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camel production in kenya and its constraints. ii. tick infestation.the tick loads and tick species infesting an experimental herd, a rendille pastoralists' herd and two ranch herds of camels, in four different areas of kenya are described. the tick species most commonly observed were hyalomma rufipes, hyalomma dromedarii and rhipicephalus pulchellus.19836623649
the seasonal abundance of adult ixodid ticks on merino sheep in the south-western orange free state.with the exception of october, when no collections were made, adult ticks were collected at weekly intervals from february 1986 to january 1987 from 20 randomly selected sheep out of a flock of 60. ixodes rubicundus was the most abundant tick and was present from april to september with a peak during may. hyalomma marginatum rufipes was the next most numerous tick. it was recovered throughout the year with peak burdens being recorded from november to april. small numbers of a rhipicephalus sp. ( ...19883210216
comparative studies on the vector capacity of the different stages of amblyomma variegatum fabricius and hyalomma rufipes koch for congo virus, after intracoelomic inoculation.groups of nymphs and adults of hyalomma rufipes and larvae, nymphs and adults of amblyomma variegatum were infected by intracoelomic inoculation with congo virus at concentrations of 10(3.5)ld50 (group a), 10(1.5)ld50 (group b) and 10(0.5)ld50 (group c). the infection rates for the different groups were: groups a, 92-100% for all stages of ticks, except for adult h. rufipes which had 87%; group b, 56.8, 68.1 and 50.7% for larvae, nymphs and adults of a. variegatum, respectively, and 96.3 and 84. ...19911907050
arsenic resistance in species of multi-host ticks in the republic of south africa and swaziland.a survey was made in the republic of south africa and swaziland to determine the incidence of arsenic resistance in multi-host ixodid ticks. arsenic resistant strains were found in the following species:- rihipicephalus appendiculatus, rhipicephalus evertsi, rhipicephalus capensis, amblyomma hebraeum and a species of hyalomma, tentatively identified as hyalomma rufipes. strains of haemaphysalis leachi, haemaphysalis silacea and ixodes pilosus were also tested.19751223285
the transmission of theileria annulata to a rabbit by the larvae of the tick hyalomma rufipes.a new zealand white rabbit on which larvae of hyalomma rufipes were fed died of theileriosis due to theileria annulata 22 days after the larvae had fed. the larvae were direct progeny of an enorged female collected from trade cattle in the veterinary control post at ibadan. the danger attending the feeding on rabbits of first progeny of ticks collected from cattle in countries where some tick-borne diseases are endemic is highlighted. the possibility of transovarial transmission of theileria is ...1977839720
an ultrastructural study of the development of babesia occultans in the salivary glands of adult hyalomma marginatum rufipes.the development of babesia occultans in the salivary glands of adult hyalomma marginatum rufipes was studied with the electron microscope. sporogony involved a process of multiple fission in which sporozoites formed from the periphery of a polymorphous sporont. different stages of development were found concurrently in individual acini as well as within individual acinar cells. mature sporozoites were found on day 3 post-tick attachment and measures 3.0-3.5 x 1.5 micron. the apical complex consi ...19883393374
the scrub hare, a reliable indicator of the presence of hyalomma ticks in the cape province.the host preferences of immature and adult hyalomma marginatum rufipes, hyalomma marginatum turanicum and hyalomma truncatum were studied at various localities in the cape province. the immature stages of all 3 ticks preferred scrub hares (lepus saxatilis) as hosts and were recovered from these animals even when few adult ticks were present on large herbivores in the locality. ground-frequenting birds were also infested, but only with immature h. marginatum rufipes and h. marginatum turanicum. s ...19873612673
studies on ticks of veterinary importance in nigeria. xii. oviposition and eclosion in five species of ixodid ticks in contrasting habitats.the preoviposition and oviposition periods, the eclosion periods and numbers of eggs laid by adult ticks of five species, namely amblyomma variegatum, boophilus decoloratus, b. geigyi, hyalomma rufipes and h. truncatum, maintained in a natural habitat were compared with those maintained in semi-natural and artificial habitats. within the natural habitats, "open" and "shady" sites were distinguished. maximum oviposition occurred during the peak of the rains in engorged a. variegatum and b. decolo ...19853870956
infection rates of theileria annulata in the salivary glands of the tick hyalomma marginatum rufipes.theileria annulata was experimentally transmitted to cattle on two occasions by the two-host tick hyalomma marginatum rufipes. transmission was transstadial; engorged nymphs fed on theileria annulata-infected calves transmitted the disease as adults. salivary glands of all partially fed and incubated adult ticks were heavily infected with theileria parasites. immatures attached rapidly and fed successfully on cattle. however, since the immature stages of this species normally feed on birds, this ...19836415895
effects of host-immunity on the life cycle of hyalomma rufipes koch, 1844 (ixodoidea: ixodidae).studies of the effects of host-immunity on the life cycle of hyalomma rufipes were carried out by allowing the ticks to feed on new zealand white rabbits under laboratory conditions. the immunity of the rabbit host significantly affected the life cycle of this tick, reducing the percentage recovery of engorged females, their engorged weights and the total number of eggs laid by these females. the viability of the eggs laid by them was also considerably reduced compared to the eggs laid by female ...19846714847
field vector studies of epizootic east coast fever. vii. the occurrence of hyalomma rufipes and h. albiparmatum in the east coast fever zones. 19685751960
a comparison of the tick burdens of wild animals in a nature reserve and on an adjacent farm where tick control is practised.acaricidal treatment of cattle, sheep and goats on a farm in valley bushveld in the grahamstown district resulted in a reduction in the numbers of certain tick species on kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), scrub hares (lepus saxatilis) and crowned guinea fowl (numida meleagris) on the same farm. the tick species most severely affected was amblyomma hebraeum, while haemaphysalis silacea, hyalomma marginatum rufipes and rhipicephalus appendiculatus were affected to a lesser extent. rhipicephalus gla ...19863572954
seasonal prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle in the windhoek district of south west africa/namibia.the seasonal prevalence of ixodid ticks was determined over a 2-year period by the weekly removal from at least 5 cattle of all adult ticks and the immature stages of rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus in the ears. the highest mean weekly burden was 286,6 adult ticks/cow/week in march 1979, and the lowest 6,9 adult ticks/cow/week in july 1979. virtually no tick control is practised in this area. rhipicephalus capensis group adults peaked in the summer from october to march/april. rhipicephalus ever ...19846533509
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xviii. the crowned guinea fowl (numida meleagris), an important host of immature ixodid ticks.the tick burdens of 10 crowned guinea fowl (numida meleagris), shot at approximately 3-monthly intervals in the mountain zebra national park, and of 21 crowned guinea fowl from the andries vosloo kudu reserve, the majority of which were shot at monthly intervals, were determined. no adult ticks were recovered from any of the guinea fowl. the birds in the mountain zebra national park harboured 4 species of ixodid ticks of which amblyomma marmoreum was the most abundant and most prevalent. three b ...19863725331
the role of hyalomma ticks in foot infestations and temporary lameness of sheep in a semi-arid region of south africa.an outbreak of lameness amongst merino lambs, associated with the presence of hyalomma ticks, was investigated on a farm in the south-western free state, south africa. the purpose was to follow the progress of the condition and to determine the extent of involvement of the two hyalomma species which occur in the region. the flock of experimental sheep (n = 460) ranged free in natural veld under extensive farming conditions. during september and october 1993, adult ewes and lambs in this flock we ...19958628574
attachment preferences of hyalomma truncatum and hyalomma marginatum rufipes ticks (acari: ixodidae) on two sheep breeds.hyalomma ticks were collected from merino and black-headed dorper sheep and their attachment preferences determined. the preferred site of attachment for hyalomma marginatum rufipes on both dorper and merino sheep was the anogenital and inguinal areas (75-76%). on dorper sheep, h. truncatum attached predominantly to the anogenital and inguinal areas (67.7%). on merino sheep, most adults of this species attached to the feet (26%). almost equal percentages also attached to the anogenital/inguinal ...19958628576
resistance of brahman and simmentaler cattle to southern african ticks.field collections of ticks from two breeds of cattle in the north western transvaal showed the common tick species to be rhipicephalus appendiculatus, amblyomma hebraeum, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi and hyalomma marginatum rufipes. the number of these ticks was higher on simmentaler than on brahman cattle. correlation was found between the number of ticks on the cattle and their serum gamma globulin levels indicating an increase in the production of antibodies. similar correlation was also fou ...19902339000
the isolation and transmission of an unidentified babesia sp. to cattle by hyalomma truncatum koch 1844.an unidentified babesia sp. which causes a mild disease in cattle was isolated in a splenectomized ox that received pooled blood from field cattle. that this organism is pleomorphic and resembles babesia occultans makes it difficult to differentiate between these organisms microscopically. initially, it was suspected that this babesia could be b. occultans. several attempts to transmit this parasite transovarially with hyalomma marginatum rufipes, the vector of b. occultans, failed. continued ef ...19902293131
[ticks and hemoparasitoses of livestock in senegal. iii. the northern sudan area].the authors describe the results of a study on ticks and hemoparasitoses of cattle and small ruminants in the senegalese north-sudanian area. for 15 months, 40 bovine, 40 sheep and 40 goats received a routine dipping treatment, aimed at the determination of the tick population dynamics together with an accurate localization of the preferential sites for the different species. the following parasites were collected from the animals: hyalomma marginatum rufipes, h. truncatum, rhipicephalus lunulat ...19892485548
experimental studies on the replication and transmission of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in some african tick species.seven african tick species were studied as potential vectors of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus. engorged nymphae of 4 ixodid species, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, h. truncatum, rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus, and amblyomma hebraeum, were inoculated intracoelomically with cchf virus and assayed for virus content at varying times post-inoculation. the virus replicated in all 4 species, reaching maximum titers of 4.6-5.5(10) fluorescence focus units per ml on days 5-9 post-inoculatio ...19892494900
studies on ticks of veterinary importance in nigeria. viii. differences observed in the biology of ticks which fed on different domestic animal hosts.ticks of the species amblyomma variegatum (fabr.), boophilus decoloratus (koch), boophilus geigyi aeschl. et morel, and hyalomma rufipes koch were detached from cattle, sheep and horses and the influence of these various hosts on the biology of ticks was investigated. no a. variegatum was found in horses. the parameters studied were preoviposition and oviposition periods, ovipositional capacity, eclosion period, hatching patterns, egg sizes and temperature effect. although the preoviposition and ...19846714846
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxvii. ticks on helmeted guineafowls in the eastern cape province and eastern transvaal lowveld.seventy-six helmeted guineafowls (numida meleagris) were shot in the andries vosloo kudu reserve and on an adjacent farm in the eastern cape province during the period may 1985 to january 1987 and their tick burdens determined. a total of 10 ixodid tick species were recovered, of which amblyomma hebraeum, amblyomma marmoreum and haemaphysalis silacea were the most abundant. the seasonal abundances of these 3 species and of hyalomma marginatum rufipes were ascertained. a marked difference between ...19911923375
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxv. ixodid ticks on sheep in the north-eastern orange free state and in the eastern cape province.the tick burdens of 115 merino sheep, slaughtered over a period of 15 consecutive months on a farm in the north-eastern orange free state, were determined. a total of 7 ixodid and 1 argasid tick species were recovered and the seasonal abundances of boophilus decoloratus, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, margaropus winthemi and rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were determined. one hundred and forty-nine merino sheep were slaughtered over periods varying from 10 to 25 months on 3 farms in eastern provinc ...19911923373
arthropod parasites of springbok, gemsbok, kudus, giraffes and burchell's and hartmann's zebras in the etosha and hardap nature reserves, namibia.a total of 48 springbok, 48 gemsbok, 23 kudus and 6 giraffes were examined for ticks and lice, while 9 burchell's zebras and 6 hartmann's mountain zebras were examined only for ticks. springbok and gemsbok were shot in both the etosha national park in the north and the hardap nature reserve in the south of namibia. all the other animals were shot in the etosha national park. a total of 7 ixodid tick species and 8 lice species were recovered. the springbok carried few ticks. the adults of a rhipi ...19921297955
relationship between ticks and zebu cattle in southern uganda.tick populations were observed on zebu (bos indicus) cattle over a period of 2 years at entebbe, uganda where the climate was thought to be highly favourable for the free-living stages of ticks. collections of all instars of ticks were made from the body surfaces of the cattle at intervals of between 1 and 5 weeks. the species recorded in order of decreasing abundance were rhipicephalus appendiculatus, amblyomma variegatum, boophilus decoloratus, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rhipicephalus simu ...19827101465
the identification of a shared immunogen present in the salivary glands and gut of ixodid and argasid ticks.the identification of a 70-kda immunogen present in salivary gland extracts of several ixodid species, namely hyalomma truncatum (sweating-sickness-inducing (ss+) and non-inducing (ss-) strains), hyalomma marginatum rufipes and rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, is reported. the immunogen was identified by western blots using a monoclonal antibody of the igm isotype directed against a 70-kda immunogen present in the salivary glands of (ss-) female h. truncatum ticks. cross-reactivity with the gut of ...19921446571
isolation and transmission of an unidentified babesia sp. infective for cattle.engorged adult female ticks submitted from farms in south africa were routinely screened for protozoan parasites by examination of haemolymph smears. an unidentified babesia sp. was found in hyalomma marginatum rufipes and its transmission to susceptible cattle was achieved both biologically (tick feeding) and mechanically (injection of infected blood). attempts to transmit this species to susceptible rabbits and a horse using similar methods did not produce evidence of infection. this babesia s ...19817335331
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxix. ixodid ticks on hares in the cape province and on hares and red rock rabbits in the orange free state.one hundred and seventeen scrub hares, lepus saxatilis, were examined for ixodid ticks in various regions of the cape province. they were infested with 18 tick species and the seasonal abundances of the immature stages of amblyomma hebraeum, amblyomma marmoreum, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, rhipicephalus appendiculatus and rhipicephalus glabroscutatum and all stages of rhipicephalus oculatus and the adults of a rhipicephalus sp. (near r. oculatus) were determined. seventy-two scrub hares on 3 fa ...19911780126
simultaneous detection of bovine theileria and babesia species by reverse line blot hybridization.a reverse line blot (rlb) assay was developed for the identification of cattle carrying different species of theileria and babesia simultaneously. we included theileria annulata, t. parva, t. mutans, t. taurotragi, and t. velifera in the assay, as well as parasites belonging to the t. sergenti-t. buffeli-t. orientalis group. the babesia species included were babesia bovis, b. bigemina, and b. divergens. the assay employs one set of primers for specific amplification of the rrna gene v4 hypervari ...199910325324
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxxi. adult ixodid ticks on sheep in the cape province and in the orange free state.four to 10 dorper sheep on each of 12 farms in the cape province and 3 farms in the orange free state were examined for adult ixodid ticks at approximately 2- to 4-weekly intervals over periods varying from 4 to 18 months, commencing during january, february or april 1989. the farms in the cape province were located in the north-west, south-west and south of the province. those in the orange free state were situated in the north-east and in the south. the sheep in the cape province harboured 10 ...19921297957
the multiplication of dugbe virus in the ixodid tick, hyalomma rufipes koch, after experimental infection.nymphs and adults of h. rufipes were inoculated intracoelomically with a dugbe virus concentration containing 1.5 ld50/0.02 ml. the virus multiplied to a peak titre of 9.3 log10 +/- 0.03 in nymphs and 4.4 log10 +/- 0.02 in the unfed adults. virus infection persisted during metamorphosis and was passed on to the adults. a blood meal significantly increased the titre of virus in the adults at a probability less than 0.001. also the tire in the engorged females was significantly higher than that in ...1979538818
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xiii. the seasonal incidence of adult ticks (acarina: ixodidae) on cattle in the northern transvaal.ticks were collected over a period of 13 months, at approximately fortnightly intervals, from 6 africaner oxen kept on the farm nylsvley in the naboomspruit district. the 8 species of ixodidae collected were, in order of abundance, rhipicephalus appendiculatus, r. evertsi evertsi, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, h. truncatum, amblyomma hebraeum, r. simus, boophilus decoloratus and ixodes cavipalpus. the relative abundance of adult ticks of these species, their predilection feeding sites and seasona ...1979460821
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever in south africa.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus was isolated for the first time in south africa in february 1981, from the blood of a 13-year-old boy who died in johannesburg after attending a camp in a nature reserve in the western transvaal. virus was isolated from 21/120 pools of questing ticks from the nature reserve, the infected species being hyalomma marginatum rufipes and h. truncatum. virus was also isolated from 4/38 pools of partially engorged ticks and other ectoparasites collected off hosts, ...19836418019
the life cycle of the tick hyalomma marginatum rufipes koch (acarina: ixodidae) under laboratory conditions.the life cycle of hyalomma marginatum rufipes koch was studied under laboratory conditions at 26 +/- 1 c. the preoviposition period was 7.1 +/- 0.23 days. the mean (+/- se) number of eggs was 6,867 +/- 2,609 (max. 13,180, min. 3,184). the greatest egg production was recorded on day 3 (avg 1,170 egg/female). the incubation period was 29.3 +/- 2.96 days. the feeding time of larvae and nymphs of this 2-host tick was 22.8 +/- 0.13 days. nymphs producing males weighed less (23.1 +/- 0.748 mg) than th ...1978627955
[crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever in senegal. latest data on the ecology of the cchf virus].the authors finalize the knowledge on the ecology of the cchf virus in senegal, west africa. they specify two new major data for the understanding of the viral ecology in west africa. the recognition of a bird species, common and widely distributed in senegal (tockus erythrorhynchus, coraciiformes, bucerotidae), that replicates the virus and infects the immature stages of its current parasite hyalomma marginatum rufipes in more than 90% of the cases, explains why the minimum infection rate of th ...19948003897
ecology and phenology of ticks in zambia: seasonal dynamics on cattle.a study of the seasonality and infestation rates of ticks was carried out in 11 cattle herds in different ecological habitats in zambia between 1980 and 1982. wherever possible supplementary data were obtained from opportunistic collections from cattle and other hosts. analysis of over 1000 tick collections from cattle indicated that infestation rates of the most important species, amblyomma variegatum and rhipicephalus appendiculatus vary in different ecological habitats: (i) in western provinc ...19863451861
studies on a bovine babesia transmitted by hyalomma marginatum rufipes koch, 1844.a babesia sp. was recently observed in hyalomma marginatum rufipes and found to be transmissible to bovines. further observations were carried out on this parasite and a study made of the morphology of stages in both erythrocytes and tick haemolymph. apart from babesia divergens, intra-erythrocytic parasites were not readily distinguishable from bovine babesia spp. merozoites in tick haemolymph morphologically resembled those of babesia bigemina, but they were significantly larger. this babesia ...19817345388
monthly dynamics of ticks (acari:ixodida) infesting n'dama cattle in the republic of guinea.the occurrence of ixodid ticks on n'dama cattle was studied in the republic of guinea between june 1994 and may 1995. monthly tick collections were performed on 80 animals from 14 villages located in dabola, kouroussa and dinguiraye prefectures. a total of 19,804 ticks was collected and classified using standard taxonomic keys. the following tick species were identified: amblyomma variegatum, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, hyalomma trunctum, hyalomma nitidum, rhipicephalus lunulatus, rhipicephalus ...200415139086
impact of natural infestation of amblyomma variegatum on the liveweight gain of male gudali cattle in adamawa (cameroon).the effect of natural tick infestation on the liveweight gain (lwg) of male gudali zebu cattle was studied throughout a year by comparing the performances of two herds, one of which was submitted to weekly acaricidal treatment and the other was left untreated against ticks. six species of ticks were identified on the untreated animals: amblyomma variegatum, boophilus decoloratus, rhipicephalus lunulatus, rhipicephalus turanicus, hyalomma nitidum and hyalomma marginatum rufipes. most of the losse ...19938249253
prevalence of rickettsia-like organisms and spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks (acari: ixodidae) from zimbabwe.the prevalence of rickettsia-like organisms in ticks from zimbabwe was determined using the hemolymph test. amblyomma hebraeum had the highest prevalence of rickettsia-like organisms. other species with rickettsia-like organisms included amblyomma sparsum, amblyomma variegatum, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, ripicephalus simus, haemaphysalis leachi, amblyomma rhinocerotis, and hyalomma truncatum. ticks with no demonstrable rickettsia-like organisms infection were boophilus decoloratus, haemaphysal ...19958551500
observations on cattle ticks in huila province (angola).in huila province of angola, 3864 ticks were collected during a parasitological survey carried out in the rainy season from october 1990 to april 1991. the samples were collected from cattle gathered for the annual vaccination campaign against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, anthrax and blackleg in 18 veterinary stations of six municipalities. after tick classification, the following proportions of ticks were obtained: rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus (27.1%), amblyomma pomposum (26.4%), booph ...19948171837
crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever virus infection in birds: field investigations in senegal.in senegal, wild ground-feeding birds are frequently infested with immature ticks. in two areas where numerous crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus isolations were obtained from hyalomma marginatum rufipes adult ticks collected on ungulates, 175 birds were captured and sera collected. cchf antibodies were detected by elisa in 6/22 red-beaked hornbills (tockus erythrorhynchus), 2/11 glossy starlings (lamprotornis sp.) and 1/3 guinea fowls. the virus was isolated from h. m. rufipes nymphs ...19948059064
cattle ticks from the waterberg district of the transvaal.macroscopically visible ticks were collected from the hides of 28 cattle slaughtered in pairs during a period of 14 months in the waterberg district. in order of prevalence rhipicephalus appendiculatus, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, amblyomma hebraeum, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, ixodes cavipalpus, hyalomma truncatum and boophilus decoloratus were recovered. immature stages of the three commonest species constituted a major portion of the population for varying periods during the months april ...19807452655
parasites of cattle in the south western orange free state.a number of young friesian oxen were slaughtered (one at a time) for parasite recovery for 12 consecutive months, from april 1987 to march 1988, on a farm in the fauresmith district of the south western orange free state. a total of 5 ixodid and one argasid tick species, 2 lice species, plus one nematode species and one cestode species, were recovered. peak numbers of adult hyalomma marginatum rufipes were present from november 1987 to february 1988, while the largest numbers of hyalomma truncat ...19902269986
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xv. the seasonal prevalence of ectoparasites on impala and cattle in the northern transvaal.the prevalence of ectoparasites on a total of 36 impala (aepyceros melampus) slaughtered monthly from february 1975 to february 1976 and a total of 24 cattle slaughtered monthly from march 1976 to march 1977 in the nylsvley provincial nature reserve was determined. six species of ixodid ticks were collected from the impala and these, in order of abundance, were: rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rhipicephalus appe. diculatus, amblyomma hebraeum, boophilus decoloratus, ixodes cavipalpus and hyalomma ...19827177586
the seasonal occurrence of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on sheep and in the field in the judean area of israel.a 2 year survey of ixodid ticks in the judean area of israel between 1983 and 1985 showed that sheep were parasitized by the following species: rhipicephalus sanguineus group (30.6%), rhipicephalus bursa (25.3%), haemaphysalis cretica (20.5%), haemaphysalis otophila (20.1%) and hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (3.1%). three other species, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, boophilus annulatus and amblyomma lepidum were also present but in very low numbers. a total of 50,816 specimens (78.1% adult ticks) ...19968746133
experimental transmission of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus by west african wild ground-feeding birds to hyalomma marginatum rufipes ticks.hyalomma (h.) marginatum rufipes ticks commonly infest birds and are potential vectors of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus in west africa. an experimental model for investigating the role of birds in the cchf virus transmission cycle was developed. following cchf virus inoculation, antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in one red-beaked hornbill and one glossy starling, but not in two laughing doves and six domestic chickens. none of the birds showed a detecta ...19948024058
the presence of kinetes of a babesia species in the haemolymph smears of engorged hyalomma ticks in nigeria.kinetes of a babesia species were found in the haemolymph smears of 5 species of hyadomma which were detached from trade cattle after engorgement. hyalomma rufipes had the highest percentage of infection; while this infection rate was significantly higher than those of h. trupcatum and h. impressum, it was statistically similar to those of h. marginatum and h. impeltatum. studies on the morphology and dimensions of the kinetes show that they are larger than those of b. bigemina, smaller than tho ...19846543060
a survey of the ixodid ticks parasitising cattle in the eastern province of zambia.the results of tick surveys carried out in the eastern province of zambia between december 1982 and february 1996 were principally in agreement with the findings of earlier surveys conducted during the period 1965-72. boophilus decoloratus has almost been replaced by boophilus microplus. hyalomma truncatum was found in small numbers throughout the province and hyalomma marginatum rufipes was only rarely encountered in collections made from cattle. rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi was largely confin ...19989737594
[experimental transmission of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus: role of 3 vector species in the maintenance and transmission cycles in senegal].in this article, we published the role of three species of ticks amblyomma variegatum (fabricius, 1974), hyalomma marginatum rufipes (koch, 1844) and hyalomma truncatum (koch, 1844) in the maintenance and transmission of the cchf virus. the imagos of these species were infected by intracoelomic route. vertical transmission (transtasial and transovarial) and horizontal transmission for different stases were studied by isolation on newborn mice, polymerase chain reaction, indirect immunofluorescen ...199910229934
comparison of resistance in three breeds of cattle against african ixodid ticks.tick resistance in three breeds of cattle, two indigenous breeds (arssi and boran) and one boran x friesian cross-bread, were compared following natural tick infestations at abernossa ranch in ethiopia. the local arssi breed was found to have the highest tick resistance, followed by the boran breed, whereas the boran x friesian was the least resistant. over a period of 12 months, from october 1991 to september 1992, a total of 32,897 ticks composed of four genera were collected from the animals. ...19968665816
on the use of the scrotum for feeding larval ixodid ticks on hosts.the efficacy of feeding larval stages of amblyomma variegatum, hyalomma rufipes and boophilus decoloratus on the ears and scrotum of sheep is compared. the effect of age of larvae on the number that engorged on the animal was also investigated. a significantly greater number of larvae fed on scrotum than on ears. the greatest number of larvae engorged when they were fed on the scrotum or ear within 1-4 days of hatching. the older the larvae, the less the number that fed. the economic advantages ...1977860573
survival of six species of african ticks in relation to saturation deficits.the survival of unfed males and females of six species of african ticks was monitored at five different saturation deficits at constant temperature (25 degrees c). the survivorship curves for each species comprised a pre-mortality period, prior to when ticks started to die and a mortality period corresponding to a rapid increase in the mortality rate. longevity was defined as pre-mortality plus mortality. a negative correlation between the longevity of the ticks and the saturation deficits was f ...19969022266
preliminary survey of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on cattle in northern sudan.in a cross sectional survey conducted during the period june 2001 to july 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the sudan was determined. seventeen locations were surveyed from northern, central, eastern, western, blue nile and white nile provinces. total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. four tick genera and 11 species were identified. the tick species collected included amblyomma lepidum, amblyomma variegatum, boophilus decoloratus, hyalom ...200415732459
detection of theileria annulata by the pcr in ticks (acari:ixodidae) collected from cattle in mauritania.we report on the detection of theileria annulata in infected hyalomma ticks by the pcr using primers derived from the gene encoding the 30 kda major merozoite surface antigen (tamsi-1). no inhibition of the pcr was observed and as little as 0.1 pg of parasite dna, corresponding to 12 sporozoites, could be detected in non-infected tick dna samples, spiked with t. annulata genomic dna. hyalomma dromedarii ticks, fed on a calf experimentally infected with t. annulata, were used to validate the pcr ...19979203350
adult ixodid ticks on two cattle breeds in the south-western free state, and their seasonal dynamics.a study was conducted to compare the species of adult ixodid ticks on friesian and bonsmara cattle and their seasonal dynamics. between five and ten animals of each breed were kept on natural false upper karoo vegetation, typical of the south-western free state. between may 1990 and october 1991, the animals were examined once or twice a month for the presence of adult ticks which were removed, counted and identified. six species of ixodid ticks were recorded. the species composition on the two ...19968848299
tick infestation of borana cattle in the borana province of ethiopia.a study was conducted to identify and determine burdens of ticks infesting borana cattle in the borana province of ethiopia. rhipicephalus pulchellus, rhipicephalus pravus, rhipicephalus muhsamae, rhipicephalus praetextatus, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, amblyomma gemma, amblyomma variegatum, amblyomma cohaerens, amblyomma lepidum, hyalomma truncatum, hyalomma marginatum rufipes and boophilus decoloratus were identified on the cattle. their burdens ranged from 658-1,554 with a mean of 1,205 tic ...200111403429
molecules and morphology: evidence for cryptic hybridization in african hyalomma (acari: ixodidae).the role of natural hybridization and introgression as part of the evolutionary process is of increasing interest to zoologists, particularly as more examples of gene exchange among species are identified. we present mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data for hyalomma dromedarii, hyalomma truncatum, and hyalomma marginatum rufipes (acari: ixodidae) collected from one-humped camels in ethiopia. these species are well differentiated morphologically and genetically; sequence data from the mitochon ...200312679078
development of ixodid ticks under natural conditions in nigeria.the developmental periods of five tick species were recorded from egg to adult stages under natural conditions. the ticks were amblyomma variegatum, boophilus decoloratus, b. geigyi, hyalomma rufipes and h. truncatum and the natural condition was a grazing field on which "open" site and "shade" were recognised. the investigation took place between april 1980 and march 1981. the hatching patterns of larvae, attachment, engorgement, larvo-nymphal and nympho-adult moulting periods and the survival ...19846729999
evidence to show that an agent that cross-reacts serologically with cowdria ruminantium in zimbabwe is transmitted by ticks.the serological diagnosis of heartwater based on reactions to the immunodominant cowdria ruminantium major antigen protein-1 (map-1) is impaired by the detection of false-positive reactions. in this study, the prevalence of false-positive reactions on seven heartwater-free farms in zimbabwe was determined to be 8-94% by immunoblotting against c. ruminantium antigens. the highest prevalence of false-positives on spring valley farm correlated with the presence of rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi tick ...19989493330
ixodid ticks feeding on humans in south africa: with notes on preferred hosts, geographic distribution, seasonal occurrence and transmission of pathogens.this paper records the identities of 558 ixodid ticks feeding on 194 humans in south africa. these ticks belonged to 20 species in six genera and those most frequently encountered were amblyomma hebraeum, haemaphysalis leachi, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, hyalomma truncatum, rhipicephalus appendiculatus, rhipicephalus gertrudae and rhipicephalus simus. with the exception of the larvae of r. appendiculatus, the incidents of these ticks feeding on humans correlated well with their seasonal occurre ...200212593517
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever in ticks (acari: ixodidae) and ruminants: field observations of an epizootic in bandia, senegal (1989-1992).from 1989 to 1992, a longitudinal study of the relationships between different tick species and domestic ungulates in the transmission and amplification of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus was undertaken in the bandia area in senegal where the presence of the virus had been reported previously. an epizootic occurred in 1991-1992 and 22 strains of cchf virus were isolated from hyalomma marginatum rufipes koch, amblyomma variegatum (f.), rhipicephalus guilhoni morel & vassiliades, and ...19979379454
feeding patterns of immature stages of hyalomma truncatum and hyalomma marginatum rufipes on different hosts.in this study we examine the feeding patterns of immature stages of hyalomma truncatum and hyalomma marginatum rufipes ticks on different hosts. larvae of h. truncatum developed through a three-host pattern on two species of field mice, rhabdomys pumilio and lemniscomys rosalia. on guinea-pigs, both hyalomma species followed a mixed two-host and three-host pattern, with the latter route being preferred, since more than 70% of the fully fed larvae dropped off from their hosts. h. truncatum was a ...200011110240
tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: emerging diseases challenging old concepts.during most of the 20th century, the epidemiology of tick-borne rickettsioses could be summarized as the occurrence of a single pathogenic rickettsia on each continent. an element of this paradigm suggested that the many other characterized and noncharacterized rickettsiae isolated from ticks were not pathogenic to humans. in this context, it was considered that relatively few tick-borne rickettsiae caused human disease. this concept was modified extensively from 1984 through 2005 by the identif ...200516223955
in vitro investigation of the toxic effects of extracts of allium sativum bulbs on adults of hyalomma marginatum rufipes and rhipicephalus pulchellus.the toxic effects of the extracts of allium sativum (garlic) were evaluated against adults of hyalomma marginatum rufipes and rhipicephalus pulchellus using three types (types a, b and c) of contact toxicity bioassays. a. sativum bulbs were extracted with acetone, ethanol and dichloromethane (dcm) solvents. among these three solvents, it is the dcm extract of a. sativum that appears to have anti-tick activity. in the type a contact toxicity bioassay, dcm extracts of a. sativum demonstrated a hig ...200516108529
ixodid ticks on cattle belonging to small-scale farmers at 4 communal grazing areas in south africa.ixodid ticks were collected during the period september 1991 to august 1993 from cattle belonging to small-scale farmers utilising 4 communal grazing areas. three of these were in north west province and 1 in mpumalanga province, south africa. ten tick species were collected in north west province and 7 in mpumalanga. the adults of amblyomma hebraeum, rhipicephalus appendiculatus and rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were most numerous in north west province, while in mpumalanga boophilus decoloratu ...200212515294
the genus hyalomma koch, 1844. i. reinstatement of hyalomma (euhyalomma) glabrum delpy, 1949 (acari, ixodidae) as a valid species with a redescription of the adults, the first description of its immature stages and notes on its biology.for nearly 50 years the ixodid tick hyalomma marginatum turanicum, reputedly introduced into south africa on imported persian sheep, has been considered identical to the asian hyalomma (euhyalomma) marginatum turanicum pomerantzev, 1946. comparisons of this tick with the asian h. (e.) m. turanicum and other subspecies of hyalomma (euhyalomma) marginatum, however, reveal that it is an old taxon, namely hyalomma rufipes glabrum delpy, 1949. it is hereby reinstated as hyalomma (euhyalomma) glabrum, ...200616715874
seasonal variation of ticks on cattle in burkina faso.cattle of the sahel zebu peuhl breed from traditionally managed livestock herds in a representative area of north soudanese savana (with 400-900 mm of rainfall/year from may to september) located in the central land of burkina faso, were monitored over 12 months for tick and blood parasite. two species of ticks were found: amblyomma variegatum and hyalomma marginatum rufipes. h. m. rufipes was found on cattle all year round with a highest infestation rate in june characterized by means of 10 +/- ...19989668496
distribution and ecology of ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting livestock in tunisia: an overview of eighth years field collections.ticks (ixodidae) play a significant role as vectors of pathogens of domestic animals in tunisia. the major losses caused by ticks are related to transmission of protozoan parasites. these include agents of tropical theileriosis and babesiosis in ruminants. since 1991, we conducted research studies on tick population of livestock in tunisia. this overview reports a synthesis on tick distribution, their biology and their role as vectors of pathogens in domestic animals, particularly cattle. during ...199911071534
tick diversity, abundance and seasonal dynamics in a resource-poor urban environment in the free state province.the objectives of this study were to determine the diversity, seasonal dynamics and abundance of ticks infesting cattle in urban, small-scale farming communities in and around botshabelo and thaba nchu in the eastern free state province, south africa. a total of ten cattle, ear-tagged for individual identification, were investigated monthly at each of five localities. adult ticks were removed from the right hand side of each animal and placed in containers filled with 70% ethanol. they were subs ...199810192844
acaricide efficiency of amitraz/cypermethrin and abamectin pour-on preparations in game.the efficacy of an amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on preparation (1% w/v each) was tested against natural tick infestations of buffaloes, eland and blesbok in three separate trials. the eland were also treated with a 0.02% abamectin (w/v) acaricidal pour-on preparation. the amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on was effective against amblyomma hebraeum, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rhipicephalus appendiculatus and hyalomma marginatum rufipes on the buffaloes. both acaricides were effective against r. appendi ...200516562734
ticks on crested francolins, francolinus sephaena, and on the vegetation on a farm in limpopo province, south africa.ticks were collected at approximately bi-monthly intervals between june 1996 and june 1997 from crested francolins, francolinus sephaena, and from the vegetation on a mixed cattle and wildlife farm in limpopo province, south africa. the birds were infested with the immature stages of 13 tick species, of which amblyomma hebraeum, amblyomma marmoreum and hyalomma marginatum rufipes were the most numerous and prevalent. ten ixodid tick species were collected from the vegetation, of which the immatu ...200516562738
ehrlichia ruminantium variants which do not cause heartwater found in south africa.in 1994 a batch of apparently healthy goats was selected for intended export to the usa from a heartwater-free and vector tick-free region of south africa. the animals were tested serologically for heartwater, using either or both an ifa and an elisa test, and 52% were found to be serologically positive. a pcr assay based on ehrlichia ruminantium 16s gene sequences gave positive results for 54% of the animals, suggesting that apparently non-pathogenic e. ruminantium variants existed in this hear ...200717123750
birds as hosts of immature ixodid ticks in free state province, south africa.the objective of this study was to determine the species spectrum of ixodid ticks infesting birds in free state province, south africa. to this end a large number of birds belonging to several species were examined for ticks and a total of 180 birds belonging to 39 species at 17 localities were infested, and ticks belonging to eight species were recovered. the immature stages of only two, namely amblyomma marmoreum and hyalomma marginatum rufipes, were sufficiently prevalent and numerous to safe ...200616958263
ticks associated with the three largest wild ruminant species in southern africa.the objective of this study was to assess the host status of the three largest southern african wild ruminants, namely giraffes, giraffa camelopardalis, african buffaloes, syncerus caffer, and eland, taurotragus oryx for ixodid ticks. to this end recently acquired unpublished data are added here to already published findings on the tick burdens of these animals, and the total numbers and species of ticks recorded on 12 giraffes, 18 buffaloes and 36 eland are summarized and discussed. twenty-eigh ...200717933365
predation of livestock ticks by chickens as a tick-control method in a resource-poor urban environment.the possible use of chickens as predators of livestock ticks was studied. chickens were allowed to scavenge for 3 h among tick-infested cattle in a typical township backyard during the milking period. boophilus decoloratus, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi and otobius megnini were recovered from the crops and gizzards at necropsy. the numbers of ticks ingested ranged from 0-128, with an average of 28.81 (+/- 8.42) per chicken. this study has confirmed that chickens are ...19979551478
ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting camels (camelus dromedarius) in northern sudan.monthly total body tick collections from 13-20 camels were conducted for 2 consecutive years (2000-2001) in northern sudan. tick populations were correlated with locality, season, predeliction site, sex and coat colour. hyalomma dromedarii was found to be the predominant (89%) tick species infesting the camels. other tick species found in very low numbers were hyalomma impeltatum (7.7%), hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (3.3%), hyalomma truncatum (0.29%), hyalomma marginatum rufipes (0.25%), rhipi ...200920698438
tick infestation, and udder and teat damage in selected cattle herds of matabeleland south, zimbabwe.a cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine tick infestation, and udder and teat damage in 286 lactating cows and heifers at six properties in the smallholder and commercial sectors in gwanda district of matabeleland south province, zimbabwe. eight tick species were identified: amblyomma hebraeum, hyalomma truncatum, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus, rhipicephalus appendiculatus, rhipicephalus zambeziensis and rhipicephalus ...200920698443
ticks (ixodidae) on migrating birds in egypt, spring and fall 1962.over a number of years studies have been carried out in egypt on the transport by migrating birds of ticks that may transmit pathogens of man and animals. in continuation of these investigations 11 036 birds migrating southwards through egypt were examined for ticks during the fall of 1962. the 881 infested birds (comprising 24 species and sub-species represented by 10 612 individuals) yielded 1442 ticks. tick-host relationships were similar to those of previous years except that in 1962 the pre ...196414163959
ticks collected from birds in the northern provinces of south africa, 2004-2006.approximately 3000 birds, mainly passerines, caught in mist nets in the northern provinces of south africa, were examined for ticks. a total of 178 ticks, belonging to 14 species, were recovered from 83 birds of 43 different species. hyalomma rufipes was the most numerous tick, with 26 larvae and 109 nymphs collected, followed by amblyomma marmoreum, with 13 larvae and two nymphs. despite the study being conducted within the distribution range of amblyomma hebraeum, it was not seen on any passer ...200920698437
ticks and associated pathogens collected from domestic animals in the netherlands.following an outbreak of autochthonous canine babesiosis in the netherlands, a request made to veterinarians and the public to collect ticks from companion animals resulted in 4298 ticks submitted between july 2005 and october 2006 to our center. ticks were identified as ixodes ricinus adults (2907/4298, 67.6%), ixodes sp. nymphs (529/4298, 12.3%) and ixodes sp. larvae (385/4298, 9.0%), i. hexagonus adults (328/4298, 7.6%), dermacentor reticulatus (72/4298, 1.7%), and several other exotic tick s ...200717979540
transport of ticks by migratory passerine birds to norway.ticks can be transported over large distances and across geographical barriers by avian hosts. during the spring migrations of 2003 to 2005, 9,768 passerine birds from 4 bird observatories along the southern coastline of norway were examined for ticks. altogether, 713 birds carried a total of 517 larvae and 1,440 nymphs. the highest prevalence of tick infestation was observed in thrushes and dunnock (prunella modularis). the degree of tick infestation varied during each season, between localitie ...200919658452
molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from ethiopia and chad.dna extracted from 363 ticks collected in ethiopia and 9 ticks collected in chad, africa were screened by pcr to detect dna from spotted fever group rickettsiae. fifteen ticks (4.1%) collected in ethiopia and one tick (11%) collected in chad tested positive when pcr targeting the glta and ompa rickettsial genes was performed. pcr-positive products of the glta and ompa genes were used for dna sequencing. rickettsia africae was detected in 12/118 amblyomma lepidum and in 1/2 a. variegatum. also, 2 ...200818440576
prevalence and species composition of ixodid ticks infesting horses in three agroecologies in central oromia, ethiopia.a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the species composition and prevalence of ixodid ticks infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central ethiopia. for this purpose, a total of 1,168 horses were examined for tick infestation. an overall prevalence of 39.04% of tick infestation on horses was recorded. a total of 917 adult ticks were collected from infested horses. amblyomma, boophilus, rhipicephalus, and hyalomma genera with the respective prevalence of 3.2%, 1.8%, 29.2% ...201121656133
repellent effects of the essential oil of lavendula angustifolia against adults of hyalomma marginatum rufipes.the repellent effects of the essential oil of lavendula angustifolia on adults of hyalomma marginatum rufipes was studied at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20% v/v. a suitable tick climbing bioassay based on the questing behaviour of ticks was used to test for repellency. high percentage repellency (range 70-100) was shown at all concentrations of the essential oil of l. angustifolia, although at 5% v/v it only persisted for the first 40 minutes compared with 120 minutes at other concentrations (10 ...200718237038
intracellular localization of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus glycoproteins.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv), a member of the genus nairovirus, family bunyaviridae, is a tick-borne pathogen causing severe disease in humans. to better understand the cchfv life cycle and explore potential intervention strategies, we studied the biosynthesis and intracellular targeting of the glycoproteins, which are encoded by the m genome segment.200515850490
identification of a novel babesia sp. from a sable antelope (hippotragus niger harris, 1838).babesiosis in a sable antelope (hippotragus niger harris, 1838) was first reported in 1930; the parasite was named babesia irvinesmithi. recently, specimens from an adult sable that presented with a sudden onset of disease and that subsequently died during immobilization were submitted for molecular characterization. microscopic examination of thin blood smears revealed the presence of small piroplasms. dna was extracted from blood samples; the v4 variable region of the 18s rrna gene was amplifi ...200818508943
reliminary survey of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on cattle in central equatoria state, southern sudan.in a preliminary survey conducted in 2005, the species composition and seasonality of ticks infesting cattle in central equatoria state, southern sudan was determined. three locations were selected (gumbo, khor rumla and nyaing) and surveyed every 3 months. two cattle herds in each of the three locations were visited four times during the study period. total body collections of ticks were made from each of five cattle (nilotic zebu breed) kept in six different herds. four tick genera and ten spe ...200818575063
comments on controversial tick (acari: ixodida) species names and species described or resurrected from 2003 to 2008.there are numerous discrepancies in recent published lists of the ticks of the world. here we review the controversial names, presenting evidence for or against their validity and excluding some altogether. we also address spelling errors and present a list of 17 species described or resurrected during the years 2003-2008. we consider the following 35 tick species names to be invalid: argas fischeri audouin, 1826, ornithodoros boliviensis kohls and clifford, 1964, ornithodoros steini (schulze, 1 ...200919169832
rickettsial agents in egyptian ticks collected from domestic animals.to assess the presence of rickettsial pathogens in ticks from egypt, we collected ticks from domestic and peridomestic animals between june 2002 and july 2003. dna extracts from 1019 ticks were tested, using pcr and sequencing, for anaplasma spp., bartonella spp., coxiella burnetii, ehrlichia spp., and rickettsia spp. ticks included: 29 argas persicus, 10 hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, 55 hyalomma anatolicum excavatum, 174 hyalomma dromedarii, 2 hyalomma impeltatum, 3 hyalomma marginatum rufipe ...200617004028
ticks (acari: ixodidae) associated with wildlife and vegetation of haller park along the kenyan coastline.this artcile describes the results obtained from a tick survey conducted in haller park along the kenyan coastline. the survey aimed at evaluating tick-host associations, assessing tick population density, and providing baseline information for planning future tick control and management in the park. ticks (2,968) were collected by handpicking from eight species of wildlife and by dragging in 14 selected sites within the park. a considerable proportion of ticks were also collected from leaves, s ...200617017210
ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting cattle and african buffaloes in the tsavo conservation area, kenya.several ixodid tick species are shared between domestic cattle and african buffaloes (syncerus caffer). so too, are a number of tick-borne diseases. the aim of the study was to compare the species composition of ticks that infest cattle and buffaloes utilising the same habitat within the tsavo conservation area, kenya. to this end, 25 cattle and 62 buffaloes were each opportunistically sampled for ticks on a single occasion in february 2010. eight species, namely amblyomma gemma, amblyomma lepid ...201223327329
coxiella burnetii in humans and ticks in rural senegal.q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by coxiella burnetii. epidemiologically, animals are considered reservoirs and humans incidental hosts.201020386603
spotted fever rickettsia species in hyalomma and ixodes ticks infesting migratory birds in the european mediterranean area.a few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in europe and their wintering grounds in africa. many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. the aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in europe as disseminators of rickettsia-infecte ...201425011617
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in hyalommid ticks, northeastern kenya.as part of ongoing arbovirus surveillance, we screened ticks obtained from livestock in northeastern kenya in 2008 to assess the risk for human exposure to tick-borne viruses. of 1,144 pools of 8,600 hyalomma spp. ticks screened for congo-crimean hemorrhagic fever virus by reverse transcription pcr, 23 pools were infected, demonstrating a potential for human exposure.201121801635
conserved amblyomma americanum tick serpin19, an inhibitor of blood clotting factors xa and xia, trypsin and plasmin, has anti-haemostatic functions.tick saliva serine protease inhibitors (serpins) facilitate tick blood meal feeding through inhibition of protease mediators of host defense pathways. we previously identified a highly conserved amblyomma americanum serpin 19 that is characterised by its reactive center loop being 100% conserved in ixodid ticks. in this study, biochemical characterisation reveals that the ubiquitously transcribed a. americanum serpin 19 is an anti-coagulant protein, inhibiting the activity of five of the eight s ...201525957161
transport of ixodid ticks and tick-borne pathogens by migratory birds.birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like borrelia spp., babesia spp., anaplasma, rickettsia/coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. the prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. the prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. in europe, the turdus spp., especially the blackbird, turdus merula, appears to be mo ...201324058903
matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for rapid identification of tick vectors.a method for rapid species identification of ticks may help clinicians predict the disease outcomes of patients with tick bites and may inform the decision as to whether to administer postexposure prophylactic antibiotic treatment. we aimed to establish a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) spectrum database based on the analysis of the legs of six tick vectors: amblyomma variegatum, rhipicephalus sanguineus, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, ix ...201323224087
molecular detection of zoonotic tick-borne pathogens from ticks collected from ruminants in four south african provinces.ticks carry and transmit a remarkable array of pathogens including bacteria, protozoa and viruses, which may be of veterinary and/or of medical significance. with little to no information regarding the presence of tick-borne zoonotic pathogens or their known vectors in southern africa, the aim of our study was to screen for anaplasma phagocytophilum, borrelia burgdorferi, coxiella burnetii, rickettsia species and ehrlichia ruminantium in ticks collected and identified from ruminants in the easte ...201526227797
An insight into the sialotranscriptome and proteome of the coarse bontlegged tick, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes.Ticks are mites specialized in acquiring blood from vertebrates as their sole source of food and are important disease vectors to humans and animals. Among the specializations required for this peculiar diet, ticks evolved a sophisticated salivary potion that can disarm their host's hemostasis, inflammation, and immune reactions. Previous transcriptome analysis of tick salivary proteins has revealed many new protein families indicative of fast evolution, possibly due to host immune pressure. The ...201121851864
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