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birth of siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) cubs after transvaginal artificial insemination.a captive 9-yr-old female siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) at the lisbon zoo was treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin followed 80 hr later by human chorionic gonadotropin to stimulate follicular development and ovulation, respectively. forty-one hours after the second hormone administration, the tiger was subjected to transvaginal artificial insemination with diluted fresh semen containing 500 x 10(6) motile spermatozoa obtained from an 8-yr-old male siberian tiger via electroejacu ...200011428407
ultrastructure of oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early embryo development in vitro in the siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).the application of assisted reproduction techniques to wild cats has been stalled by a lack of basic knowledge of the reproductive biology in these species. in this study, the ultrastructure of siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) cumulus-oocyte-complexes (cocs), as well as in vitro produced (ivp) zygotes and embryos were investigated, to estimate the normality of the manipulated reproduction processes. adult female tigers were subjected to a purified porcine pfsh/plh stimulation treatment f ...200212211064
immunoreactive luteinizing hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and androstenedione levels during the breeding season and anestrus in siberian tigers.seasonal analysis of 1239 captive births of siberian tigers (panthera tigris altaica) indicated a peak in april to june (p less than 0.001). studies on seven animals in minnesota indicated that behavioral heat cycles and ovarian follicular phase cycles began in late january and ceased in early june. behavioral observation of 12 heat cycles in four tigers yielded an estrous length of 5.3 +/- 0.2 days and an interestrous interval of 25.0 +/- 1.3 days. hormone assays on weekly blood samples (n = 18 ...19853986268
irradiation of diets fed to captive exotic felids: microbial destruction, consumption, and fecal consistency.two frozen, raw horse meat-based diets fed to captive exotic felids at brookfield zoo were irradiated to determine the extent of microbial destruction and whether radiation treatment would affect consumption and/or fecal consistency in exotic cats. fifteen cats, two african lions (panthera leo), two amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica), one amur leopard (panthera pardus orientalis), two clouded leopards (neofelis nebulosa), two caracals (felis caracal), one bobcat (felis rufus), and five fishin ...200112785680
generalized aa-amyloidosis in siberian tigers (panthera tigris altaica) with predominant renal medullary amyloid deposition.generalized amyloidosis with predominant renal medullary amyloid deposition was found in four closely related siberian tigers (panthera tigris altaica) suffering from end stage kidney diseases. only minimal to mild amounts of amyloid were deposited in various organs outside the kidneys with individually variable organ involvement. the congo red staining affinity of amyloid deposits was sensitive to potassium permanganate oxidation. the deposits were further characterized as being of the amyloid- ...19989545138
efficacy of porcine gonadotropins for repeated stimulation of ovarian activity for oocyte retrieval and in vitro embryo production and cryopreservation in siberian tigers (panthera tigris altaica).a comparison of the amino acid sequences demonstrated that siberian tiger gonadotropins are more homologous with those of porcine than any other commercially available preparation. the present study measured the efficacy of repeated ovarian stimulation with purified porcine gonadotropins on the follicular, hormonal, and immunogenic responses in siberian tigers as well as on the ability of oocytes retrieved by laparoscopic follicular aspiration to fertilize and cleave in vitro. controlled rate an ...200312493701
genetic characterization of feline parvovirus sequences from various carnivores.infections with viruses of the feline parvovirus subgroup such as feline panleukopenia virus (fpv), mink enteritis virus (mev) and canine parvovirus (cpv-2) [together with its new antigenic types (cpv-2a, cpv-2b)] have been reported from several wild carnivore species. to examine the susceptibility of different species to the various parvoviruses and their antigenic types, samples from wild carnivores with acute parvovirus infections were collected. viral dna was amplified, and subsequently anal ...200010644832
amino acid sequence of the amur tiger prion protein.prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in human and animal associated with conformational conversion of a cellular prion protein (prp(c)) into the pathologic isoform (prp(sc)). various data indicate that the polymorphisms within the open reading frame (orf) of prp are associated with the susceptibility and control the species barrier in prion diseases. in the present study, partial prnp from 25 amur tigers (tprnp) were cloned and screened for polymorphisms. four single nucleotide p ...200616780982
cloning, characterization and tissue specific expression of amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) igf-i.insulin-like growth factor i (igf-i) plays an important role in regulating gonad function, which is essential for normal reproduction in animals, especially in sexual receptivity and reproductive behavior. in this study, a cdna encoding amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) igf-i was isolated from liver total rna using rt-pcr. the igf-i cdna of amur tiger (atigf-i) was highly homologous to that of other animals, 84.8% to rat, 93.7% to human and horse. alignment analysis showed that the cysteine r ...200616926496
cell cycle analysis and interspecies nuclear transfer of in vitro cultured skin fibroblasts of the siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).the present study was conducted to examine the effect of cell culture conditions, antioxidants, protease inhibitors (pi), and different levels of dimethylsulfoxide (dmso) for the promotion of synchronization of different cell cycles of siberian tiger skin fibroblasts. we also compared the ability of somatic cell nuclei of the siberian tiger in pig cytoplasts and to support early development after reconstruction. cell cycle synchronization between nuclear donor and recipient cells is considered t ...200717075834
seroepidemiology of toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern united states.toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to t. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. seroprevalence of t. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern united states was determined by using the modified agglutination test (mat). a titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of t. ...200818605803
pyelonephritis associated with staphylococcus intermedius in a siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).pyelonephritis, in which staphylococcus intermedius was isolated, was diagnosed in a 4-year-old female siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica). at necropsy, the renal pelvis was dilated with a large amount of purulent exudates. microscopically, the lesions of renal pelvis and medulla consisted of necrotic foci intermingled primarily with numerous degenerative neutrophils and a few lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. bacteriology showed the presence of s. intermedius. this is the first re ...200717827895
ultrastructure of the domestic tom cat (felis domestica ) and tiger (panthera tigris altaica ) spermatozoa.the ultrastructure of spermatozoa from the domestic tom cat and the siberian tiger was studied. semen was collected from anesthetized tom cats and siberian tigers by electroejaculation. spermatozoa were fixed and processed for examination by transmission electron microscopy. the principle differences between the spermatozoa from the two species were the head shape, mitochondrial organization in the neck area and structure of the fibrous sheath. tom cat spermatozoa had an elongated oval-shaped he ...198916726601
coprology of panthera tigris altaica and felis bengalensis euptilurus from the russian far east.fecal samples from the siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) and the amur cat (felis bengalensis euptilurus) from far eastern russia, were examined for parasites. a natural sedimentation methodology was used and a complete examination of all the sediment was performed. this fecal investigation allowed us to isolate and identify several developmental stages of gastrointestinal, hepatic, and respiratory parasites. five parasites were found from p. t. altaica: 11 trematodes (platynosomum fastosu ...200717918383
perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in the amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) from china.perfluorinated compounds (pfcs) are used in a variety of industrial applications. we tested the hypothesis that, in amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica), captivity in industrialized areas increases pfc levels, potentially presenting a health risk to these animals. serum samples were collected from 100 tigers from industrialized or nonindustrialized regions in china with nonpoint sources of pfcs. mean concentrations of pfcs in these samples ranged from 1.57 +/- 0.83 ng/ml in nonindustrial hailin ...200818939529
mitochondrial phylogeography illuminates the origin of the extinct caspian tiger and its relationship to the amur tiger.the caspian tiger (panthera tigris virgata) flourished in central asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. for over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. using ancient-dna (adna) methodology, we generated composite mtdna haplotypes from twenty wild caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sam ...200919142238
[land use pattern and its dynamic changes in amur tiger distribution region].land use and land cover change has been the primary cause for the habitat loss and fragmentation in the distribution region of amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica). based on the spatiotemporal changes of land use and land cover in the distribution region, as well as their effects on the population dynamics of amur tiger, this paper analyzed the development process and its characteristics of the main land use types (agricultural land, forest land, and construction land) in this region, with the l ...200919637615
evaluation of nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics of exotic felids fed horse- or beef-based diets: use of the domestic cat as a model for exotic felids.the objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding commercially available beef- and horse-based diets on nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics of large captive exotic felids and domestic cats. four species of large exotic felids including cheetahs, malayan tigers, jaguars, and amur tigers, and domestic cats were utilized in a crossover design. raw meat diets included a beef-based diet (57% protein; 28% fat) and a horse-based diet (51% protein; 30% fat). all cats were ...201019830746
serosurvey of free-ranging amur tigers in the russian far east.wild amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica, n=44) from the russian far east were tested for antibodies to feline leukemia virus, feline corona virus (fcov), feline immunodeficiency virus, feline parvovirus (fpv), canine distemper virus (cdv), toxoplasma gondii, and bartonella henselae. antibodies to fcov, cdv, fpv, and t. gondii were detected in 43, 15, 68, and 42% of tigers, respectively. no differences were detected in antibody prevalence estimates between tigers captured as part of a research ...201222247389
canine distemper virus as a threat to wild tigers in russia and across their range.canine distemper virus (cdv) has recently been identified in populations of wild tigers in russia and india. tiger populations are generally too small to maintain cdv for long periods, but are at risk of infections arising from more abundant susceptible hosts that constitute a reservoir of infection. because cdv is an additive mortality factor, it could represent a significant threat to small, isolated tiger populations. in russia, cdv was associated with the deaths of tigers in 2004 and 2010, a ...201525939829
estimating the potential impact of canine distemper virus on the amur tiger population (panthera tigris altaica) in russia.lethal infections with canine distemper virus (cdv) have recently been diagnosed in amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica), but long-term implications for the population are unknown. this study evaluates the potential impact of cdv on a key tiger population in sikhote-alin biosphere zapovednik (sabz), and assesses how cdv might influence the extinction potential of other tiger populations of varying sizes. an individual-based stochastic, sird (susceptible-infected-recovered/dead) model was used t ...201425354196
canine distemper virus (cdv) in another big cat: should cdv be renamed carnivore distemper virus?one of the greatest threats to the conservation of wild cat populations may be dogs or, at least, one of their viruses. canine distemper virus (cdv), a single-stranded rna virus in the paramyxoviridae family and genus morbillivirus, infects and causes disease in a variety of species, not just canids. an outbreak of cdv in wild lions in the serengeti, tanzania, in 1994 was a wake-up call for conservationists, as it demonstrated that an infectious disease could swiftly impact a previously healthy ...201324045642
canine distemper virus: an emerging disease in wild endangered amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica).fewer than 500 amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica) remain in the wild. due to low numbers and their solitary and reclusive nature, tiger sightings across their range in the russian far east and china are rare; sightings of sick tigers are rarer still. serious neurologic disease observed in several wild tigers since 2001 suggested disease emergence in this endangered species. to investigate this possibility, histology, immunohistochemistry (ihc), in situ hybridization (ish), and reverse transcr ...201323943758
morbillivirus infection in a wild siberian tiger in the russian far east.we report the first documented case of morbillivirus infection in a wild, free-ranging siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica). the tigress entered a small village in the russian far east in an ambulatory but stuporous state with no apparent recognition or fear of humans. her condition progressed rapidly with neurological signs, anorexia, and ultimately death. histologic lesions included vacuolated to malacic white matter in the brain stem, cerebellum, and thalamus, with associated lymphocytic ...201020966275
estimating the population size and genetic diversity of amur tigers in northeast china.over the past century, the endangered amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) has experienced a severe contraction in demography and geographic range because of habitat loss, poaching, and prey depletion. in its historical home in northeast china, there appears to be a single tiger population that includes tigers in southwest primorye and northeast china; however, the current demographic status of this population is uncertain. information on the abundance, distribution and genetic diversity of this ...201627100387
hemorrhagic enterocolitis and death in two felines (panthera tigris altaica and panthera leo) associated with clostridium perfringens type a.severe hemorrhagic enterocolitis was observed in a siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) and a lion (panthera leo). both animals developed acute depression, anorexia, and bloody diarrhea several days before death. small and large intestines were diffusely congested, edematous, necrotic, and filled with hemorrhagic fluid, and mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged and congested. pure and abundant growth of gram-positive bacilli was obtained in culture under anaerobic conditions from the livers o ...201222779248
habitat evaluation of wild amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) and conservation priority setting in north-eastern china.the amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) is one of the world's most endangered species. recently, habitat fragmentation, food scarcity and human hunting have drastically reduced the population size and distribution areas of amur tigers in the wild, leaving them on the verge of extinction. presently, they are only found in the north-eastern part of china. in this study, we developed a reference framework using methods and technologies of analytic hierarchy process (ahp), remote sensing (rs), geog ...201120828917
characterization of integron-mediated antimicrobial resistance among escherichia coli strains isolated from a captive population of amur tigers in china.the present study was undertaken to identify and characterize integrons and integrated resistance gene cassettes among multidrug resistant escherichia coli isolates from a captive population of amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica) in china. in addition, the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and class i integrons was assessed in e. coli strains (n = 61) isolated from a captive population of amur tigers in heilongjiang amur tiger park, china. among the isolates, 52.46% (32 of 61) were positi ...201324450054
behavioral responses to mammalian blood odor and a blood odor component in four species of large carnivores.only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals as the whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles in mammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(e)-2-decenal to evoke a typical "metallic, blood-like" odor quality in humans. we therefore assessed the behavior of captive asian wild dogs (cuon a ...201425383706
molecular cloning and functional characterization of eleven subtypes of interferon-α in amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica).interferon has a broad-spectrum of antiviral effects and represents an ideal choice for the development of antiviral drugs. nonetheless, information about alpha interferon (ifn-α) is vacant in amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica), an endangered species and indigenous to northeast asia. herein, 11 ptifn-αs genes, which encoded proteins of 164-165 amino acids, were amplified. afterwards, expression and purification were conducted in escherichia coli. in physicochemical analysis, ptifn-αs were show ...201728751224
influence of dietary fiber type and amount on energy and nutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations in captive exotic felids fed a raw beef-based diet.little nutritional or metabolic information has been collected from captive exotic cats fed raw diets. in particular, fiber types and concentrations for use in raw meat-based diets for captive exotic felids have not been well studied. our objective was to evaluate the effects of fiber type and concentration on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-products in captive exotic felids. four animals of each captive exotic specie ...201323463568
[diversity of faecal bacteria in several mammals by 454 high-throughput sequencing].the aim of this study was to analyze the diversities and differences of several mammalian' s faecal bacteria, to understand the relationships between bacterium diversities and animals' evolutionary and animals' feeds.201526562992
neocortical neuronal morphology in the siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) and the clouded leopard (neofelis nebulosa).despite extensive investigations of the neocortex in the domestic cat, little is known about neuronal morphology in larger felids. to this end, the present study characterized and quantified the somatodendritic morphology of neocortical neurons in prefrontal, motor, and visual cortices of the siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) and clouded leopard (neofelis nebulosa). after neurons were stained with a modified golgi technique (n = 194), dendritic branching and spine distributions were analy ...201627098982
identifying ecological corridors for amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica) and amur leopards (panthera pardus orientalis).the rapid explosion of human populations and the associated development of human-dominated landscapes have drastically reduced and fragmented habitat for tigers (panthera tigris) and leopards (panthera pardus) across asia, resulting in multiple small populations. however, amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) habitat in russia has remained largely interconnected, except for a break between tigers in southwest primorye and the southern sikhote-alin mountains. this habitat patch in southwest primor ...201526096589
mortality of amur tigers: the more things change, the more they stay the same.poaching as well as loss of habitat and prey are identified as causes of tiger population declines. although some studies have examined habitat requirements and prey availability, few studies have quantified cause-specific mortality of tigers. we used cumulative incidence functions (cifs) to quantify cause-specific mortality rates of tigers, expanding and refining earlier studies to assess the potential impact of a newly emerging disease. to quantify changes in tiger mortality over time, we re-e ...201526096683
systemic calicivirus epidemic in captive exotic felids.a 5-day-old, mother-raised, amur tiger cub (panthera tigris altaica) presented with tongue ulcerations. identical lesions appeared and progressed to sloughing of the tongue in the three littermates of this cub the following day. the lesions progressed in all cubs to include sloughing of the carpal, tarsal, metacarpal, and metatarsal foot pad epithelium. oral ulcerations were also noted in adult african lions (panthera leo) and amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica), but not in two adult snow leop ...200717679514
detection of hepatozoon felis in ticks collected from free-ranging amur tigers ( panthera tigris altaica), russian far east, 2002-12.we collected 69 ticks from nine, free-ranging amur tigers ( panthera tigris altaica) between 2002 and 2011 and investigated them for tick-borne pathogens. dna was extracted using alkaline digestion and pcr was performed to detect apicomplexan organisms. partial 18s rdna amplification products were obtained from 14 ticks from four tigers, of which 13 yielded unambiguous nucleotide sequence data. comparative sequence analysis revealed all 13 partial 18s rdna sequences were most similar to those be ...201627243154
a comparison of food habits and prey preference of amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) at three sites in the russian far east.prey availability is one of the principal drivers of tiger distribution and abundance. therefore, formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger diet. we used scat analysis in combination with data on the abundance of several prey species to estimate amur tiger diet and preference at 3 sites in the russian far east. we also examined the effect of pseudoreplication on estimates of tiger diet. we collected 770 scats across the 3 sites. similar to previous stu ...201525939758
the amur tiger in northeast asia: conservation and ecology of an endangered subspecies. 201526096297
amur tiger conservation education program: a pilot study on program effectiveness.anthropogenic impacts are the primary threats to amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica) and their habitat. villagers living in proximity to tigers tend to view them negatively and, often, as a source of revenue on black markets. we aim to reduce human-tiger conflict by working with young students of ternei county in the heart of tiger habitat in primorskii krai (province). to inform and influence ternei county's future decision-makers, we developed "safe conduct", a year-long education program he ...201526096458
maxillary calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor in a siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica). 201526415389
simultaneous occurrence of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and brunner's gland adenoma in a siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).we describe a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and brunner's gland adenoma in an 18-year-old male siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) from the ljubljana zoo. the tiger was humanely destroyed due to weakness and progressive weight loss. necropsy examination revealed a large, grey, predominantly necrotic mass replacing the major part of the pancreatic body. microscopically, the mass was unencapsulated, poorly demarcated, highly cellular and composed of highly pleomorphic, cuboidal to tall co ...201526422412
indicators of success for smart law enforcement in protected areas: a case study for russian amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) reserves.although considerable conservation resources have been committed to develop and use law enforcement monitoring and management tools such as smart, measures of success are ill-defined and, to date, few reports detail results post-implementation. here, we present 4 case studies from protected areas with amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica) in russia, in which indicators of success were defined and evaluated at each. the ultimate goal was an increase in tiger numbers to 1 individual/100 km(2) at e ...201626458501
genetic structure of the amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) population: are tigers in sikhote-alin and southwest primorye truly isolated?we used molecular genetic analyses to noninvasively identify individual amur tigers and define subpopulations of tigers in the russian far east. we identified 63 individuals after genotyping 256 feces, 7 hair and 11 blood samples collected within southern, central and northern sikhote-alin, as well as southwest primorye. analysis of nuclear dna at 9 microsatellite loci demonstrated greater genetic similarity between animals from southern and northern sikhote-alin (some 500 km apart) than between ...201626663570
[specific features of feeding of the amur tiger panthera tigris altaica (carnivora, felidae) in a densely populated locality (with reference to bol'shekhekhtsirskii reserve and its environs)].specific features of feeding of the amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) in the bol'shekhekhtsirskii reserve located in a densely populated locality (only 15 km to the north of it is the city of khabarovsk) have been investigated. for a long time (1992-2000) the diet of tigers consisted 100% of wild animals, although the accessibility of domestic animals, dogs, in particular, was high. from 2000 to 2007, in their feeding, the proportion of dogs increased (up to 47%), and the proportion of wild a ...201622834318
a comparison of reproductive parameters of female amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica) in the wild and captivity.a healthy population of captive amur tigers might assist recovery of the wild population in northeast china if individuals were properly prepared and considered suitable for release in the wild. we analyzed the breeding records of 68 female amur tigers from 1995 to 2010 in the hengdaohezi felid breeding center of china and compared the reproductive parameters of this population to wild female amur tigers. we found that the reproductive parameters of the captive population (the age of first partu ...201626663661
estimating abundance and density of amur tigers along the sino-russian border.as an apex predator the amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) could play a pivotal role in maintaining the integrity of forest ecosystems in northeast asia. due to habitat loss and harvest over the past century, tigers rapidly declined in china and are now restricted to the russian far east and bordering habitat in nearby china. to facilitate restoration of the tiger in its historical range, reliable estimates of population size are essential to assess effectiveness of conservation interventions. ...201627136188
analysis of odorants in marking fluid of siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) using simultaneous sensory and chemical analysis with headspace solid-phase microextraction and multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry.scent-marking is the most effective method of communication in the presence or absence of a signaler. these complex mixtures result in a multifaceted interaction triggered by the sense of smell. the objective was to identify volatile organic compound (voc) composition and odors emitted by total marking fluid (mf) associated with siberian tigers (panthera tigris altaica). siberian tiger, an endangered species, was chosen because its mf had never been analyzed. solid phase microextraction (spme) f ...201627347921
de novo transcriptomic analysis and development of est-ssr markers in the siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).the siberian tiger, panthera tigris altaica, is an endangered species, and much more work is needed to protect this species, which is still vulnerable to extinction. conservation efforts may be supported by the genetic assessment of wild populations, for which highly specific microsatellite markers are required. however, only a limited amount of genetic sequence data is available for this species. to identify the genes involved in the lung transcriptome and to develop additional simple sequence ...201627631966
social structure and space use of amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica) in southern russian far east based on gps telemetry data.to better understand the spatial structure of amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica) at the southern edge of their range we fitted 14 tigers (6♀♀ and 8♂♂) with 15 gps-argos collars between 2008 and 2011 in 2 study sites: the ussuriskii reserve of southern sikhote-alin and the land of the leopard national park in southwest primorye, russian far east. fixed kernel estimates of male home ranges were larger than those of female home ranges (p < 0.05 [mean 95% fixed kernel(♀) = 401 ± 205 km(2) ; mean ...201526037451
noninvasive genetics provides insights into the population size and genetic diversity of an amur tiger population in china.understanding population size and genetic diversity is critical for effective conservation of endangered species. the amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) is the largest felid and a flagship species for wildlife conservation. due to habitat loss and human activities, available habitat and population size are continuously shrinking. however, little is known about the true population size and genetic diversity of wild tiger populations in china. in this study, we collected 55 fecal samples and 1 h ...201626663614
humoral response to calicivirus in captive tigers given a dual-strain vaccine.the current feline vaccine with a single strain of calicivirus has been used for captive tigers, yet it may not protect against virulent systemic calicivirus infections. a cross-institutional study investigated the humoral response to a new dual-strain, killed-virus calicivirus vaccine for nine captive tigers. the subspecies of these tigers were amur (panthera tigris altaica), bengal (panthera tigris tigris), and malayan (panthera tigris jacksoni). serum neutralization titers for virulent feline ...201424712158
seasonal acclimatization determined by non-invasive measurements of coat insulation.seasonal acclimatization in terrestrial mammals in the northern hemisphere involves changes in coat insulation. it is more economical to provide increased insulation than increased heat production for protection against the cold. this study was done to test a technique for the non-invasive measurement of mammal coat insulation and to measure coat insulation over several seasons on captive exotics. the working hypothesis was that species that have no coat or have a coat that does not change seaso ...201526087320
generation and analysis of a large-scale expressed sequence tags from a full-length enriched cdna library of siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).in this study, a full-length enriched cdna library was successfully constructed from siberian tiger, the world's most endangered species. the titers of primary and amplified libraries were 1.28×10(6)pfu/ml and 1.59×10(10)pfu/ml respectively. the proportion of recombinants from unamplified library was 91.3% and the average length of exogenous inserts was 1.06kb. a total of 279 individual ests with sizes ranging from 316 to 1258bps were then analyzed. furthermore, 204 unigenes were successfully an ...201424630959
outbreak and genotyping of canine distemper virus in captive siberian tigers and red pandas.in this study, four canine distemper virus (cdv) strains were isolated from captive siberian tigers (panthera tigris altaica) and red pandas (ailurus fulgens) during two separate cdv outbreaks in a zoo in guangdong province, china. sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses based on the full-length hemagglutinin (h) and fusion (f) genes showed that they were closely identical to genotype asia-1. prior to confirmation of cdv in siberian tigers, to control spread of the disease, a live attenuate ...201728811626
effects of summer microclimates on behavior of lions and tigers in zoos.the surrounding thermal environment has a direct influence on the well-being of an animal. however, few studies have investigated the microclimatic conditions that result from outdoor zoo enclosure designs and whether this affects where animals choose to spend time. two african lions (panthera leo) and two siberian/amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica) were observed for a total of 18 full days during the summer and fall of 2009. their activities and locations were recorded to the nearest minute ...201322707238
population dynamics of amur tigers (panthera tigris altaica) in sikhote-alin biosphere zapovednik: 1966-2012.in 2010, the world's tiger (panthera tigris) range countries agreed to the goal of doubling tiger numbers over 12 years, but whether such an increase is biologically feasible has not been assessed. long-term monitoring of tigers in sikhote-alin biosphere zapovednik (sabz), russia provided an opportunity to determine growth rates of a recovering population. a 41-year growth phase was followed by a rapid decline in tiger numbers. annual growth rates during the growth phase averaged 4.6%, beginning ...201526037543
the development and application of a multiplex short tandem repeat (str) system for identifying subspecies, individuals and sex in tigers.poaching and trans-boundary trafficking of tigers and body parts are threatening the world's last remaining wild tigers. development of an efficient molecular genetic assay for tracing the origins of confiscated specimens will assist in law enforcement and wildlife forensics for this iconic flagship species. we developed a multiplex genotyping system "tigrisplex" to simultaneously assess 22 short tandem repeat (str, or microsatellite) loci and a gender-identifying sry gene, all amplified in 4 re ...201525950598
the tiger genome and comparative analysis with lion and snow leopard genomes.tigers and their close relatives (panthera) are some of the world's most endangered species. here we report the de novo assembly of an amur tiger whole-genome sequence as well as the genomic sequences of a white bengal tiger, african lion, white african lion and snow leopard. through comparative genetic analyses of these genomes, we find genetic signatures that may reflect molecular adaptations consistent with the big cats' hypercarnivorous diet and muscle strength. we report a snow leopard-spec ...201324045858
spatially explicit capture-recapture method (secr, spacecap): a new approach to determination of the amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) population density by means of camera-traps. 201324385172
characterization of degenerative changes in the temporomandibular joint of the bengal tiger (panthera tigris tigris) and siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).the articulation of the temporomandibular joint (tmj) is composed of the temporal bone dorsally, the mandibular condyle ventrally and a fibrous articular disc. the tmj disc plays an essential role in distributing load between the two articular surfaces. degeneration of the disc in the presence of joint pathology has been shown in man; however, tmj pathology has not been documented previously in tigers (panthera tigris). the mandibular condyle and tmj disc of a bengal tiger (p. tigris tigris) and ...201323809909
the effects of frequent electroejaculation on the semen characteristics of a captive siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).artificial insemination (ai) can help to avoid inbreeding and genetic degeneration for sustaining genetically healthy populations of endangered species in captivity. collection of a sufficient quantity of viable sperm is an essential first step in the ai process. in the present study, we examined the effects of frequent electroejaculation on semen characteristics in a siberian tiger. we collected semen in all 17 trials during 6 breeding seasons (6 years). the mean number of sperm and the percent ...201323774799
[variation trends of the vegetations in distribution region of amur tiger based on modis ndvi].by using the averaged 250 m modis ndvi data in growth seasons of 2000-2010 and the approach of ordinary linear regression, this paper analyzed the variation trends of the vegetations in the distribution region of amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica), the far east region of russia and the eastern part of northeast china, as well as the relationships between these variation trends and the anthropogenic activities. in 2000 - 2010, the areas with significantly decreased ndvi were sparsely distribute ...201223359945
pentalogy of fallot in a captive siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).a 2-yr-old male siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) died during a fight with a conspecific. at necropsy, significant abnormalities included severe cardiomegaly with cardiac malformations consisting of a large atrial septal defect, a membranous ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, and stenosis of the pulmonary valve with secondary concentric hypertrophy of the right ventricle. endocardiosis of the mitral valve was also noted. to the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a p ...201223272365
combined excision and intralesional bevacizumab for sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid in an amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica).an 18-year-old zoo-kept female amur tiger presented with an approximately 5 mm diameter lateral canthal eyelid mass in the left eye which grossly appeared red and irregular. the mass was completely excised via lateral canthoplasty. histopathologic evaluation was consistent with a diagnosis of sebaceous cell carcinoma, which is a potentially aggressive cutaneous neoplasm. the sebaceous carcinoma recurred within 3 months and slowly increased in size until a second surgical excision was performed 9 ...201322857265
endogenous lipid (cholesterol) pneumonia in three captive siberian tigers (panthera tigris altaica).during the years 2009-2011, 7 siberian tigers (panthera tigris altaica), aged between 2 and 14 years, from the safaripark of pombia were referred for necropsy to the department of animal pathology of the university of turin (italy). three tigers, aged 10 (2 animals) and 14 years, had multifocal, irregularly distributed, white, soft, subpleural, 3-mm nodules scattered throughout the lungs. histologically, there was a marked infiltration of macrophages, with foamy cytoplasm, and multinucleate gian ...201222529138
[activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenals axis in the siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) in captivity and in the wild, and their dynamics throughout the year].a noninvasive evaluation method of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenals axis (hpa) activity in the siberian tiger was verified. comparison of the activity level of hpa in siberian tigers in the wild and in captivity, and their alterations over the year was carried out. significant seasonal deviations between activity levels of hpa in tigers in captivity were not found. in the wild, this level was significantly higher, reaching the maximum from november to january, which can be related with an unfavora ...201621790001
screening and analyzing genes associated with amur tiger placental development.the amur tiger is a unique endangered species in the world, and thus, protection of its genetic resources is extremely important. in this study, an amur tiger placenta cdna library was constructed using the smart cdna library construction kit. a total of 508 colonies were sequenced, in which 205 (76%) genes were annotated and mapped to 74 kegg pathways, including 29 metabolism, 29 genetic information processing, 4 environmental information processing, 7 cell motility, and 5 organismal system pat ...201425299101
acute lymphocytic cholangitis and liver failure in an amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica).an adult male amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) with confirmed inflammatory bowel disease developed acute severe icterus, bilirubinuria, bilirubinemia, and elevated bile acids after a diet change. liver biopsies showed moderate lymphoplasmacytic cholangiohepatitis (lymphocytic cholangitis). the tiger developed neurologic signs including ataxia, tremors, and seizures, as well as epistaxis. therapy consisted of antibiotics, a steroid anti-inflammatory, vitamins, pro-coagulants, and liver-suppor ...201424712173
complete mitochondrial genome of a wild siberian tiger.in this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) was sequenced, using muscle tissue obtained from a male wild tiger. the total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,996 bp. the genome structure of this tiger is in accordance with other siberian tigers and it contains 12s rrna gene, 16s rrna gene, 22 trna genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and 1 control region.201524660907
t-lymphocyte-rich thymoma and myasthenia gravis in a siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).a 10-year-old captive male siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) presented with acute onset collapse, vomiting and dyspnoea, preceded by a 6-month period of progressive muscle wasting. following humane destruction, post-mortem examination revealed a large multilobulated mass in the cranial mediastinum, which was diagnosed as a t-lymphocyte-rich thymoma with the aid of immunohistochemistry. retrospective serology for acetylcholine receptor antibodies (titre 3.90 nmol/l) confirmed a diagnosis o ...201724444818
basic haematological values in carnivores--ii. the felidae.1. basic haematological values in 34 animals of eight carnivorous species are reported. 2. in four northern lynxs (lynx lynx lynx), two male and two female animals, the mean values are given: erythrocyte counts 8.51 x 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.392/l, haemoglobin content 148.0 g/l and leukocyte count 7.92 x 10(9)/l. 3. in six male pumas (puma concolor missolensis) the mean values estimated are: erythrocyte count 9.35 x 10(12)/l, haematocrit 0.43/l, haemoglobin content 163.9 g/l and leukocyte count ...19872886279
toxoplasmosis in a siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica). 20032617817
construction of cdna library and preliminary analysis of expressed sequence tags from siberian tiger.in this study we successfully constructed a full-length cdna library from siberian tiger, panthera tigris altaica, the most well-known wild animal. total rna was extracted from cultured siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro. the titers of primary and amplified libraries were 1.30×10(6) pfu/ml and 1.62×10(9) pfu/ml respectively. the proportion of recombinants from unamplified library was 90.5% and average length of exogenous inserts was 1.13 kb. a total of 282 individual ests with sizes ranging fro ...201020941376
secobarbital poisoning in an amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica). 201020675629
establishment and characterization of fibroblast cell line derived from siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).the siberian tiger ear marginal tissue fibroblast cell line (stf34) from 34 samples was successfully established using primary explants technique and cell cryoconservation technology. stf34 cells were adherent, with a population doubling time of 24 h. chromosome analysis showed that 90.2%-91.6% of cells were diploid (2n = 38). isoenzyme analyses of lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase showed that stf34 cells had no cross-contamination with other species. tests for cell line contaminati ...201024845938
noninvasive approach to the assessment of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system of the amur tigers. 201620380183
noninvasive individual identification of the amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) by molecular-genetic methods. 201620170062
in situ population structure and ex situ representation of the endangered amur tiger.the amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) is a critically endangered felid that suffered a severe demographic contraction in the 1940s. in this study, we sampled 95 individuals collected throughout their native range to investigate questions relative to population genetic structure and demographic history. additionally, we sampled targeted individuals from the north american ex situ population to assess the genetic representation found in captivity. population genetic and bayesian structure analy ...200919555412
continuous lumbar hemilaminectomy for intervertebral disc disease in an amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica).a 13-yr-old amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) was presented for an acute onset of paraplegia. spinal imaging that included plain radiographs, myelography, and computed tomography performed under general anesthesia revealed lateralized spinal cord compression at the intervertebral disc space l4-5 caused by intervertebral disc extrusion. this extrusion was accompanied by an extensive epidural hemorrhage from l3 to l6. therefore, a continuous hemilaminectomy from l3 to l6 was performed, resultin ...200818817014
culture, characteristics and chromosome complement of siberian tiger fibroblasts for nuclear transfer.tiger (panthera tigris linnaeus, 1758) is a characteristic species of asia, which is in severe danger. siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) is the largest one of the five existent tiger subspecies. it is extremely endangered. one new way for tiger protection and rescue is to study interspecies cloning. but there is few research data about siberian tiger. in this study, we cultured siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro, analyzed their biological characteristics, chromosomes, and cell cycles, to ...200717763919
restoration of reproductive potential after expiration or removal of melengestrol acetate contraceptive implants in tigers (panthera tigris).the need for contraception in the successful management of captive wild animals is becoming increasingly apparent. because concerns exist regarding the reversibility of the contraceptive implant melengestrol acetate (mga), reproductive data for 94 female amur (panthera tigris altaica) and sumatran tigers (panthera tigris sumatrae) were analyzed using survival analyses to evaluate return to reproductive status after implant removal or assumed expiration. females placed in potential breeding situa ...200719360580
ovarian activity and pregnancy in the siberian tiger, panthera tigris altaica, assessed by fecal gonadal steroid hormones analyses.feces were collected from two female and one male siberian tigers, panthera tigris altaica. steroid hormones were extracted from lyophilized feces and quantified by enzyme immunoassay. the fecal contents of estradiol-17beta (e(2)) and testosterone in the females and male, respectively, changed markedly throughout the year. the fecal e(2) contents of females nos. 179 and 238 increased at 26.4 +/- 8.0 and 28.0 +/- 14.2 day intervals, respectively. however, the fecal contents of progesterone (p(4)) ...200717551237
conservative management of pyothorax in an amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica).therapy for pyothorax, or pleural empyema, has not been described for large felids. this case describes the successful treatment of pyothorax in a captive, large felid. a 15-yr-old multiparous, female amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) presented with nonspecific clinical signs caused by an insidious onset of pyothorax. management of pyothorax cases in companion animals often involves thoracostomy tube placement with recurrent drainage of the pleural cavity, intensive supportive care, and monit ...201222779255
morphology of the lingual papillae in the tiger.the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult tiger (panthera tigris altaica) was examined by macroscopical and scanning electron microscopical observations. filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae were observed. the filiform papillae were distributed over the entire dosal surface of the tongue. the fungiform papillae were present rounded bodies, and more densely distributed on the lingual apex. there were 4 vallate papillae in total on borderline between the lingual body and lingual radix. each papi ...200415455727
sertoli cell tumour in an amur tiger.the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of a malignant sertoli cell tumour in a 17-year-old amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) are described. histological examination of the primary lesion in the right testis and metastatic lesions throughout the internal organs showed a variable cellular pattern with an admixture of tubular structures divided by fine stroma filled with fusiform to stellate cells, and sheets of polygonal cells with abundant vacuolated cytoplasm. immunohistoche ...200111428192
[amur tiger: path to the third millennium (experience of development of the "strategy of preservation of the amur tiger in russia")].the development of a system of measures for conservation of the amur tiger is summarized. in the middle of the 1990s, no marked reduction in the numbers of the amur tiger took place in russia; the animals were always present in most of the forest-covered area of the primorskii and south khababrovsk districts. however, new threats to the survival of the amur tiger appeared. it is necessary to preserve the self-regulating population of the amur tiger throughout its range. the key to solving this t ...20169750434
[genetic diversity of microsatellite loci in captive amur tigers].the tiger is one of the most threatened wildlife species since the abundance and distribution of tiger have decreased dramatically in the last century. the wild amur tiger (panthera tigris altaica) only distributed in northeast china, the far east area of russia and the north korea and its size of wild population is about 450 in the world and 20 in china. several hundred captive populations of amur tigers are the main source to protect gene library of tiger and the source of recovering the wild ...200415640074
phylogeography and genetic ancestry of tigers (panthera tigris).eight traditional subspecies of tiger (panthera tigris),of which three recently became extinct, are commonly recognized on the basis of geographic isolation and morphological characteristics. to investigate the species' evolutionary history and to establish objective methods for subspecies recognition, voucher specimens of blood, skin, hair, and/or skin biopsies from 134 tigers with verified geographic origins or heritage across the whole distribution range were examined for three molecular mark ...200415583716
klinefelter syndrome (39 xxy) in an adult siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).fibroblast cultures of a skin biopsy from an adult intact male siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) revealed an abnormal standard and g-banded karyotype diploid chromosome number of 2n = 39 xxy due to an extra sex chromosome as opposed to the expected 2n = 38 xy. the tiger was euthanatized 1 yr later due to acute multifocal intervertebral disc disease. histopathology of the reproductive tract demonstrated a paucity of seminiferous tubules and these were devoid of spermatagonia. an increase i ...200312723808
effects of hand-rearing on reproductive success in captive large cats panthera tigris altaica, uncia uncia, acinonyx jubatus and neofelis nebulosa.species survival plans and european endangered species programmes have been developed for several species of endangered felids in order to build up captive reserve populations and support their conservation in the wild. the siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica), snow leopard (uncia uncia), cheetah (acinonyx jubatus) and clouded leopard (neofelis nebulosa) are managed in such ex situ conservation programmes. many zoological institutions hand-rear offspring if rearing by the mother fails. hand- ...201627214261
xylazine-midazolam-ketamine versus medetomidine-midazolam-ketamine anesthesia in captive siberian tigers (panthera tigris altaica).two alpha2-adrenoceptor agents, xylazine and medetomidine, in combination with midazolam and ketamine safely and effectively immobilized siberian tigers (panthera tigris altaica). the medetomidine protocol used smaller drug volumes, and induction and recovery times were shorter. although cardiopulmonary abnormalities were noted, none were likely to be life threatening.200415526886
clinical course of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica).a 14-year-old male siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) was admitted with an ulcerating mass on the right thoracic wall. radiographic and computed tomographic evaluation indicated 2 isolated cutaneous masses without any signs of metastasis. histology of a tru-cut biopsy revealed an anaplastic sarcoma with giant cells. both tumors were resected with appropriate normal tissue margins. the size of the defect did not allow primary closure of the wound; therefore, a mesh expansion technique was a ...201021088186
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