parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxiii. helminth and arthropod parasites of warthogs, phacochoerus aethiopicus, in the eastern transvaal lowveld.a total of 69 warthogs, phacochoerus aethiopicus, were collected from 4 localities within the kruger national park, eastern transvaal lowveld. these animals harboured 16 nematode species, 2 trematodes, 1 or 2 species of adult cestodes and the larval stages of 4 cestodes. no pattern of seasonal abundance could be determined for any of the helminths. the warthogs were also infested with 3 flea species, 1 louse species, 8 ixodid tick species, 1 argasid tick and the nymphae of a pentastomid. the sea ...19883194114
relationship between ticks and zebu cattle in southern uganda.tick populations were observed on zebu (bos indicus) cattle over a period of 2 years at entebbe, uganda where the climate was thought to be highly favourable for the free-living stages of ticks. collections of all instars of ticks were made from the body surfaces of the cattle at intervals of between 1 and 5 weeks. the species recorded in order of decreasing abundance were rhipicephalus appendiculatus, amblyomma variegatum, boophilus decoloratus, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rhipicephalus simu ...19827101465
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xv. the seasonal prevalence of ectoparasites on impala and cattle in the northern transvaal.the prevalence of ectoparasites on a total of 36 impala (aepyceros melampus) slaughtered monthly from february 1975 to february 1976 and a total of 24 cattle slaughtered monthly from march 1976 to march 1977 in the nylsvley provincial nature reserve was determined. six species of ixodid ticks were collected from the impala and these, in order of abundance, were: rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rhipicephalus appe. diculatus, amblyomma hebraeum, boophilus decoloratus, ixodes cavipalpus and hyalomma ...19827177586
the effect of incubation and prefeeding of infected rhipicephalus simus nymphae and adults on the transmission of anaplasma marginale.two batches of unfed rhipicephalus simus nymphae carrying anaplasma marginale were incubated for 72 h and 96 h respectively at 37 degrees c. fifty ticks were triturated at a time and the homogenates were used to infect susceptible cattle. others were prefed on a bovine host for 72 h before tick suspensions were prepared. the same procedure was followed, using a single batch of infected adult ticks. incubation had no effect on the infectivity of the nymphal homogenates, but prefeeding of nymphae ...19827177588
isolation of anaplasma marginale from rhipicephalus simus males.approximately 100 adult rhipicephalus simus from a batch known to be infected with anaplasma marginale were used to infest an ox. fifty male ticks were manually removed from the animal's ears 9 days after infestation. these ticks were triturated and a stabilate was prepared which was injected intravenously into 2 susceptible oxen. both these animals became infected with a. marginale. the prepatent periods following inoculation of the tick suspensions before and after freezing in liquid nitrogen ...19807231925
importation into the united states from africa of rhipicephalus simus on a boutonneuse fever patient.rhipicephalus simus koch was removed from a human upon his return to connecticut, u.s.a. from kenya, africa. this person became ill in africa, exhibited clinical manifestations of boutonneuse fever and had a significant rise (greater than or equal to 8-fold) in igm titer against spotted fever-group rickettsiae. rickettsia conorii was probably the infectious agent.19817258502
an investigation into the health status and diseases of wild dogs (lycaon pictus) in the kruger national park.many factors have been cited as possible reasons for the decline in the number of wild dogs (lycaon pictus), but few studies have provided supportive data. between 1990 and 1993, the dynamics of 10 wild dog packs in the southern district of the kruger national park in south africa were monitored. casual observations of the causes of disease and mortality in the entire population were also recorded. during the same period, 46 wild dogs were immobilised, weighed, and subjected to physical examinat ...19957629782
observations on cattle ticks in huila province (angola).in huila province of angola, 3864 ticks were collected during a parasitological survey carried out in the rainy season from october 1990 to april 1991. the samples were collected from cattle gathered for the annual vaccination campaign against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, anthrax and blackleg in 18 veterinary stations of six municipalities. after tick classification, the following proportions of ticks were obtained: rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus (27.1%), amblyomma pomposum (26.4%), booph ...19948171837
ixodid ticks on cattle belonging to small-scale farmers at 4 communal grazing areas in south africa.ixodid ticks were collected during the period september 1991 to august 1993 from cattle belonging to small-scale farmers utilising 4 communal grazing areas. three of these were in north west province and 1 in mpumalanga province, south africa. ten tick species were collected in north west province and 7 in mpumalanga. the adults of amblyomma hebraeum, rhipicephalus appendiculatus and rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were most numerous in north west province, while in mpumalanga boophilus decoloratu ...200212515294
antigens and alternatives for control of anaplasma marginale infection in cattle.anaplasmosis, a tick-borne cattle disease caused by the rickettsia anaplasma marginale, is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. the disease causes considerable economic loss to both the dairy and beef industries worldwide. analyses of 16s rrna, groesl, and surface proteins have resulted in the recent reclassification of the order rickettsiales. the genus anaplasma, of which a. marginale is the type species, now also includes a. bovis, a. platys, and a. phagocytophilum, which w ...200314557295
tick paralysis in man; a suspected case due to rhipicephalus simus koch. 195014845859
the transovarial transmission of babesia trautmanni by rhipicephalus simus to domestic pigs.rhipicephalus simus was, for the first time, experimentally proven to be a transovarial vector of babesia trautmanni of domestic pigs. the nymphal and adult progeny of experimentally infected female ticks transmitted the infection to 2 susceptible splenectomized pigs. features of the infection included a prepatent period of 6-8 days post-tick infestation, a febrile reaction for 3 days and a maximum parasitaemia score of 15 (more than 6 parasites per 300 red blood cells). other clinical signs in ...19921437025
some observations on ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting sheep in river nile province of northern sudan.five species of ixodid ticks were found in a cross-sectional survey in which 200 sheep were examined for ticks in river nile province, sudan. hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the predominant species (73.6%), whereas ticks belonging to the rhipicephalus sanguineus group (14.7%), rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (9.1%), rhipicephalus simus (2%) and hyalomma dromedarii (0.5%) were also found. the mean tick load was 11.2 per animal. in a subsequent longitudinal survey ticks were collected on a monthl ...200516300192
prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks collected from migratory birds in switzerland.the prevalence of ticks infected by borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato on birds during their migrations was studied in switzerland. a total of 1,270 birds captured at two sites were examined for tick infestation. ixodes ricinus was the dominant tick species. prevalences of tick infestation were 6% and 18.2% for birds migrating northward and southward, respectively. borrelia valaisiana was the species detected most frequently in ticks, followed by borrelia garinii and borrelia lusitaniae. among bird ...200616391149
preliminary survey of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on cattle in northern a cross sectional survey conducted during the period june 2001 to july 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the sudan was determined. seventeen locations were surveyed from northern, central, eastern, western, blue nile and white nile provinces. total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. four tick genera and 11 species were identified. the tick species collected included amblyomma lepidum, amblyomma variegatum, boophilus decoloratus, hyalom ...200415732459
use of highly variable intergenic spacer sequences for multispacer typing of rickettsia conorii use of the nearly perfectly colinear genomes of rickettsia conorii and rickettsia prowazekii, we compared the usefulness of three types of sequences for typing of r. conorii isolates: (i) 5 variable coding genes comprising the 16s ribosomal dna, glta, ompb, and sca4 (gene d) genes, which are present in both genomes, and the ompa gene, which is degraded in r. prowazekii; (ii) 28 genes degraded in r. conorii but intact in r. prowazekii, including 23 split and 5 remnant genes; and (iii) 27 conse ...200415583310
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xl. ticks on dogs belonging to people in rural communities and carnivore ticks on the vegetation.ixodid ticks were collected at weekly intervals from february 1999 to april 2000 from domestic dogs belonging to people in rural communities in north-eastern kwazulu-natal. seven ticks were identified to species level and adult haemaphysalis leachi followed by immature amblyomma hebraeum and adult rhipicephalus simus were the most prevalent. infestation with adult h. leachi was most intense during february and march 1999 and from january to april 2000, and least intense during october 1999. infe ...200111585091
helminths and arthropods of black and white rhinoceroses in southern africa.helminths and arthropods were collected and quantified from two black rhinoceroses (diceros bicornis bicornis) and one white rhinoceros (ceratotherium simum), and ticks from an additional four black and two white rhinoceroses in southern africa. the helminths of a black rhinoceros from the republic of south africa and one from namibia were quantitatively measured and recorded for each compartment of the alimentary tract. probstmayria vivipara was the most abundant parasite in each animal. a rece ...19979249695
the comparative host status of red veld rats (aethomys chrysophilus) and bushveld gerbils (tatera leucogaster) for epifaunal arthropods in the southern kruger national park, south veld rats (aethomys chrysophilus) and bushveld gerbils (tatera leucogaster) were trapped at monthly intervals, when possible, over a 2-year period, in the southern kruger national park, mpumalanga province. forty-six specimens of each species were caught, euthenased and microscopically examined for fleas, lice, ticks and mites. clear differences existed between the two rodent hosts in infestation intensity and also parasite species. the flea, xenopsylla brasiliensis, commonly and exclusively ...19968856764
experimental transmission of field anaplasma marginale and the a. centrale vaccine strain by hyalomma excavatum, rhipicephalus sanguineus and rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus ticks.the cattle rickettsia anaplasma marginale is distributed worldwide and is transmitted by about 20 tick species, but only rhipicephalus simus, a strictly african tick species, has been shown to transmit the vaccine strain of a. centrale. the aim of the present study was to examine transmission of field strains of a. marginale and of the vaccine strain of a. centrale by three tick species -hyalomma excavatum, rhipicephalus sanguineus and rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus - to susceptible calves. ...200918823724
ixodid ticks collected at the faculty of veterinary science, onderstepoort, from dogs diagnosed with babesia canis an attempt to identify the vectors of babesia canis, ticks were collected over a period of 3 years from a total of 395 dogs diagnosed as infected with this protozoan parasite at the veterinary faculty, onderstepoort. haemaphysalis leachi was the only tick species recovered from 164 of these dogs, and it occurred in mixed infestation on a further 140 of the dogs. rhipicephalus sanguineus was collected in pure infestation from 59 dogs with a further 87 harbouring mixed infestations. sixteen dog ...19958596189
prevalence of rickettsia-like organisms and spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks (acari: ixodidae) from zimbabwe.the prevalence of rickettsia-like organisms in ticks from zimbabwe was determined using the hemolymph test. amblyomma hebraeum had the highest prevalence of rickettsia-like organisms. other species with rickettsia-like organisms included amblyomma sparsum, amblyomma variegatum, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, ripicephalus simus, haemaphysalis leachi, amblyomma rhinocerotis, and hyalomma truncatum. ticks with no demonstrable rickettsia-like organisms infection were boophilus decoloratus, haemaphysal ...19958551500
ixodid ticks infesting domestic goats in communal land areas of zimbabwe.the purpose of this study was to determine the species spectrum of ticks infesting goats owned by resource-limited farmers in the state-owned communal land areas of zimbabwe. ticks were collected from goats at a single locality within each of 5 communal land areas, and a total of 14 ixodid tick species was recovered. the most numerous tick was rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, which was present in all areas at each sampling, and a rhipicephalus sp. (near r. punctatus), which was most abundant on go ...200819244819
striped mice, rhabdomys pumilio, and other murid rodents as hosts for immature ixodid ticks as in the eastern cape province.striped mice, rhabdomys pumilio, were trapped over a period of 17 months in the thomas baines nature reserve, and placed in cages, over water, until all the ticks they harboured had detached. the mice were then returned to the reserve. four ixodid tick species were recovered from the mice of which the larvae and nymphs of rhipicephalus follis and rhipicephalus simus were the most numerous. most larvae of r. follis detached from mice trapped from march to july, and most nymphs in march and from j ...200415732458
helminth and arthropod parasites of indigenous goats in the northern transvaal.helminth and arthropod parasites of 60 female indigenous goats of three age groups on a farm in the northern transvaal were collected, identified and counted. anoplocephalid tapeworms were present in the two younger groups of goats, while larvae of taenia hydatigena were recovered from all three groups. eight species and two genera of nematodes were found in the youngest goats, five species and three genera in the middle group and six species and two genera in the oldest goats. strongyloides pap ...19947898893
ixodid ticks feeding on humans in south africa: with notes on preferred hosts, geographic distribution, seasonal occurrence and transmission of pathogens.this paper records the identities of 558 ixodid ticks feeding on 194 humans in south africa. these ticks belonged to 20 species in six genera and those most frequently encountered were amblyomma hebraeum, haemaphysalis leachi, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, hyalomma truncatum, rhipicephalus appendiculatus, rhipicephalus gertrudae and rhipicephalus simus. with the exception of the larvae of r. appendiculatus, the incidents of these ticks feeding on humans correlated well with their seasonal occurre ...200212593517
noteworthy recent tick records from egypt. 2. hosts, distribution, and ecology of rhipicephalus simus koch. 19675610226
temperature and humidity effects on the life cycle of haemaphysalis spinulosa and rhipicephalus simus (acari: ixodidae). 19873820243
tick transmission of anaplasma centrale.anaplasma centrale was isolated from a field collection of rhipicephalus simus. transstadial transmission of a. centrale with adult ticks was demonstrated, but the infection was not carried transovarially. ticks from this collection were subsequently reared as a non-infected, laboratory strain. it was proved that the onderstepoort live blood vaccine strain of a. centrale, isolated by theiler in 1911, is still tick transmissible after more than 75 years of needle passage through cattle in the lab ...19873587927
parasites of south african wildlife. viii. helminth and arthropod parasites of warthogs, phacochoerus aethiopicus, in the eastern transvaal.helminth and arthropod parasites were collected from 41 warthogs, phacochoerus aethiopicus, in the hoedspruit nature reserve, eastern transvaal. this reserve consists of a military base, which is a restricted area and is surrounded by a reserve, which is open to the public. eleven nematode species, 1 or 2 cestode species and the larvae of 2 cestode species were recovered from the animals in the reserve, and 8 nematode species and 1 or 2 cestode species were recovered from those in the military b ...19911923382
the identification of a shared immunogen present in the salivary glands and gut of ixodid and argasid ticks.the identification of a 70-kda immunogen present in salivary gland extracts of several ixodid species, namely hyalomma truncatum (sweating-sickness-inducing (ss+) and non-inducing (ss-) strains), hyalomma marginatum rufipes and rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, is reported. the immunogen was identified by western blots using a monoclonal antibody of the igm isotype directed against a 70-kda immunogen present in the salivary glands of (ss-) female h. truncatum ticks. cross-reactivity with the gut of ...19921446571
identification of spotted fever group rickettsiae using polymerase chain reaction and restriction-endonuclease length polymorphism order to facilitate the isolation and identification of spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae from their tick vectors, we used the centrifugation shell vial technique or traditional isolation procedures and genotypic identification using the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain amplified fragments. the presence of rickettsia conorii both in rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected in southern france, and in rhipicephalus simus and haemaphysalis leachi from zim ...19921350164
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxxii. ixodid ticks on scrub hares in the transvaal.a total of 264 scrub hares (lepus saxatilis) were examined for ixodid ticks at various localities in the kruger national park, eastern transvaal lowveld. thirteen tick species were recovered from these hares. the seasonal abundances of the immature stages of amblyomma hebraeum, amblyomma marmoreum, hyalomma truncatum, rhipicephalus appendiculatus, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rhipicephalus simus and rhipicephalus zambeziensis and all stages of a rhipicephalus sp. (near r. pravus) were determin ...19937970571
novel genetic variants of anaplasma phagocytophilum, anaplasma bovis, anaplasma centrale, and a novel ehrlichia sp. in wild deer and ticks on two major islands in japan.wild deer are one of the important natural reservoir hosts of several species of ehrlichia and anaplasma that cause human ehrlichiosis or anaplasmosis in the united states and europe. the primary aim of the present study was to determine whether and what species of ehrlichia and anaplasma naturally infect deer in japan. blood samples obtained from wild deer on two major japanese islands, hokkaido and honshu, were tested for the presence of ehrlichia and anaplasma by pcr assays and sequencing of ...200616461655
small mammals as hosts of immature ixodid ticks.two hundred and twenty-five small mammals belonging to 16 species were examined for ticks in free state, mpumalanga and limpopo provinces, south africa, and 18 ixodid tick species, of which two could only be identified to genus level, were recovered. scrub hares, lepus saxatilis, and cape hares, lepus capensis, harboured the largest number of tick species. in free state province namaqua rock mice, aethomys namaquensis, and four-striped grass mice, rhabdomys pumilio, were good hosts of the immatu ...200516300195
a note on the survival of unfed adult rhipicephalus simus simus koch, 1844. 19685656846
ticks associated with the three largest wild ruminant species in southern africa.the objective of this study was to assess the host status of the three largest southern african wild ruminants, namely giraffes, giraffa camelopardalis, african buffaloes, syncerus caffer, and eland, taurotragus oryx for ixodid ticks. to this end recently acquired unpublished data are added here to already published findings on the tick burdens of these animals, and the total numbers and species of ticks recorded on 12 giraffes, 18 buffaloes and 36 eland are summarized and discussed. twenty-eigh ...200717933365
observations on naturally acquired hepatozoonosis of wild carnivores and dogs in the republic of south africa.hepatozoonosis was studied in hyaenas, lions, jackals, cheetahs and one leopard in the kruger national park and compared with the condition seen in dogs in the republic of south africa. hepatozoon schizonts were found in the wild carnivores. the genesis of microschizonts was followed and is illustrated. the schizonts were sometimes very plentiful in the lung, myocardium and skeletal muscle, and were also encountered in the spleen, liver and lymph nodes. gametocytes were present in leucocytes. th ...19751221330
climate extremes promote fatal co-infections during canine distemper epidemics in african lions.extreme climatic conditions may alter historic host-pathogen relationships and synchronize the temporal and spatial convergence of multiple infectious agents, triggering epidemics with far greater mortality than those due to single pathogens. here we present the first data to clearly illustrate how climate extremes can promote a complex interplay between epidemic and endemic pathogens that are normally tolerated in isolation, but with co-infection, result in catastrophic mortality. a 1994 canine ...200818575601
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxxviii. ixodid ticks collected from 23 wild carnivore species.ixodid ticks were collected from 104 wild carnivores belonging to 23 species in various nature reserves and on several farms in all nine provinces of south africa. seven feral cats in a nature reserve were also examined. twenty-four tick species belonging to seven genera were recovered and identified. amongst these ticks we consider the adults of haemaphysalis leachi, haemaphysalis spinulosa, haemaphysalis zumpti, ixodes rubicundus, rhipicentor nuttalli, rhipicephalus simus and rhipicephalus tur ...200011206391
contribution to the knowledge of ixodidae ticks of wild mammals of somalia.this study was based on material collected in 1983-1984 from wild mammals of the middle scebeli. low scebeli and bay regions of somalia. a total of 292 specimens (156 males, 65 females, 70 nymphase, 1 larva) from 13 host species were examined. the following species of ixodidae were identified. amblyomma variegatum (fabricius, 1794); haemaphysalis calcarata neumann, 1902; haemaphysalis spinulosa neumann, 1906; rhipicephalus armatus pocock, 1900; rhipicephalus pravus donitz, 1910; rhipicephalus pu ...19969257347
ixodid ticks on dogs belonging to people in rural communities and villages in maputo province, mozambique.the species composition and geographic distribution of ixodid ticks infesting domestic dogs owned by people in rural communities and villages in maputo province was established by collecting ticks from dogs at each of 27 localities spread throughout the province. ticks were collected from a total of 132 dogs, and nine species belonging to four genera were identified. one dog was infested with six species, three with five and 13 with four species. haemaphysalis elliptica followed by rhipicephalus ...200818788203
the prevalence of serum antibodies to ehrlichia ruminantium infection in ranch cattle in tanzania: a cross-sectional study.serum samples collected in a cross-sectional survey of grazing cattle on manyara ranch, monduli district, tanzania, were tested by indirect major antigenic protein 1 fragment b (map 1-b) elisa to determine the seroprevalence of ehrlichia ruminantium and to assess ranch-level risk factors for heartwater. heartwater-exposed cattle were widespread on the ranch and overall seroprevalence was 50.3% (95% ci, 44.9-55.6), enough to indicate an endemically unstable situation. multivariate logistic regres ...200818846851
a rickettsial disease in east africa transmitted by ticks (rhipicephalus simus and haemaphysalis leachi). 194718898709
the comparative prevalence of five ixodid tick species infesting cattle and goats in maputo province, mozambique.this study compares the prevalence of ixodid tick species on cattle and goats in maputo province. adult ticks as well as the nymphs of three species, and only the adults of two species were collected from sets of five cattle at 21 localities throughout the province and compared with those collected from similar sets of goats at the same places. amblyomma hebraeum adults and/or nymphs were present on cattle and on goats at all 21 localities, and 90 cattle and 22 goats were infested with adult tic ...200920698440
tick infestation, and udder and teat damage in selected cattle herds of matabeleland south, zimbabwe.a cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine tick infestation, and udder and teat damage in 286 lactating cows and heifers at six properties in the smallholder and commercial sectors in gwanda district of matabeleland south province, zimbabwe. eight tick species were identified: amblyomma hebraeum, hyalomma truncatum, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus, rhipicephalus appendiculatus, rhipicephalus zambeziensis and rhipicephalus ...200920698443
demonstration of colonies of anaplasma marginale in the midgut of rhipicephalus simus.rhipicephalus simus nymphs were allowed to feed on a cow experimentally infected with the bw-strain of anaplasma marginale from republic of south africa, and they were studied as adults. colonies were demonstrated by light microscopy in midgut epithelial cells of adult ticks that were unfed (as adults), incubated, or prefed for 72 hours on a cow. the colonies occurred in 5 different morphologic types (1 to 5) that were similar to those described previously for a virginia isolate of a marginale i ...19836660614
tick paralysis in australia caused by ixodes holocyclus neumann.ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of various animals, including humans, and are abundant in temperate and tropical zones around the world. they are the most important vectors for the pathogens causing disease in livestock and second only to mosquitoes as vectors of pathogens causing human disease. ticks are formidable arachnids, capable of not only transmitting the pathogens involved in some infectious diseases but also of inducing allergies and causing toxicoses and paralysis, wit ...201121396246
novel spotted fever group rickettsiae in haemaphysalis qinghaiensis ticks from gansu, northwest china.rickettsia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria and well known as transmitted by arthropods. these pathogens have a broad geographic distribution and a high degree of biological and clinical diversity. this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from gansu, where borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and anaplasma phagocytophilum were previously reported in ticks and ruminants.201626968160
proposal to create subspecies of rickettsia conorii based on multi-locus sequence typing and an emended description of rickettsia conorii.rickettsiae closely related to the malish strain, the reference rickettsia conorii strain, include indian tick typhus rickettsia (ittr), israeli spotted fever rickettsia (isfr), and astrakhan fever rickettsia (afr). although closely related genotypically, they are distinct serotypically. using multilocus sequence typing (mlst), we have recently found that distinct serotypes may not always represent distinct species within the rickettsia genus. we investigated the possibility of classifying ricke ...200515766388
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxii. ixodid ticks on domestic dogs and on wild carnivores.ixodid ticks were collected from 4 dogs on smallholdings near grahamstown, eastern cape province, on 1 or more occasions each week for periods ranging from 9-36 months. fourteen tick species were recovered and the seasonal abundance of adult haemaphysalis leachi and adult rhipicephalus simus was determined. complete collections of ticks were made from 50 caracals (felis caracal) in the cradock, graaff-reinet and southwell regions in the eastern cape province. the animals from cradock and graaff- ...19873444612
ixodid ticks on dogs in the eastern region of the eastern cape province, south africa.the objective of this study was to determine the species composition and geographic distribution of ixodid ticks infesting domestic dogs in the eastern region of the eastern cape province. seventy-two communal cattle dip-tanks within this region were randomly selected as survey localities and their geographic coordinates recorded. in addition to ticks that were collected from five cattle and five goats at each of the dip-tanks, ticks were also collected from five dogs whenever possible. no dogs ...200617283731
tick-borne pathogens of zoonotic and veterinary importance in nigerian cattle.ticks and tick-borne diseases undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-saharan africa, including nigeria. in this west african country, cattle are challenged by numerous tick species, especially during the wet season. consequently, several tbds are known to be endemic in nigerian cattle, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, cowdriosis and theilerioris (by theileria mutans and theileria velifera). to date, all investigations on cattle tbds in nigeria have been based on cytolog ...201627090756
matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for comprehensive indexing of east african ixodid tick species.the tick population of africa includes several important genera belonging to the family ixodidae. many of these ticks are vectors of protozoan and rickettsial pathogens including theileria parva that causes east coast fever, a debilitating cattle disease endemic to eastern, central and southern africa. effective surveillance of tick-borne pathogens depends on accurate identification and mapping of their tick vectors. a simple and reproducible technique for rapid and reliable differentiation of l ...201626979606
further evidence that rhipicephalus simus koch is a vector of tick typhus in kenya. 195913639854
functional and immunological relevance of anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a sequence and structural analysis.bovine anaplasmosis is caused by cattle infection with the tick-borne bacterium, anaplasma marginale. the major surface protein 1a (msp1a) has been used as a genetic marker for identifying a. marginale strains based on n-terminal tandem repeats and a 5'-utr microsatellite located in the msp1a gene. the msp1a tandem repeats contain immune relevant elements and functional domains that bind to bovine erythrocytes and tick cells, thus providing information about the evolution of host-pathogen and ve ...201323776456
molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in captive wild felids, zimbabwe.the populations of wild felids in africa, of especially lions (panthera leo) and cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus), are declining and the species are classified as vulnerable to extinction by the international union for conservation of nature. as infections with tick-borne pathogens (tbp) can become more of a problem in wild felids, there are relatively few studies on tbp in wild felids in africa and on how these infections might influence population numbers.201425404084
tick infestation patterns in free ranging african buffalo (syncercus caffer): effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species.ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. we studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging african buffalo (syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? we identified ticks and estimated ...201224533310
comparison of populations of the rhipicephalus simus group: r. simus, r. praetextatus, and r. muhsamae (acari: ixodidae). 19873694631
surveillance for viral and parasitic pathogens in a vulnerable african lion (panthera leo) population in the northern tuli game reserve, botswana.african lion ( panthera leo ) numbers are decreasing rapidly and populations are becoming smaller and more fragmented. infectious diseases are one of numerous issues threatening free-ranging lion populations, and low-density populations are particularly at risk. we collected data on the prevalence and diversity of viral and parasitic pathogens in a small lion population in eastern botswana. during 2012 and 2014, blood samples were collected from 59% (n=13) of the adult-subadult lions in the nort ...201727669009
investigation of rickettsia, coxiella burnetii and bartonella in ticks from animals in south africa.ticks are involved in the epidemiology of several human pathogens including spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsia spp., coxiella burnetii and bartonella spp. human diseases caused by these microorganisms have been reported from south africa. the presence of sfg rickettsia spp., c. burnetii and bartonella spp. was investigated in 205 ticks collected from domestic and wild animals from western cape and limpopo provinces (south africa). rickettsia massiliae was detected in 10 amblyomma sylvaticum an ...201626718068
species composition and geographic distribution of ticks infesting cattle, goats and dogs in a temperate and in a subtropical region of south-east africa.the species and distribution of ticks infesting cattle, goats and dogs in the eastern region of the eastern cape province, south africa and maputo province, mozambique were determined from collections made from these animals at 72 localities in the former region and 30 in the latter. eleven ixodid and one argasid species were recovered in the eastern cape province and 15 ixodid species in maputo province. the most common ticks infesting cattle and goats in both provinces were amblyomma hebraeum, ...200921105593
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xlix. ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting white and black rhinoceroses in southern africa.the objectives of the study were to determine the species composition of ticks infesting white and black rhinoceroses in southern africa as well as the conservation status of those tick species that prefer rhinos as hosts. ticks were collected opportunistically from rhinos that had been immobilised for management purposes, and 447 white rhinoceroses (ceratotherium simum) and 164 black rhinoceroses (diceros bicornis) were sampled in south africa, 61 black rhinos in namibia, 18 white and 12 black ...201728155285
shifts in the distribution of ixodid ticks parasitizing cattle in an attempt to update information on the ecological distribution of ixodid ticks (ixodida: ixodidae) in zimbabwe, a cross-sectional survey was carried out between september 2013 and may 2015 at 322 dip tanks. a total of 15 tick species were collected, namely: amblyomma hebraeum koch (65.2%, n = 210/322), amblyomma variegatum fabricius (14.9%, n = 48/322), hyalomma rufipes koch (62.4%, n = 201/322), hyalomma truncatum koch (37.9%, n = 122/322), rhipicephalus appendiculatus neumann (60.6%, n = 1 ...201727935088
diversity of ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting cheetahs (acinoyx jubatus) at three breeding centres in south africa and activity patterns of questing ticks.ticks were collected from 191 cheetahs at three breeding centres in north west and limpopo provinces, south africa. haemaphysalis elliptica, a common tick of large felids, was the most abundant species collected, while amblyomma hebraeum and rhipicephalus simus occurred in lower numbers. in addition to these three species, drag-sampling of the vegetation revealed the presence of amblyomma marmoreum, rhipicephalus (b.) decoloratus and rhipicephalus zambeziensis. the presence of free-ranging antel ...201627020735
propagation of the israeli vaccine strain of anaplasma centrale in tick cell lines.anaplasma centrale has been used in cattle as a live blood vaccine against the more pathogenic anaplasma marginale for over 100 years. while a. marginale can be propagated in vitro in tick cell lines, facilitating studies on antigen production, immunisation and vector-pathogen interaction, to date there has been no in vitro culture system for a. centrale. in the present study, 25 cell lines derived from 13 ixodid tick species were inoculated with the israeli vaccine strain of a. centrale and mon ...201526210950
efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs.the studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. efficacy was evaluated against the flea ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks rhipicephalus sanguineus, ixodes ricinus, ixodes scapularis, dermacentor reticulatus and dermacentor variabilis, the mite sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse trichodectes canis.201222647530
in vitro effect of the ethanolic extract of tephrosia vogelii on rhipicephalus sanguineus in abomey-calavi.ticks are vectors of several diseases, of which many are zoonosis transmissible to humans. the use of tephrosia leafs' extract as a low cost acaricide is spreading among farmers in central kenya.026101758
ixodid ticks of traditionally managed cattle in central nigeria: where rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus does not dare (yet?).ticks and tick-borne diseases (tbds) undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-saharan africa, including nigeria. the aim of this study was to document the composition of tick species, assessing the burden of infestation, in traditionally managed cattle in an area of central nigeria where acaricides have not been used historically.201323758913
an update on the ecological distribution of the ixodidae ticks in total 7657 ticks were collected from 121 dip tanks in 12 districts representative of zimbabwe's five ecological regions between september 2013 and may 2014. based on morphological traits four genera and 13 species of ticks were identified. amblyomma hebraeum (60.3 %), rhipicephalus microplus (58.7 %), rhipicephalus decoloratus (47.1 %), rhipicephalus appendiculatus (56.2 %), rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (67.8 %), rhipicephalus (near) punctatus (13.2 %), hyalomma truncatum (38 %) and hyalomma ...201525721256
genetic parameters for tick counts across months for different tick species and anatomical locations in south african nguni cattle.the objective of the study was to characterise genetic parameters across months for different tick species and anatomical locations in south african nguni cattle. tick counts were conducted monthly, over a 2-year period, on 586 nguni cattle under natural infestation, from four herds located in different provinces of south africa. the counts were recorded for six species of ticks (amblyomma hebraeum, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rhipicephalus decoleratus and microplus (boofilids), rhipicephalus ...201728687941
evidence for interspecific interactions in the ectoparasite infracommunity of a wild with multiple parasite species is commonly observed in nature and interspecific interactions are likely to occur in parasite infracommunities. such interactions may affect the distribution of parasites among hosts but also the response of infracommunities to perturbations. however, the response of infracommunities to perturbations has not been well studied experimentally for ectoparasite communities of small mammal hosts.201626830510
update on tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: a geographic approach.tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group of the genus rickettsia. these zoonoses are among the oldest known vector-borne diseases. however, in the past 25 years, the scope and importance of the recognized tick-associated rickettsial pathogens have increased dramatically, making this complex of diseases an ideal paradigm for the understanding of emerging and reemerging infections. several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that wer ...024092850
the dynamics of questing ticks collected for 164 consecutive months off the vegetation of two landscape zones in the kruger national park (1988-2002). part iii. the less commonly collected species.despite many studies regarding tick ecology, limited information on long-term changes in tick populations exist. this study assessed the long-term population dynamics of the less frequently collected questing ixodid ticks in the kruger national park (knp). from 1988 to 2002, monthly dragging of the vegetation was performed in three habitats (grassland, woodland and gully) at two sites in the knp (nhlowa road, landscape zone 17, and skukuza, landscape zone 4). amblyomma marmoreum and rhipicephalu ...201123327206
monanema joopi n. sp. (nematoda, onchocercidae) from acomys (acomys) spinosissimus peters, 1852 (muridae) in south africa, with comments on the filarial genus.monanema joopi n. sp. is described from blood drawn from the heart of the murid acomys (acomys) spinosissimus in south africa. it is characterised by a non-bulbous cephalic extremity, shared with only one of its five congeners, and a cylindrical tail with caudal alae and a spicular ratio of 2.7 in the male. as is typical for the genus, microfilariae are skin-dwelling. they are 185 to 215 micrometres long and have no refractory granules beneath their sheath. a key to the species of monanema is pr ...023193517
complete mitochondrial genome of rhipicephalus this study, we report the basic characteristics of the rhipicephalus simus mitochondrial genome, including structural organization and base composition of the rrnas, trnas and protein-coding genes. the total length of the mitogenome was 14,929 bp, included 37 genes and with a genome structure similar to other ticks.201624919502
role of grooming in reducing tick load in wild baboons (papio cynocephalus).nonhuman primate species spend a conspicuous amount of time grooming during social interactions, a behavior that probably serves both social and health-related functions. while the social implications of grooming have been relatively well studied, less attention has been paid to the health benefits, especially the removal of ectoparasites, which may act as vectors in disease transmission. in this study, we examined the relationship between grooming behavior, tick load (number of ticks), and haem ...024659824
molecular diagnosis and genetic diversity of tick-borne anaplasmataceae agents infecting the african buffalo syncerus caffer from marromeu reserve in mozambique.tick-borne diseases (tbds) are very important in relation to domestic ruminants, but their occurrence among wild ruminants, mainly in the african buffalo syncerus caffer, remains little known.201627531003
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