzed showed either significant declines or no significant change between 1975 and 2003 in all three species. however, significant i ...200717240500
protracted treatment with corticosterone reduces breeding success in a long-lived bird.determining the physiological mechanisms underpinning life-history decisions is essential for understanding the constraints under which life-history strategies can evolve. in long-lived species, where the residual reproductive value of breeders is high, adult survival is a key contributor to lifetime reproductive success. we therefore expect that when adult survival is compromised during reproduction, mechanisms will evolve to redirect resources away from reproduction, with implications for repr ...201525449182
the prudent parent meets old age: a high stress response in very old seabirds supports the terminal restraint hypothesis.the reproductive success of wild animals usually increases with age before declining at the end of life, but the proximate mechanisms underlying those patterns remain elusive. young animals are expected to invest less in current reproduction due to high prospects for future reproduction (the "restraint" hypothesis). the oldest animals may also show restraint when conditions are sub-optimal where even a small increase in reproductive investment may lead to death ("terminal restraint"). alternativ ...201425448533
preen secretions encode information on mhc similarity in certain sex-dyads in a monogamous seabird.animals are known to select mates to maximize the genetic diversity of their offspring in order to achieve immunity against a broader range of pathogens. although several bird species preferentially mate with partners that are dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (mhc), it remains unknown whether they can use olfactory cues to assess mhc similarity with potential partners. here we combined gas chromatography data with genetic similarity indices based on mhc to test whether similari ...201425370306
inter- and intra-year variation in foraging areas of breeding kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla).while seabird conservation efforts have largely focused on protection from threats at the colony (e.g. reducing disturbance and predation), attention is increasingly being given to implementing protection measures for foraging areas at sea. for this to be effective, important foraging areas must be identified. although numerous studies have examined seabird foraging behaviour, information is still lacking on the variability in area utilisation within and among breeding seasons. gps devices were ...201425170176
foraging responses of black-legged kittiwakes to prolonged food-shortages around colonies on the bering sea shelf.we hypothesized that changes in southeastern bering sea foraging conditions for black-legged kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla) have caused shifts in habitat use with direct implications for population trends. to test this, we compared at-sea distribution, breeding performance, and nutritional stress of kittiwakes in three years (2008-2010) at two sites in the pribilof islands, where the population has either declined (st. paul) or remained stable (st. george). foraging conditions were assessed from ...201424671108
the stress of being contaminated? adrenocortical function and reproduction in relation to persistent organic pollutants in female black legged kittiwakes.high levels of environmental pollutants such as persistent organic pollutants (pops) including pcb and ddt have been found in the arctic and many of those pollutants may impair reproduction through endocrine disruption. nevertheless, their effects on stress hormones remain poorly understood, especially in free-ranging birds. corticosterone, the principal glucocorticoid in birds, can indirectly impair reproduction. the aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between pops and rep ...201424496028
migration and stress during reproduction govern telomere dynamics in a seabird.changes in telomere length are believed to reflect changes in physiological state and life expectancy in animals. however, much remains unknown about the determinants of telomere dynamics in wild populations, and specifically the influence of conditions during highly mobile life-history stages, for example migration. we tested whether telomere dynamics were associated with migratory behaviour and/or with stress during reproduction in free-living seabirds. we induced short-term stress during repr ...201424429681
physiological and fitness correlates of experimentally altered hatching asynchrony magnitude in chicks of a wild seabird.nest-bound chicks depend entirely on their parents for food, often leading to high sibling competition. asynchronous hatching, resulting from the onset of incubation before clutch completion, facilitates the establishment of within-nest hierarchy, with younger chicks being subject to lower feeding and growth rates. because social and nutritional stresses affect baseline stress hormone levels in birds, younger chicks are expected to have higher levels of corticosterone than their siblings. as pre ...201424380674
windscapes shape seabird instantaneous energy costs but adult behavior buffers impact on offspring.windscapes affect energy costs for flying animals, but animals can adjust their behavior to accommodate wind-induced energy costs. theory predicts that flying animals should decrease air speed to compensate for increased tailwind speed and increase air speed to compensate for increased crosswind speed. in addition, animals are expected to vary their foraging effort in time and space to maximize energy efficiency across variable windscapes.201426019870
integument colouration in relation to persistent organic pollutants and body condition in arctic breeding black-legged kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla).vertebrates cannot synthetize carotenoids de novo but have to acquire them through their diet. in birds, carotenoids are responsible for the yellow to red colouration of many secondary sexual traits. they are also involved in physiological functions such as immunostimulation and immunoregulation. consequently, carotenoid-based colouration is very often considered as a reliable signal for health and foraging abilities. although a few studies have suggested that carotenoid-based coloured traits co ...201424140695
differential reproductive responses to stress reveal the role of life-history strategies within a strategies describe that 'slow'- in contrast to 'fast'-living species allocate resources cautiously towards reproduction to enhance survival. recent evidence suggests that variation in strategies exists not only among species but also among populations of the same species. here, we examined the effect of experimentally induced stress on resource allocation of breeding seabirds in two populations with contrasting life-history strategies: slow-living pacific and fast-living atlantic b ...201324089339
thyroid hormones correlate with resting metabolic rate, not daily energy expenditure, in two charadriiform seabirds.thyroid hormones affect in vitro metabolic intensity, increase basal metabolic rate (bmr) in the lab, and are sometimes correlated with basal and/or resting metabolic rate (rmr) in a field environment. given the difficulty of measuring metabolic rate in the field-and the likelihood that capture and long-term restraint necessary to measure metabolic rate in the field jeopardizes other measurements-we examined the possibility that circulating thyroid hormone levels were correlated with rmr in two ...201323789108
to breed or not to breed: endocrine response to mercury contamination by an arctic seabird.mercury, a ubiquitous toxic element, is known to alter expression of sex steroids and to impair reproduction across vertebrates but the mechanisms underlying these effects are not clearly identified. we examined whether contamination by mercury predicts the probability to skip reproduction in black-legged kittiwakes (rissa tridactyla) from svalbard. we also manipulated the endocrine system to investigate the mechanism underlying this relationship. during the pre-laying period, we injected exogen ...201323720523
endocrine and fitness correlates of long-chain perfluorinated carboxylates exposure in arctic breeding black-legged kittiwakes.increasing levels of poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (pfass) have recently been described in arctic biota. these emerging substances are of concern given their resistance to degradation and metabolization. some studies have reported endocrine disrupting effects for some pfass. however, there is a gap of knowledge on the potential relationships between pfass and hormones mediating the life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival, such as glucocorticoids. the aims of this stu ...201425369114
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