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the presence in the fungus cordyceps militaris of nuclear proteins resembling histones. 19751164035
production of pure cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) from cordyceps militaris. 19724144844
growth of unicellular forms of the fungus cordyceps militaris and analysis of the chemical composition of their walls. 19714947819
nucleoside antibiotics. iv. metabolic fate of adenosine and cordycepin by cordyceps militaris during cordycepin biosynthesis. 19694978604
[on the microbiological conversion of n-containing substrates. 3. on the determination of the constitution oc conversion products of 5-hydroxyindole through cordyceps militaris]. 19685302346
[on the microbiological conversion of n-containing substrates. 4. on the microbiological conversion of 5-hydroxyindole through clavic eps purpurea, cordyceps militaris and aspergillus oryzae]. 19685302347
[on the microbiological conversion of n-containing substrates. 1. on the microbiological acetylation of amines by cordyceps militaris]. 19675606161
the composition of the cell wall fraction of the fungus, cordyceps militaris. 19695792874
identification of cordycepin, a metabolite of cordyceps militaris, as 3'-deoxyadenosine. 19645836541
cordycepin: selective growth inhibitor derived from liquid culture of cordyceps militaris against clostridium spp.the growth responses of nine human intestinal bacteria to liquid culture of cordyceps militaris link. pt. (ascomycotina: clavicipitaceae) collected from a pupa of bombyx mori l. (lepidoptera: bombycidae) were examined using spectrophotometric and impregnated paper disk methods and compared to those of tetracycline and chloramphenicol, as well as those of coptis japonica root-derived berberine chloride. the biologically active constituent of the cultures was characterized as cordycepin (3'-deoxya ...200010898616
optimization of submerged culture conditions for the mycelial growth and exo-biopolymer production by cordyceps militaris.the objective of the present study was to determine the optimal culture conditions for exo-biopolymer production by cordyceps militaris in shake flask culture.200111442820
[determination of adenosine and 3'-deoxyadenosine in cordyceps militaris (l.) link. by hplc].the establishment of a quantitative determination method by hplc for adenosine and 3'-deoxyadenosine in cordyceps militaris is reported. the sample was extracted with water under ultrasonic management for 2 hours. chromatographic conditions: ywg c18 10 microns 5 mm x 200 mm; mobile phase consisted of nah2po4-naoh buffer solution (ph 6.8); uv detection at 260 nm. the recoveries of adenosine and 3'-deoxyadenosine were 95.8% +/- 0.64% and 100.6% +/- 0.65% (n = 5) respectively.199811596253
effect of agitation intensity on the exo-biopolymer production and mycelial morphology in cordyceps militaris.the influence of agitation intensity on cordyceps militaris morphology and exo-biopolymer production was investigated in a 5 litre stirred vessel using a six-blade rushton turbine impeller.200212028425
optimization of submerged culture process for the production of mycelial biomass and exo-polysaccharides by cordyceps militaris c738.the objective of the present study was to determine the optimal culture conditions for mycelial biomass and exo-polysaccharide (eps) by cordyceps militaris c738 in submerged culture.200312492932
production and characterization of exopolysaccharides from an enthomopathogenic fungus cordyceps militaris ng3.optimization of the submerged culture conditions for the mycelial growth and production of exopolysaccharide (eps) from a newly isolated cordyceps species (c. militaris ng3) was studied in flask cultures. the optimal temperature and initial ph for eps production were 30 degrees c and 8.0, respectively. sucrose (30 g/l) and corn steep powder (10 g/l) were the most suitable carbon and nitrogen source for both mycelial growth and eps production. there was a distinguishable morphological changes in ...200312675583
[the pigment of cordyceps militaris l]. 195813595819
isolation and identification of 3'-amino-3'-deoxyadenosine from cordyceps militaris. 196313951025
isolation of 3'-deoxyadenosine (cordycepin) from the liquid medium of cordyceps militaris (l. ex fr.) link. 196514293693
fine structure of mycota. 12. karyochorisis--somatic nuclear division-in cordyceps militaris. 196414315534
homocitrullylaminoadenosine, a nucleoside isolated from cordyceps militaris. 196114459513
cordycepin, a metabolic product isolated from cultures of cordyceps militaris (linn.) link. 195014796634
effects of cordyceps militaris extract on angiogenesis and tumor growth.to evaluate the effects of cordyceps militaris extract (cme) on angiogenesis and tumor growth.200415132834
isolation and biological properties of polysaccharide cps-1 from cultured cordyceps militaris.a polysaccharide from the water extract of cultured cordyceps militaris was isolated through ethanol precipitation, deproteination and gel-filtration chromatography. their molecular weight was determined using gel-filtration chromatography. the structure of polysaccharide cps-1 was elucidated by sugar analysis, smith degradation, ir and 13c-nmr spectroscopy. cps-1 was shown to possess a significant antiinflammatory activity and suppressed the humoral immunity in mice but had no significant effec ...200415261384
heterothallism in cordyceps takaomontana.perithecium formation of an entomopathogenic fungus cordyceps takaomontana was promoted by treating the mycelia with cell wall-degrading enzymes and peg 4000. perithecia were formed in the mixed culture of both mating-type strains mat1 and mat2, and not in the culture of mat1 or mat2 alone. the mat1 strains did not possess a mating-type gene mat1-1-3, but could produce perithecia. these results strongly suggested that c. takaomontana is heterothallic, and does not need mat1-1-3 for the peritheci ...200516055279
molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of the cu,zn superoxide dismutase (sod1) gene from the entomopathogenic fungus cordyceps militaris.we describe the molecular characterization of the cu,zn superoxide dismutase (sod1) gene of cordyceps militaris, which is one of the entomopathogenic fungi called a vegetable wasp and plant worm. the sod1 gene of c. militaris spans 922 bp and consisted of three introns and four exons coding for 154 amino acid residues. the deduced amino acid sequence of the c. militaris sod1 cdna showed 88% identity to claviceps purpurea sod1, 82% to neurospora crassa sod1, and 75-64% to sod1 sequences from othe ...200516389964
effect of nutrition factors on the synthesis of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and membrane lipid peroxide levels in cordyceps militaris mycelium.effect of carbon, nitrogen, and metal ion sources on superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase (cat) activities, and lipid perioxide (lpo) levels in cordyceps militaris mycelium were investigated at stationary growth phase by step supplementing with these nutrition factors in shake-flask cultures. mycelium was cultivated in several growth media containing different carbon sources. the observed highest sod and cat activities were 44.3 u/mg protein in the presence of 20% potato broth plus 2% glucose me ...200616392009
extracellular trypsin-like proteases produced by cordyceps militaris.a trypsin-like protease, p-1-1, was purified from the culture supernatant of the fungus cordyceps militaris by (nh(4))(2)so(4) precipitation, chromatography on deae bio-gel agarose, tskgel cm-5pw, and gel-filtration with hiload 26/60 superdex 75 pg, and its properties were examined. purified p-1-1 showed a single band by sds-page and was estimated to have a molecular mass of 23,405 by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (maldi-ms). the optimum ph of the enzyme was betwe ...200516473772
[separation and determination of selenium polysaccharide in enriched-se cordyceps militaris].in the present paper, the water soluble selenium polysaccharide was extracted, and isolated and purified preliminarily. the traditional method was used to extract selenium polysaccharide, which was extracted by water and sank by ethanol. the work also focused on the determination of the experiment conditions, optimizing the experiment conditions such as proportion of extract solution, extract temperature, extract times, proportion of ethanol, and standing time. the recovery of selenium polysacch ...200616830770
comparison of protective effects between cultured cordyceps militaris and natural cordyceps sinensis against oxidative damage.the chinese herb dongchong-xiacao originating from cordyceps sinensis is widely used as a traditional medicine in china for treatment of a wide variety of diseases. the extracts of cordyceps sinensis (cse) and cordyceps militaris (cme) are well-known for their biological effects. in the present study, the antioxidant efficiency of cme and cse in protecting lipid, protein, and low-density lipoprotein (ldl) against oxidative damage was investigated. cme and cse showed weakly inhibitory effect on l ...200616608242
phylogenetic and structural analyses of the mating-type loci in clavicipitaceae.entomopathogens and other econutritional fungi belonging to clavicipitaceae were phylogenetically analyzed on the basis of the 18s rrna gene and mating-type genes (mat1-1-1 and mat1-2-1). the phylogenies of the mating-type genes yielded better resolutions than that of 18s rrna gene. entomopathogens (cordyceps bassiana, cordyceps brongniartii, cordyceps militaris, cordyceps sinclairii, cordyceps takaomontana, isaria cateniannulata, isaria farinosa, isaria fumosorosea, isaria javanica, lecanicilli ...200617064371
induction of apoptosis by cordyceps militaris through activation of caspase-3 in leukemia hl-60 cells.cordyceps militaris is a traditional herbal ingredient frequently used for tonic and medicinal purposes in eastern asia. the hot water extract of its cultivated fruiting bodies demonstrated a potent cytotoxic effect against the proliferation of the human premyelocytic leukemia cell hl-60, with an ic50 of 0.8 mg/ml for a 12-h treatment. it induced the characteristic apoptotic symptoms in the hl-60 cells, including dna fragmentation and chromatin condensation, occurring within 12-16 h of treatment ...200616595897
a fibrinolytic enzyme from the medicinal mushroom cordyceps militaris.in this study we purified a fibrinolytic enzyme from cordyceps militaris using a combination of ion-exchange chromatography on a deae sephadex a-50 column, gel filtration chromatography on a sephadex g-75 column, and fplc on a hiload 16/60 superdex 75 column. this purification protocol resulted in a 191.8-fold purification of the enzyme and a final yield of 12.9 %. the molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 52 kda by sds-page, fibrin-zymography, and gel filtration chromatograp ...200617205040
hypoglycemic activity of the fungi cordyceps militaris, cordyceps sinensis, tricholoma mongolicum, and omphalia lapidescens in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.crude extracts were prepared from fruiting bodies and mycelia of the medicinal fungus cordyceps militaris, and a polysaccharide-enriched fraction was obtained after extraction with hot water and ethanol precipitation. polysaccharide-enriched fractions were similarly prepared from cordyceps sinensis, omphalia lapidescens, and tricholoma mongolicum. the various aforementioned preparations were orally administered into different groups of adult rats 24 h before an intraperitoneal injection of strep ...200616575562
quality control of cordyceps sinensis, a valued traditional chinese medicine.cordyceps sinensis, a well-known and valued traditional chinese medicine, is also called dongchongxiacao (winter worm summer grass) in chinese. it is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung for the treatment of fatigue, night sweating, hyposexualities, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthemia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction and renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease, and liver disease. as the rarity and upstanding curative effects of natu ...200616504449
water extract of cordyceps militaris enhances maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in vitro.water extract (we) of cordyceps militaris has been reported to produce antitumor and immunomodulatory activities in vivo and in vitro. however, the therapeutic mechanism has not been known. in this study, we investigated whether water extract of c. militaris induces the phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells (dc). it profoundly increased cd40, cd54, cd80, cd86, and mhc class ii expression in murine bone marrow (bm)-derived myeloid dc. endocytosis was assessed by the uptake of fi ...200616462045
measurement of cordycepin and adenosine in stroma of cordyceps sp. by capillary zone electrophoresis (cze).capillary zone electrophoresis (cze) was used to separate cordycepin and adenosine, and determine their concentration in stroma of cordyceps sp. these two active components of natural and cultured cordyceps kyushuensis were quantitatively analyzed and compared with those of cultured cordyceps militaris. the results showed that the cze method is a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the measurement of cordycepin and adenosine with good repeatability.200216233320
fingerprint analysis of fruiting bodies of cultured cordyceps militaris by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection.we have developed and optimized a novel, efficient and accurate fingerprint method using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (hplc-dad) for the quality control of cultured cordyceps militaris (l.) link. the feasibility and advantages of the used chromatographic fingerprint were verified for the evaluation of cultured c. militaris by systematically comparing chromatograms with a professional analytical software recommended by state food and drug administration (sfda) ...200717512693
[study on hpec fingerprint of cultured cordyceps militaris].to investigate the high performance capillary electrophoresis (hpce) fingerprint of cultured cordyceps militaris (l.) link.200717539298
purification and partial characterization of recombinant cu, zn containing superoxide dismutase of cordyceps militaris in e.coli.the cdna of cu, zn containing superoxide dismutase from the cordyceps militaris sh (cm-sod) was overexpressed in escherichia coli bl 21 (de3) using the pet-21a expression vector. the recombinant cell overexpressed the protein corresponding to 35+/-3% of total bacterial protein in cytosol. the purification was performed through three steps: deae-ff, cm-52, and g-100. after this purification procedure, a specific activity of 27272.7 u/mg of protein was reached, corresponding to 6.1-fold purificati ...200516165406
[antioxidant activity of natural and cultured cordyceps sp].investigating the antioxidant activities of water and ethanol extracts of natural cordyceps sinensis and cordyceps militaris and their fermentation preparations.200717672334
a comparative study on the production of exopolysaccharides between two entomopathogenic fungi cordyceps militaris and cordyceps sinensis in submerged mycelial cultures.the present study comparatively investigates the optimal culture conditions for the production of exopolysaccharides (eps) and cordycepin during submerged mycelial culture of two entomopathogenic fungi cordyceps militaris and cordyceps sinensis.200516162223
in vivo anti-influenza virus activity of an immunomodulatory acidic polysaccharide isolated from cordyceps militaris grown on germinated soybeans.an acidic polysaccharide (aps) was isolated from the extract of cordyceps militaris grown on germinated soybeans. analyses of sugar composition indicated that aps consisted of d-galactose, l-arabinose, d-xylose, l-rhamnose, and d-galacturonic acid. on the basis of the result of methylation analysis, aps was considered to be mainly composed of araf-(1-->, -->5)-araf-(1-->, -->4)-galp-(1--> and -->4)-galap-(1--> residues. when the polysaccharide was intranasally administered, it decreased virus ti ...200717988090
[assays on nutrient and effective ingredients in different parts of cordyceps militaris].to analysis the nutrient and effective ingredients of in cordyceps militaris and make the best use of its medical value.200516075726
[chemical study of nucleosides on cordyceps militaris].to investigate the nucleosides of cordyceps militaris.200718074844
growth inhibition of u937 leukemia cells by aqueous extract of cordyceps militaris through induction of apoptosis.cordyceps militaris is a traditional herbal ingredient, which has been used for patients suffering from cancer in oriental medicine. in the present study, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms of anti-proliferative effects by aqueous extract of c. militaris (aecm) in human leukemia u937 cells. it was found that aecm could inhibit cell growth of u937 cells in a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with morphological change and apoptotic cell death such as formation of apoptotic bodies ...200515870944
anti-inflammatory and related pharmacological activities of cultured mycelia and fruiting bodies of cordyceps militaris.this study aimed to elucidate pharmacological activities of cordyceps militaris. the 70% ethanolic extracts of cultured mycelia (cme) and fruiting bodies (fbe) of cordyceps militaris were prepared. cme was able to directly scavenge the stable free radical diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (dpph), indicating its antioxidant activity. both cme and fbe showed topical anti-inflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. cme was found to contain acute anti-inflammatory activity, which was ...200415619578
10-membered macrolides from the insect pathogenic fungus cordyceps militaris bcc 2816.three new 10-membered macrolides (1-3) have been isolated from the entomopathogenic fungus cordyceps militaris bcc 2816, together with six known compounds, cepharosporolides c (4), e (5), and f (6), 2-carboxymethyl-4-(3'-hydroxybutyl)furan (7), cordycepin (8), and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid. the structures were determined by analysis of nmr data, and an x-ray analysis was performed to confirm the structure of 1. the antimalarial activity of 1-4 and 8 against plasmodium falciparum k1 was eval ...200415568800
isolation, purification and identification of polysaccharides from cultured cordyceps militaris.four polysaccharides from the water extract of cultured cordyceps militaris were isolated through ethanol precipitation, deproteination and gel-filtration chromatography. their molecular weights were determined using gel-filtration chromatography. among the four isolated polysaccharides, the structures of two of them (cps-2 and cps-3) were elucidated by sugar analysis, smith degradation, ir and (13)c-nmr spectroscopy.200415567241
improvement of insulin resistance and insulin secretion by water extracts of cordyceps militaris, phellinus linteus, and paecilomyces tenuipes in 90% pancreatectomized rats.the effect of supplementation with phellinus linteus (p. linteus), paecilomyces tenuipes (p. tenuipes), and cordyceps militaris (c. militaris) mushroom water extracts on the insulin secretion and insulin resistance of 90% pancreatectomized (px) male sprague dawley rats was investigated. px rats were daily administered 0.5 g of p. linteus, p. tenuipes, and c. militaris aqueous extracts or a placebo per 1 kg body weight with a 40% fat diet for 8 weeks. fasting serum glucose levels were lower in ra ...200415564662
hyperproduction of cordycepin by two-stage dissolved oxygen control in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushroom cordyceps militaris in bioreactors.effect of oxygen supply on cordycepin production was investigated in submerged cultivation of cordyceps militaris, a famous traditional chinese medicinal mushroom, in a 5-l turbine-agitated bioreactor (tab). initial volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kla) within the range of 11.5-113.8 h(-1) had significant influence on cordycepin production. the highest cordycepin concentration of 167.5 mg/l was obtained at an initial kla value of 54.5 h(-1), where a moderate dissolved oxygen (do) pattern ...200415458324
[optimum of polysaccharide distillation on scrap cordyceps militaris medium].a mass of scrap cordyceps militaris solid culture medium could not be utilized better. in this test, using orthogonal design the optimal technique parmeter of extracting polysaccharide was 80 degrees c, two times, in twenty times of water, and 120 minutes each time. temperature was the most important factor. the referenced data could be provided to depurative production of cordyceps militaris and resource utilization.200818619235
effect of medicinal plant extracts on forced swimming capacity in mice.the tonic effect of cordyceps militaris (cm), paecilomyces japonia (pj), phellinus linteus (pl), ganoderma lucidum (gl), grifola frondosa (gf), and panax ginseng (pg) was examined based on the forced swimming capacity and the change of biochemical parameters in icr mice. the treatment groups were orally administered medicinal plant extracts (500 mg/kg per day), while the control group received distilled water for 4 weeks. the swimming times to exhaustion were longer in the cm, pj, and gf groups ...200415182908
application of statistically based experimental designs for the optimization of exo-polysaccharide production by cordyceps militaris ng3.statistically based experimental designs were applied to the optimization of medium composition for exo-polysaccharide production by cordyceps militaris ng3 in shake-flask cultures. first, the plackett-burman design was used to search for the main factors on mycelia and exo-polysaccharide production. among these variables, sucrose and corn steep powder were found to be two significant factors and had positive effects on mycelial yield (with confidence level >80%) and exo-polysaccharide productio ...200212241554
larvicidal activity against plutella xylostella of cordycepin from the fruiting body of cordyceps militaris.the insecticidal activities of methanol extracts of cordyceps militaris link (ascomycotina: clavicipitaceae) cultured on fresh pupae of bombyx mori l against 3rd-instar larvae of plutella xylostella l were examined using direct contact application. the larvicidal activity was more pronounced in an extract of c militaris fruiting body than in an extract of the pupae separated from the culture. the biologically active constituent of the cordyceps fruiting body was characterized as cordycepin (3'-d ...200212146173
phylogeny of mitosporic entomopathogenic fungi: is the genus paecilomyces polyphyletic?we analyzed sequences of the divergent domain at the 5' end of the large subunit rrna gene from the mitosporic entomopathogenic fungi paecilomyces sp., paecilomyces fumosoroseus, paecilomyces farinosus, paecilomyces lilacinus, verticillium lecanii, verticillium psalliotae, beauveria bassiana, aschersonia sp., aschersonia placenta, ascomycetous cordyceps sp., and cordyceps militaris. phylogenetic analysis showed p. fumosorseus as the best characterized out of the analyzed species with the b. bass ...200111683463
antifibrotic effect of extracellular biopolymer from submerged mycelial cultures of cordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation and scission in rats.the antifibrotic effects of hot water extract (wec), intracellular biopolymer (ipc) and extracellular biopolymers (epc) from mycelial liquid culture of cordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis were studied. liver fibrosis was induced by a bile duct ligation and scission (bdl/s) operation, duration of 4 weeks in rats. in bdl/s rats, the levels of aspartate transaminase (ast), alanine transaminase (alt), alkaline phosphatase (alp), total bilirubin in serum and hydroxyproline content in liver were dra ...200111534766
cordycepin inhibits il-1beta-induced mmp-1 and mmp-3 expression in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.mmp is a key enzyme in the degradation of extracellular matrices, and its expression plays important roles in inflammatory diseases. cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), a bioactive compound of cordyceps militaris, has been shown to exhibit many pharmacological activities, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-infection activities. in this study, we aimed at the inhibitory effect of cordycepin on il-1beta-induced mmp-1 and mmp-3 expression as well as the molecular basis using ra synovial fi ...200919056796
[effect of cordyceps militaris on the damage of rats induced by n-hexane].acutely inhaling n-hexane model was adopted to study the effect of cordyceps militaris and the damage induced by n-hexane. the results showed that cordyceps militaris was effective on the resisting lipid peroxidation. the results also showed that acutely inhaling n-hexane could lead to or enhance the damage reaction of oxygen free radicals, which could lead to injure of lipid peroxidation. that may be one of the mechanism of n-hexane toxicity effect on living things.200111402725
a new approach for improving cordycepin productivity in surface liquid culture of cordyceps militaris using high-energy ion beam irradiation.to obtain a higher cordycepin production using cordyceps militaris mutant obtained by a new mutagenesis technique called 'ion beam'.200819120921
inhibitory effect of cordyceps sinensis and cordyceps militaris on human glomerular mesangial cell proliferation induced by native ldl.native ldl, in low concentrations, promotes proliferation of cultured human glomerular mesangial cells. ldl stimulated [(3)h]-thymidine incorporation into dna of human glomerular mesangial cells. increased concentrations of ldl led to increased [(3)h]-thymidine incorporation. when ldl concentrations were 5, 10 and 50 microg ml(-1), [(3)h]-thymidine incorporation was 919.5+/-216, 1106+/-132, and 1200+/-210, respectively. when cordyceps sinensis 100, 200, 300, 400 microg ml(-1) plus ldl 10 microg ...200010814966
effects of the immunomodulatory agent cordyceps militaris on airway inflammation in a mouse asthma model.cordyceps militaris is a well-known fungus with immunomodulatory activity. it is generally used in traditional chinese medicine to treat hemoptysis, bronchial or lung inflammation, and urogenital disorders. the purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of cultivated c. militaris on airway inflammation in a mouse asthma model.200819133568
[effect of selenium-protein polysaccharide extracted from se-rich cordyceps militaris on tumor-bearing mice].to extract and analysis the active components of se-protein polysaccharide from se-rich cordyceps militaris, and to discuss the anti-tumor effect of se-protein polysaccharide.200819160800
[investigations on cordycepin production by solid culture of cordyceps militaris].an efficient method to produce cordycepin by solid culture using cordyceps militaris was investigated in this study. firstly, the changes of cordycepin during various growing periods of solid culture using 5 strains of c. militaris were detected, the best strain and optimal growing period for cordycepin production were determined. then, by experiments of quadratic rotation-orthogonal combination design and orthogonal design, the medium composition and growth conditions for high yield of cordycep ...200819165995
[anticarcinogenic effect and hormonal effect of cordyceps militaris link].cordyceps militaris (cml) has been found good for inhibiting the growth of tumor, prolonging the survival period of mice implanted with s180, inhibiting the growth and metastasis of lewis pneumonic cancer in the implanted mice, increasing the plasm content of cortisol and testosterone in normal rats, and elevating the weight of sexual organs in normal and castrated rats. cml exerts a malehormone-like effect.199710743207
[chemical constituents from dried sorophore of cultured cordyceps militaris].to investigate the chemical constituents of the dried sorophore of cultured cordyceps militaris.200819294849
biosynthesis of 3'-deoxyadenosine by cordyceps militaris. mechanism of reduction.the biosynthesis of 3'-deoxyadenosine (cordycepin) by cordyceps militaris has been investigated using [u-14c]adenosine and [3-3h]ribose. crystallization of the resulting radioactive 3'-deoxyadenosine to a constant specific activity showed incorporation of both labeled compounds. a control showed that the 3h:14c ratio of the amp isolated from the rna was the same as the 3h:14c ratio in the 3'-deoxyadenosine. the 14c ratio in the adenine: ribose of the [u-14c]adenosine added to the 3'-deoxyadenosi ...19761083247
cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) inhibits human platelet aggregation in a cyclic amp- and cyclic gmp-dependent manner.cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) is isolated from cordyceps militaris, a species of the fungal genus cordyceps. cordycepin is an ingredient used in traditional chinese medicine and is prescribed for various diseases, such as cancer and chronic inflammation. in this study, we investigated the novel effect of cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) on collagen-induced human platelet aggregation. cordycepin inhibited dose-dependently collagen-induced platelet aggregation in the presence of various concentrati ...200717229422
cordycepin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by the suppression of nf-kappab through akt and p38 inhibition in raw 264.7 macrophage cells.cordyceps militaris, a caterpillar-grown traditional medicinal mushroom, produces an important bioactive compound, cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine). cordycepin is reported to possess many pharmacological activities including immunological stimulating, anti-cancer, anti-virus and anti-infection activities. the molecular mechanisms of cordycepin on pharmacological and biochemical actions of macrophages in inflammation have not been clearly elucidated yet. in the present study, we tested the role of ...200616899239
entomogenous fungi that produce 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid (dipicolinic acid).an inhibitor of the prophenoloxidase activation using extract from a silkworm pupa was isolated from a culture filtrate of cordyceps militaris and identified as dipicolinic acid (dpa). the production of dpa in clavicipitaceae fungi was examined. entomogenous fungi that produce dpa were integrated into one group by a phylogenetic analysis based on 18s rdna. it is suggested that the group acquired an ability to produce dpa during its evolution from plant pathogenic fungi to entomogenous fungi.200617116586
a mushroom lectin from ascomycete cordyceps militaris.a mushroom lectin has been purified from ascomycete cordyceps militaris, which is one of the most popular mushrooms in eastern asia used as a nutraceutical and in traditional chinese medicine. this lectin, designated cml, exhibited hemagglutination activity in mouse and rat erythrocytes, but not in human abo erythrocytes. sds-page of cml revealed a single band with a molecular mass of 31.0 kda under both nonreducing and reducing conditions that was stained by silver nitrate, and a 31.4 kda peak ...200717306462
cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) inhibits human platelet aggregation induced by u46619, a txa2 analogue.cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), which comes from cordyceps militaris, the chinese medicinal fungal genus cordyceps, is known to have anti-tumour activity. in this study, we investigated the novel effect of cordycepin on human platelet aggregation that was induced by u46619, a thromboxane a(2) (txa(2)) analogue. txa(2) is an aggregation-inducing autacoidal molecule that is produced in various agonist-activated platelets. cordycepin completely inhibited u46619-induced platelet aggregation and simu ...200617331333
induction of il-8 expression by cordyceps militaris grown on germinated soybeans through lipid rafts formation and signaling pathways via erk and jnk in a549 cells.in order to elucidate immunoregulatory mechanisms of cordyceps militaris, a methanol extract of cordyceps militaris grown on germinated soybeans was prepared and its immunoregulatory effect in the human lung epithelial cells was investigated by examining its ability to induce il-8 expression.201019799982
effects of cordyceps sinensis, cordyceps militaris and their isolated compounds on ion transport in calu-3 human airway epithelial cells.the traditional chinese medicine cordyceps sinensis (cs) (clavicipitaceae) improves pulmonary function and is used to treat respiratory disease. here, we compare the efficacy and mechanisms of action of cordyceps sinensis and cordyceps militaris (cm) (clavicipitaceae) in calu-3 human airway epithelial monolayer model.200818358654
improvement of sperm production in subfertile boars by cordyceps militaris supplement.cordyceps species have been traditionally used for the enhancement of sexual function, however, there is few direct evidence to prove this. we investigated the spermatogenic effect of cordyceps militaris (cm) by supplementation with cm mycelium to subfertile boars. seventeen duroc and 12 landrace boars (29 to 40 months old) were selected to feed with regular diet (control groups, n = 8 and 6, respectively) or diet supplemented with cm mycelium (treatment groups, n = 9 and 6, respectively) for 2 ...200717708629
role of cordycepin and adenosine on the phenotypic switch of macrophages via induced anti-inflammatory cytokines.chronic low grade inflammation is closely linked to type ii diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. macrophages play a key role in the regulation of pro- or anti-inflammatory actions at the lesion sites of disease. components of cordyceps militaris, cordycepin and adenosine, have been used for the modulation of inflammatory diseases. the effects of cordycepin in the modulation of macrophages have yet to be elucidated. we investigated the effects of cordycepin and adenosine on the morphological c ...200920157613
[high-yielding cordycepin in cordyceps militaris modified by low-energy ion beam].cordycepin has the effect of anti-tumor, immunomodulation, anti-inflammation and so on. in order to make use of cordyceps militaris better, we implanted different doses of low-energy ion beam into c. militaris, chose best cordycepin extracting technology, and determined cordycepin content in strains before and after ion beam implantation by uv spectrophotometry. results showed that the best dose of low-energy ion beam was 2.60 x 10(15) ions/cm2, the best conditions of microwave assisted ultrason ...200920222474
a phytochemically characterized extract of cordyceps militaris and cordycepin protect hippocampal neurons from ischemic injury in gerbils.in the present study, we investigated effects of the dried, hot-water extract of cordyceps militaris (cme) and its major metabolite (cordycepin) against ischemic damage. the repeated treatment with cme protected hippocampal ca1 pyramidal neurons from ischemic damage in gerbils. the treatment with cme or cordycepin in gerbils reduced 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (a marker of lipid peroxidation) immunoreactivity and levels in the ischemic ca1 region. glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive astrocyte ...200818214814
simple hplc-uv determination of nucleosides and its application to the authentication of cordyceps and its allies.a simple hplc-uv method combined with a simple extraction procedure of nucleosides (adenosine, cordycepin, 2'-deoxyadenosine, guanosine and uridine) was developed and applied to the authentication of cordyceps and its allies. the separation was performed on a c(18) column by isocratic elution with acetonitrile-water, and uv detection at 260 nm. the amounts of adenosine, cordycepin, 2'-deoxyadenosine, guanosine and uridine in cordyceps were 0.28-14.15, 0.006-6.36, 0.01-0.14, 0.68-14.79 and 0.19-2 ...200818254139
cordyceps: a traditional chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory?traditional chinese medicines (tcm) are growing in popularity. however, are they effective? cordyceps is not studied as systematically for bioactivity as another tcm, ganoderma. cordyceps is fascinating per se, especially because of the pathogenic lifestyle on lepidopteron insects. the combination of the fungus and dead insect has been used as a tcm for centuries. however, the natural fungus has been harvested to the extent that it is an endangered species. the effectiveness has been attributed ...200818343466
distribution of nucleosides and nucleobases in edible fungi.a gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven nucleosides, adenosine, cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), cytidine, guanosine, thymidine, uridine, and inosine, and five nucleobases, adenine, cytosine, thymine, uracil, and hypoxanthine in cordyceps sinensis, cordyceps militaris, ganoderma lucidum, agrocybe aegerita, termitornyces albuminosus, and lentinus edodes. the results showed that total nucleoside and nuc ...200818183952
[comparison of icp-ms and two other analytical methods for determination of selenium content in cordyceps militaris].samples were digested by microwave digestion. the selenium content in selenium enriched cordyceps militaris was determined by icp-ms method, hplc/fluorometric method, and 3,3-diaminobenzidine method separately. and the detection conditions, the lowest detection limit and the relative standard deviation (rsd) of the three determination methods were compared. the detection conditions of the three methods for the detection of selenium content in selenium enriched cordyceps militaris were establishe ...200919455832
optimization of cec for simultaneous determination of eleven nucleosides and nucleobases in cordyceps using central composite design.a cec method is described for the simultaneous determination of 11 nucleosides and nucleobases including cytosine, uracil, uridine, hypoxanthine, 2'-deoxyuridine, inosine, guanosine, thymidine, adenine, adenosine, and cordycepin in cordyceps using 5-chlorocytosine arabinoside as internal standard (is). chemometric optimization based on central composite design was employed to find the optimum conditions. the factors for optimization were defined as three parameters: voltage, ph, and concentratio ...200717464961
comment on comparison of protective effects between cultured cordyceps militaris and natural cordyceps sinensis against oxidative damage. 200717661478
inhibitory effects of cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), a component of cordyceps militaris, on human platelet aggregation induced by thapsigargin.cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) is an adenosine analog, isolated from cordyceps militaris, and it has been used as an anticancer and anti-inflammation ingredient in traditional chinese medicine. we investigated the effects of cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) on human platelet aggregation, which was induced by thapsigargin, a tumor promoter, and determined the cytosolic free ca2+ levels ([ca2+]i) (an aggregation-stimulating molecule) and cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cgmp) (an aggregation-inhibiti ...200718051324
cordycepin suppresses expression of diabetes regulating genes by inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages.it has been recently noticed that type 2 diabetes (t2d), one of the most common metabolic diseases, causes a chronic low-grade inflammation and activation of the innate immune system that are closely involved in the pathogenesis of t2d. cordyceps militaris, a traditional medicinal mushroom, produces a component compound, cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine). cordycepin has been known to have many pharmacological activities including immunological stimulating, anti-cancer, and anti-infection activities ...200920107539
effects on tyrosinase activity by the extracts of ganoderma lucidum and related mushrooms.the inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity by extracts of several mushrooms belonging to basidiomycetes were evaluated. among the tested mushrooms (ganoderma lucidum, antrodia camphorata, agaricus brasiliensis, and cordyceps militaris), g. lucidum exhibited significant inhibition of tyrosinase activity (ic(50) value 0.32 mg/ml), compared to those prepared from other basidiomycetes. tyrosinase inhibitors are effective components of skin-lightening compounds and other cosmetics; currently many ...200818459064
suppression of adipocyte differentiation by cordyceps militaris through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.mycelial extracts have a wide range of biological activities that modulate functions of mammalian cells. in this report, we sought to identify antiadipogenic mycelia with the use of 3t3-l1 cells and found that the extract of cordyceps militaris exclusively suppressed differentiation of 3t3-l1 preadipocytes into mature adipocytes without affecting cell viability. this inhibitory effect was dose dependent, reversible, and associated with 1) a decrease in lipid accumulation, 2) blunted induction of ...200818664595
proteomic detection of changes in protein expression induced by cordycepin in human hepatocellular carcinoma bel-7402 cells.the nucleoside analogue cordycepin (3 '-deoxyadenosine, 3 '-da), one of the components of cordyceps militaris, has been shown to inhibit the growth of various tumor cells. however, the probable mechanism is still obscure. in this study, the inhibition of cell growth and changes in protein expression induced by cordycepin were investigated in bel-7402 cells. using the mtt assay and flow cytometry, we found that cordycepin inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis in bel-7402 cells. additional ...200818806893
blockade of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway triggered by dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cigarette smoke by phellinus linteus.environmental pollutants including halogenated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (ahr) and thereby cause a wide range of pathological changes. development of ahr antagonists will be useful for prevention and treatment of diseases related to ahr activation. towards this end, we aimed in the present study at seeking for potential inhibitors of the ahr pathway in mycelial extracts using the dioxin responsive element-based sensing via secreted alkaline phosp ...200818827349
cordymin, an antifungal peptide from the medicinal fungus cordyceps militaris.cordymin, an antifungal peptide with a molecular mass of 10,906 da and an n-terminal amino acid sequence distinct from those of previously reported proteins, was purified from the medicinal mushroom cordyceps militaris. the isolation protocol comprised ion exchange chromatography of the aqueous extract on sp-sepharose and mono s and gel filtration on superdex 75 by a fast protein liquid chromatography system. cordymin was adsorbed on both cation exchangers. the peptide inhibited mycelial growth ...201120739167
cordyceps militaris enhances mhc-restricted antigen presentation via the induced expression of mhc molecules and production of cytokines.cordyceps militarys water extract (cme) has been reported to exert antitumor and immunomodulatory activities in vivo and in vitro. however, the therapeutic mechanism has not yet been elucidated. in this study, we examined the effects of cme on the antigen presenting function of antigen presenting cells (apcs).201020844738
production of cordycepin by a repeated batch culture of a cordyceps militaris mutant obtained by proton beam irradiation.cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) is one of the most versatile metabolites of cordyceps militaris due to its broad spectrum of biological activity. in our previous study, the c. militaris mutant g81-3, which produces higher levels of cordycepin, was obtained by high-energy proton beam irradiation. in this study, the effects of adenosine on cordycepin production in a surface liquid culture of the mutant and the wild type strains were investigated. for the mutant strain, the optimum dose of adenosine ...201020863756
cordyceps militaris induces the il-18 expression via its promoter activation for ifn-gamma production.cordyceps militaris, one of traditional herbal ingredient in oriental medicine, has been known to promote anticancer and immunomodulatory activities in vitro and in vivo. however, the biological mechanism of anticancer activity has been unknown.200818929637
effect of cordyceps militaris supplementation on sperm production, sperm motility and hormones in sprague-dawley rats.cordyceps species have been traditionally used as for the enhancement of sexual function, but its direct evidence is lacking. we investigated the spermatogenic effect of cordyceps militaris (cm) as supplementation with cm mycelium to 7-week-old male sprague-dawley (sd) rats. ninety rats (30 for each group) were selected to regular diet or diet supplemented with cm mycelium (1% and 5%) for 6 weeks. epididymal sperm were collected from 6 animals per group at each interval of observation. they were ...200819051352
a haemagglutinin from the medicinal fungus cordyceps militaris.there are only a few reports on agglutinins from ascomycete and medicinal fungi. an ha (haemagglutinin), with an n-terminal amino acid sequence different from those of known lectins, was isolated in the present study from dried fruiting bodies of the medicinal ascomycete fungus cordyceps militaris. the purification protocol consisted of affinity chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. the haemagglutinating activity of the ha could not be inhibited by simple sugars or hepa ...200919093913
analysis of sterols and fatty acids in natural and cultured cordyceps by one-step derivatization followed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.ten free fatty acids namely lauric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, docosanoic acid and lignoceric acid and four free sterols including ergosterol, cholesterol, campesterol and beta-sitosterol in natural (wild) cordyceps sinensis, cordyceps liangshanensis and cordyceps gunnii, as well as cultured c. sinensis and cordyceps militaris were first determined using pressurized liquid extraction (ple), trimethylsilyl (tms ...200919339130
column chromatographic extraction and preparation of cordycepin from cordyceps militaris waster medium.large amounts of solid medium containing cordycepin, used in the industrial production of cordyceps militaris through solid fermentation, are discarded as waste and contaminate the environment. we have developed a new column chromatographic extraction (cce) method for the extraction of cordycepin from this waste and a preparation method for further separation and purification. dried waste material was imbibed in four times its volume of water for 6 h, transferred to columns and eluted with water ...200919553164
induction of apoptosis and inhibition of telomerase activity in human lung carcinoma cells by the water extract of cordyceps militaris.cordyceps militaris is well known as a traditional medicinal mushroom and is a potentially interesting candidate for use in cancer treatment. in this study, the potential of the water extract of c. militaris (wecm) to induce apoptosis in human lung carcinoma a549 cells and its effects on telomerase activity were investigated. the growth inhibition and apoptosis induction by wecm treatment in a549 cells was associated with the induction of fas, catalytic activation of caspase-8, and bid cleavage. ...200919393284
comparison of culture methods on exopolysaccharide production in the submerged culture of cordyceps militaris and process optimization.to improve exopolysaccharides (eps) production of cordyceps militaris (c. militaris), effects of different culture method on mycelial biomass and eps production in the submerged culture of c. militaris were investigated.201121214603
binding specificity of the recombinant cytoplasmic domain of cordyceps militaris β-1,3-glucan synthase catalytic subunit.the cytoplasmic domain of the medicinal mushroom cordyceps militaris β-1,3-glucan synthase catalytic subunit fks1 was expressed as a fusion protein with an n-terminal hexahistidine tag and glutathione s-transferase in an escherichia coli cell-free translation system, and was assayed for binding specificity. the recombinant cytoplasmic domain bound specifically to udp-agarose and lichenan (β-glucan), but not to adp-agarose, gdp-agarose, or other carbohydrates.201121228471
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