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a simple method of genomic dna extraction suitable for analysis of bulk fungal strains.a simple and rapid method (designated thermolysis) for extracting genomic dna from bulk fungal strains was described.201020536704
on the reliability of fungal materials used in studies on ophiocordyceps sinensis.ophiocordyceps sinensis (≡cordyceps sinensis) is one of the best known traditional chinese medicines, with great benefits to human health and huge economic value. the reliability of fungal materials used in studies of the species is particularly important because contradictory results have been found in various studies in the past decades. examination of fungal materials specified in reports on o. sinensis showed great variation in both sources and culture conditions of living strains. to test t ...201020922458
Structure and expression of ß-1,3-glucan recognition proteins from the ghost moth, Thitarodes pui (Hepialidae), and their response to Beauveria bassiana infection.Beta-1,3-glucan recognition proteins (ßGRPs), as a class of pattern recognition receptors, are involved in activation of the immune response in invertebrates. We cloned two cDNAs encoding putative ßGRPs from larvae of Thitarodes pui, a host species of Ophiocordyceps sinensis with great economic importance in the Tibetan Plateau. The two putative ßGRPs were phylogenetically classified into a novel clade 4, and designated TpßGRP-4a and TpßGRP-4b, respectively, with calculated molecular masses of 5 ...201121910994
insights from the genome of ophiocordyceps polyrhachis-furcata to pathogenicity and host specificity in insect fungi.ophiocordyceps unilateralis is an outstanding insect fungus for its biology to manipulate host ants' behavior and for its extreme host-specificity. through the sequencing and annotation of ophiocordyceps polyrhachis-furcata, a species in the o. unilateralis species complex specific to the ant polyrhachis furcata, comparative analyses on genes involved in pathogenicity and virulence between this fungus and other fungi were undertaken in order to gain insights into its biology and the emergence of ...201526511477
acidified hot water extraction of adenosine, cordycepin, and polysaccharides from the chinese caterpillar mushroom, ophiocordyceps sinensis cs1197 (ascomycetes): application of an artificial neural network and evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities.the effects of process variables (temperature, time, and ph) on the extraction of adenosine, cordycepin, and polysaccharides from ophiocordyceps sinensis cs1197 were studied using response surface methodology (rsm) and an artificial neural network (ann). the ann model resulted in low root mean square errors (0.022, 0.079, 0.018) and high r2 values (0.995, 0.934, 0.997) for adenosine, cordycepin, and polysaccharide yields, respectively, which implied good agreement between the predicted and actua ...201627910759
advances in genomics of entomopathogenic fungi.fungi are the commonest pathogens of insects and crucial regulators of insect populations. the rapid advance of genome technologies has revolutionized our understanding of entomopathogenic fungi with multiple metarhizium spp. sequenced, as well as beauveria bassiana, cordyceps militaris, and ophiocordyceps sinensis among others. phylogenomic analysis suggests that the ancestors of many of these fungi were plant endophytes or pathogens, with entomopathogenicity being an acquired characteristic. t ...201627131323
genome sequence, comparative analysis, and evolutionary insights into chitinases of entomopathogenic fungus hirsutella thompsonii.hirsutella thompsonii (ht) is a fungal pathogen of acarines and the primary cause of epizootics among mites. the draft genomes of two isolates of ht (mtcc 3556: ht3, 34.6 mb and mtcc 6686: ht6, 34.7 mb) are presented and compared with the genomes of beauveria bassiana (bb) arsef 2860 and ophiocordyceps sinensis (os) co18. comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes, pathogen-host interaction genes, metabolism-associated genes, and genes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites i ...201525716828
morphological and molecular characterization of a fungus, hirsutella sp., isolated from planthoppers and psocids in argentina.a mycosed planthopper, oliarus dimidiatus berg (hemiptera: cixiidae), and two psocids, heterocaecilius sp. (psocodea: pseudocaeciliidae) and ectopsocus sp. (ectopsocidae), were collected from los hornos and la plata, buenos aires, argentina between february and september 2007. observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the ...201323885970
nutritional effects on the mycelial growth and enzymatic activity of isaria farinosa, and hepialus larvae growth.to investigate the nutritional requirements of the mycelial growth and pathogenesis-related enzymatic activity on isaria farinosa and the nutritional effect of fungus on its host hepialus larvae.201626929413
molecular characterization, expression analysis and rnai knock-down of elongation factor 1α and 1γ from nilaparvata lugens and its yeast-like symbiont.in the present paper, four cdnas encoding the alpha and gamma subunits of elongation factor 1 (ef-1) were cloned and sequenced from nilaparvata lugens, named nlef-1α, nlef-1γ, and its yeast-like symbiont (yls), named ysef-1α and ysef-1γ, respectively. comparisons with sequences from other species indicated a greater conservation for ef-1α than for ef-1γ. nlef-1α has two identical copies. the deduced amino acid sequence homology of nlef-1α and nlef-1γ is 96 and 64%, respectively, compared with ho ...201627809951
mitochondrial genome of the nematode endoparasitic fungus hirsutella vermicola reveals a high level of synteny in the family ophiocordycipitaceae.ophiocordycipitaceae is a diverse fungal family comprising multiple ecologically, economically, medicinally, and culturally important fungal species; however, only four species of the family have available mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes). in this study, the complete mitogenome of the nematode endoparasitic fungus hirsutella vermicola in ophiocordycipitaceae was sequenced, and a comparative mitogenomic analysis of ophiocordycipitaceae was performed. we found that the 53,793-bp circular mitoge ...201728341884
differential expression patterns of two delta-9-acyl-coa desaturases in thitarodes pui (lepidoptera: hepialidae) during different seasons and cold exposure.thitarodes pui larvae have a limited distribution in the tibetan plateau and are the host of a parasitic fungus, ophiocordyceps sinensis. low temperature is a main environmental stress. however, understanding of t. pui cold adaptation mechanisms is insufficient. delta-9-acyl-coa desaturase (d9d) is closely correlated with cold adaptation for many organisms. to further understand the cold adaptation processes in t. pui larvae, two d9ds, tpdesata and tpdesatb were sequenced, and expression pattern ...201728331598
total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of mycelial extracts from the medicinal fungus paecilomyces hepiali (ascomycetes).paecilomyces hepialid, a fungus originating in the tibetan plateau, has been used as a substitute for ophiocordyceps sinensis because the primary chemical compounds and pharmacological effects of p. hepialid are similar to those of o. sinensis. p. hepialid has been developed into a dietary supplement and pharmaceutical products. the antioxidant activity of extracts using 2 solvents (water and ethanol) from mycelia obtained from 2 cultivation modes (solid-state and submerged cultivation) were eva ...201728322145
systems pharmacology-based strategy to screen new adjuvant for hepatitis b vaccine from traditional chinese medicine ophiocordyceps sinensis.adjuvants are common component for many vaccines but there are still few licensed for human use due to low efficiency or side effects. the present work adopted systems pharmacology analysis as a new strategy to screen adjuvants from traditional chinese medicine. ophiocordyceps sinensis has been used for many years in china and other asian countries with many biological properties, but the pharmacological mechanism has not been fully elucidated. first in this study, 190 putative targets for 17 ac ...201728317886
preventive effects of ophiocordyceps sinensis mycelium on the liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide.thioacetamide (taa), usually used as a fungicide to control the decay of citrus products, itself is not toxic to the liver, but its intermediates are able to increase oxidative stress in livers and further cause fibrosis. ophiocordyceps sinensis mycelium (osm) which contains 10% polysaccharides and 0.25% adenosine decreased (p < 0.05) the lipid accumulation and increased (p < 0.05) antioxidative capacity in livers of thioacetamide (taa) injected rats. meanwhile, the increased (p < 0.05) liver si ...201728181416
expression patterns of three genes under short and long term cold exposure in thitarodes pui (lepidoptera: hepialidae), a host of ophiocordyceps sinensis.background: thitarodes larvae are the host of the caterpillar fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis. low temperature is the main environmental limitation for larvae growth.201728072431
isolation, culture and characterization of hirsutella sinensis mycelium from caterpillar fungus fruiting body.the caterpillar fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis (previously called cordyceps sinensis) has been used for centuries in asia as a tonic to improve health and longevity. recent studies show that o. sinensis produces a wide range of biological effects on cells, laboratory animals and humans, including anti-fatigue, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor activities. in view of the rarity of o. sinensis fruiting bodies in nature, cultivation of its anamorph mycelium represents a ...201728046129
anti-inflammation properties of fruiting bodies and submerged cultured mycelia of culinary-medicinal higher basidiomycetes mushrooms.this research shows the phenolic composition and anti-inflammation properties of fruiting bodies and mycelia of 15 strains of 12 species of higher basidiomycetes medicinal mushrooms. in this research, 15 extracts were prepared and their effects on inflammation-related mediators in raw 264.7 cells were evaluated. in the extracts, amounts of total phenols ranged from 8.47 to 70.32 gallic acid equivalents mg/g and amounts of flavonoids ranged from 0.13 to 15.21 rutin equivalents mg/g. the productio ...201628008812
the mitochondrial genome of the lepidopteran host cadaver (thitarodes sp.) of ophiocordyceps sinensis and related phylogenetic analysis.to understand the phylogeny of the host insect (thitarodes sp.) of the fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis, we sequenced, annotated and characterized the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the host cadaver of a natural o. sinensis. further, we compared the thitarodes sp. mt genome with those of the other 7 sequenced hepialidae and examined the phylogenetic relationships using a constructed maximum likelihood (ml) phylogenetic tree and mt genomic features (genetic distances and intergenic spacers). ...201727984192
the complete mitochondrial genome of thitarodes sejilaensis (lepidoptera: hepialidae), a host insect of ophiocordyceps sinensis and its implication in taxonomic revision of hepialus adopted in china.the mitochondrial genome is widely used for phylogenetic analyses and evolutionary biology. the complete mitochondrial genome of thitarodes sejilaensis (lepidoptera: hepialidae) was sequenced and analyzed in this study. this mitogenome is a typical circular molecule of 15,290bp, with the gene content, orientation and order identical to other insects in the family hepialidae. the genome nucleotide composition is heavily biased towards as and ts, accounting for 80.87% of total nucleotide content. ...201727919705
high-throughput sequencing-based analysis of endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting the chinese cordyceps reveals unexpectedly high fungal diversity.chinese cordyceps, known in chinese as "dongchong xiacao", is a parasitic complex of a fungus (ophiocordyceps sinensis) and a caterpillar. the current study explored the endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting chinese cordyceps. samples were collected from five different geographical regions of qinghai and tibet, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences from each sample were obtained using illumina high-throughput sequencing. the results showed that ascomycota was the ...201627625176
pyrosequencing analysis revealed complex endogenetic microorganism community from natural dongchong xiacao and its microhabitat.ophiocordyceps sinensis (dongchong xiacao (dcxc) in chinese), a fungal parasite of caterpillars, is a traditional chinese medicine. bioactive components isolated from natural dcxc possess a wide range of pharmacological actions. many efforts have been directed towards isolating the fungi based on culture-dependent methods for investigation of fungal diversity in order to determine the anamorph of natural dcxc and find new medicinal fungi resources, and the results have been varied.201627565900
caterpillar mushroom, ophiocordyceps sinensis (ascomycetes): a potential bioresource for commercialization in sikkim himalaya, india.ophiocordyceps sinensis has a long history of use in tibetan traditional medicine and traditional chinese medicine as a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac. the species is inextricably linked to the trade of medicinal and aromatic plants in east asia. its demand has increased substantially in the international market, and its collection and trade have significantly improved the socioeconomic status of the people in some regions. nonetheless, in sikkim this resource is still untapped formally, but it ...201627481300
immunomodulatory properties of medicinal mushrooms: differential effects of water and ethanol extracts on nk cell-mediated cytotoxicity.medicinal mushrooms have been used for centuries in asian countries owing to their beneficial effects on health and longevity. previous studies have reported that a single medicinal mushroom may produce both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on immune cells, depending on conditions, but the factors responsible for this apparent dichotomy remain obscure. we show here that water and ethanol extracts of cultured mycelium from various species (agaricus blazei murrill, antrodia cinnamomea, ganoderma ...201627469258
evaluation of reference genes for reverse transcription quantitative pcr studies of physiological responses in the ghost moth, thitarodes armoricanus (lepidoptera, hepialidae).reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-qpcr) is the sensitive method to quantify the expression levels of target genes on the basis of endogenous control. an appropriate reference gene set for normalization is essential for reliable results. the ghost moth, thitarodes armoricanus, a host species of a medicinal fungus, ophiocordyceps sinensis, is an economically important member of the lepidoptera. recent studies have focused on the mechanism of adaptation of t ...201627392023
the mechanisms of pharmacological activities of ophiocordyceps sinensis fungi.the entomopathogenic fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis, formerly known as cordyceps sinensis, has long been used as a traditional chinese medicine for the treatment of many illnesses. in recent years its usage has increased dramatically because of the improvement of people's living standard and the emphasis on health. such demands have resulted in over-harvesting of this fungus in the wild. fortunately, scientists have demonstrated that artificially cultured and fermented mycelial products of o. si ...201627373780
comparison of different sequencing and assembly strategies for a repeat-rich fungal genome, ophiocordyceps sinensis.ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most expensive medicinal fungi world-wide, and has been used as a traditional chinese medicine for centuries. in a recent report, the genome of this fungus was found to be expanded by extensive repetitive elements after assembly of roche 454 (223mb) and illumina hiseq (10.6gb) sequencing data, producing a genome of 87.7mb with an n50 scaffold length of 12kb and 6972 predicted genes. to test whether the assembly could be improved by deeper sequencing and to a ...201627343682
cytological characterization of anamorphic fungus lecanicillium pui and its relationship with chinese caterpillar mushroom, ophiocordyceps sinensis (ascomycetes).ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. cordyceps sinensis), one of the most valuable medicinal mushrooms, has great economic importance on the tibetan plateau. we isolated an anamorphic fungus lecanicillium pui from natural o. sinensis specimens and found that the optimal temperature for its culture on potato dextrose agar media was 25°c. cell ultrastructure in l. pui hyphae and spores was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, and it was observed that some primary organelles showed the typic ...201627279447
transcriptome analysis of ophiocordyceps sinensis before and after infection of thitarodes larvae.ophiocordyceps sinensis, also referred to as the chinese caterpillar fungus, is a rare entomopathogenic fungus found in the qinghai-tibetan plateau that is used as a traditional chinese medicine. o. sinensis parasitizes the larvae of the ghost moth thitarodes. characterization of the transcriptome of o. sinensis before and after host infection may provide novel insight into the process by which the fungus interacts with thitarodes and may help researchers understand how to sustain this valuable ...201627268242
transcriptome characterization and gene expression analysis related to sexual dimorphism in the ghost moth, thitarodes pui, a host of ophiocordyceps sinensis.thitarodes pui is one of the host species of the chinese caterpillar fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis as a traditional chinese medicine with economic and medical importance. the pupal and adult stages of t. pui are sexually dimorphic. in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the sexually dimorphic development of t. pui, we compared the transcriptomes of female and male pupae and adults. we obtained 15,881,734, 16,962,086, 17,514,743, and 17,770,904 clean reads from female pupae, ...201627182053
in vitro stimulation of nk cells and lymphocytes using an extract prepared from mycelial culture of ophiocordyceps sinensis.ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and used in traditional chinese medicine for centuries. the fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. naturally occurring o. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the himalayan mountain ranges. wild ophiocordyceps is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitat, and its price limits its use in clinical practice. therefore, the development of a standardized alternative is ...201627162531
review of naturopathy of medical mushroom, ophiocordyceps sinensis, in sexual dysfunction.sexual dysfunctions including desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders are increasing worldwide due to etiological factors and aging. several types of treatment are claimed in modern medicine, but they have serious side effects and higher costs. in fact, alternative approaches, such as the intake of plants, fungi, and insects, or their extracts, have also been practiced to enhance sexuality and ameliorate illness with notable successes. however, the scientific evidence related to the mechanis ...201727041868
biosynthetic pathway analysis for improving the cordycepin and cordycepic acid production in hirsutella sinensis.hirsutella sinensis is considered as the only correct anamorph of ophiocordyceps sinensis. to improve cordycepin and cordycepic acid production in h. sinensis, the biosynthetic pathways of cordycepin and cordycepic acid were predicted, and verified by cloning and expressing genes involved in these pathways, respectively. then, 5'-nucleotidase participating in biosynthetic pathway of cordycepin, hexokinase, and glucose phosphate isomerase involved in biosynthetic pathway of cordycepic acid, were ...201626922724
[assessment of antitumor effect of submerged culture of ophiocordyceps sinensis and cordyceps militaris].ophiocordyceps sinensis and cordyceps militaris metabolites showed a high potential in the treatment of tumors as well as some other diseases. antitumor properties of o. sinensis and c. militaris submerged mycelium were investigated. it was found that the o. sinensis dry biomass in a dose of 50 mg/kg administered once a day to the mice with subcutaneously inoculated p388 lympholeucosis lowered the tumor growth by 65% vs. 54% for the c. militaris dry biomass. the water extract of o. sinensis subm ...201526863737
cloning and analysis of the mat1-2-1 gene from the traditional chinese medicinal fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis.the entomopathogenic fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis has been important in traditional chinese medicine but has yet to be commercially cultivated. one bottleneck is the very low frequency of stromata formation from artificially infected moth larvae. the mating system of fungi is the determining factor for sexual reproduction, but mating-type genes of o. sinensis have not been previously investigated. in this study, the putative mating-type gene mat1-2-1 within the mat1-2 idiomorph was amplified b ...201121802050
Molecular characterization and gene expression of apolipophorin III from the ghost moth, Thitarodes pui (Lepidoptera, Hepialidae).Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) functions in lipid transport and immune activation in insects. We cloned a cDNA encoding putative apoLp-III from larvae of Thitarodes pui, a host species of Ophiocordyceps sinensis, with great economic importance in the Tibetan Plateau. Excluding a putative signal peptide of the first 20 amino acid residues, the 171-residue mature apoLp-III has a calculated molecular mass of 18,606?Da. T. pui apoLp-III shares little sequence homologies (<36%) with other apoLp-IIIs. ...201122128070
immune-modulating activity of extract prepared from mycelial culture of chinese caterpillar mushroom, ophiocordyceps sinensis (ascomycetes).ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and traditional chinese medicine for centuries. the fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. naturally occurring o. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the himalayan mountain ranges. wild o. sinensis is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitats, and its price is out of reach for clinical practice. for these reasons, development of a standardized alternative is a gr ...201526854106
fruiting body production of the medicinal chinese caterpillar mushroom, ophiocordyceps sinensis (ascomycetes), in artificial medium.ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. cordyceps sinensis), regarded as the "himalayan viagra", is widely used for medicinal treatment and health foods. the price of o. sinensis has continued to increase over the past few years because of the growing worldwide demand and resource limitations. artificial cultivation of the fruiting bodies to substitute natural o. sinensis is urgently needed for the effective protection of a valuable bioresource and environment in the tibetan plateau, and for commercial tr ...201526853966
molecular cloning and characterization of a subtilisin-like serine protease gene (pr1) from the medicinal chinese caterpillar mushroom, ophiocordyceps sinensis (ascomycetes).in the chinese caterpillar mushroom ophiocordyceps sinensis, a subtislin-like serine protease (pr1) is one of the most important enzymes for its infection activity against insect cuticles. the pr1 gene was isolated from the valuable chinese medicinal fungus o. sinensis using rapid amplification of 5' and 3' complementary dna ends. the 2079-bp full-length complementary dna sequence containing the 1605-bp predicted open reading frame of the pr1 gene was obtained (genbank accession no. kf836756). t ...201526853964
de novo transcriptome analysis of thitarodes jiachaensis before and after infection by the caterpillar fungus, ophiocordyceps sinensis.thitarodes jiachaensis is a host species of the pathogenic caterpillar fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis, which is a fungus with broad medical effects and great economic value. curated genomic information on thitarodes is still limited, and the interaction between host thitarodes larvae and o. sinensis during infection is incompletely understood. in this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing for t. jiachaensis before and after o. sinensis infection using the illumina sequencing platform, and ...201626778205
protective efficacy of the caterpillar mushroom, ophiocordyceps sinensis (ascomycetes), from india in neuronal hippocampal cells against hypoxia.this study demonstrated the protective efficiency of extracts of the indian variety of ophiocordyceps sinensis (=cordyceps sinensis) (cses) in ht22 (murine hippocampal) cells under hypoxic conditions. various parameters such as cell viability, reactive oxygen species, levels of endogenous antioxidants, inflammatory cytokines, transcription factors, and oxidation of macromolecules were analyzed. in addition, the radical scavenging abilities of hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide, and superoxide radic ...201526756295
protective effect of ethanol extracts of the chinese caterpillar mushroom, ophiocordyceps sinensis (ascomycetes), on the experimental middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (mcao/r) model.in this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of ophiocordyceps sinensis (eeos) on neuroprotective efficacy in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (ir). the effects of eeos on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, polymorphonuclear (pmn) cells, interleukin (il)-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos), tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-α, intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (icam-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass ...201526756191
the intronic minisatellite osmin1 within a serine protease gene in the chinese caterpillar fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis.repetitive dna sequences make up a significant portion of all genomes and may occur in intergenic, regulatory, coding, or even intronic regions. partial sequences of a serine protease gene csp1 was previously used as a population genetic marker of the chinese caterpillar fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis, but its first intron region was excluded due to ambiguous alignment. here in this study, we report the presence of a minisatellite osmin1 within this intron, where a 20(19)-bp repeat motif is dupl ...201626754819
complete mitochondrial genome of hepialus xiaojinensis (lepidoptera: hepialidae).although hepialus xiaojinensis is important as the host of ophiocordyceps sinensis, it remains poorly known especially in genetic structure and phylogeny status. to get a better understanding of it, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of h. xiaojinensis was sequenced for the first time. the genome was 15 397 bp in size and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rrna genes, 22 trna genes, and an at-rich region, and the gene composition and the arrangement of which were consistent with other ...201726713938
sequence-based methods for detecting and evaluating the human gut mycobiome.we surveyed the fungal microbiota in 16 faecal samples from healthy humans with a vegetarian diet. fungi were identified using molecular cloning, 454 pyrosequencing and a luminex analyte-specific reagent (asr) assay, all targeting the its region of the rrna genes. fungi were detected in each faecal sample and at least 46 distinct fungal operational taxonomic units (otus) were detected, from two phyla - ascomycota and basidiomycota. fusarium was the most abundant genus, followed by malassezia, pe ...201626669281
application of differential proteomic analysis to authenticate ophiocordyceps sinensis.ophiocordyceps sinensis (berk.) sacc. is one of the most well-known fungi in traditional chinese medicine and is attracting attention because of its nutritious and medicinal properties. the present study aimed to produce a proteomic map to identify common o. sinensis proteins. the caterpillar body and stroma of o. sinensis collected from five locations and four fungal specimens of similar appearance were examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-de). five proteins were identified using mald ...201626660081
laboratory rearing of thitarodes armoricanus and thitarodes jianchuanensis (lepidoptera: hepialidae), hosts of the chinese medicinal fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis (hypocreales: ophiocordycipitaceae).ophiocordyceps sinensis (ophiocordycipitaceae) is an entomopathogenic fungus endemic to the tibetan plateau, at elevations ranging between 3,000 and 5,000 m. the fungus-insect complex is useful in healthcare but limited in the field, so there is an urgent need to develop an artificial rearing system of both the fungus and its insect hosts. large-scale artificial rearing of the thitarodes insect hosts is crucial. this paper reports results of the artificial cultivation and complete life tables of ...201626567334
review on natural enemies and diseases in the artificial cultivation of chinese caterpillar mushroom, ophiocordyceps sinensis (ascomycetes).ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. cordyceps sinensis), well known as dongchongxiacao (dcxc), is one of the most valuable traditional chinese medicinal species. in this article, we provide a systematic review of natural enemies and diseases encountered in artificial cultivation of dcxc. unfortunately, dcxc has been endangered over the past decades due to overharvesting and a worsening ecological environment. therefore, the artificial cultivation of dcxc has been extensively investigated in recent yea ...201526559703
seasonal changes of fatty acid composition in thitarodes pui larvae, a host of ophiocordyceps sinensis.thitarodes larvae are the host of ophiocordyceps sinensis and exist in the permafrost region of the tibetan plateau.201526510339
complete mitochondrial genome of the medicinal fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis.as part of a genome sequencing project for ophiocordyceps sinensis, strain 1229, a complete mitochondrial (mt) genome was assembled as a single circular dsdna of 157,510 bp, one of the largest reported for fungi. conserved genes including the large and small rrna subunits, 27 trna and 15 protein-coding genes, were identified. in addition, 58 non-conserved open reading frames (ncorfs) in the intergenic and intronic regions were also identified. transcription analyses using rna-seq validated the e ...201526370521
development of ophiocordyceps sinensis through plant-mediated interkingdom host colonization.ophiocordyceps sinensis is a well-known entomogenous and medicinal fungus. after its anamorphs parasitize the larvae of the genus thitarodes, fruit-bodies may form to be used as medicine. however, its developmental mechanisms remain unknown. the distribution of o. sinensis was determined in different tissues of the thitarodes larvae and the dominant plant species using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) technique, respectively. w ...201526263972
de novo transcriptome characterization of the ghost moth, thitarodes pui, and elevation-based differences in the gene expression of its larvae.thitarodes pui larvae are the hosts of a medicinal fungus, ophiocordyceps sinensis, and are naturally distributed at an altitude of 4100-4650 m on segrila mountain of the tibetan plateau. here, we conducted transcriptome profiling of t. pui larvae based on the illumina high-throughput sequencing platform. subsequently, we explored elevation-based differences of t. pui by comparing gene expression profiles between larvae at high-altitude (natural conditions) and larvae exposed to short-term (2mon ...201526235680
transcriptomic insight into the immune defenses in the ghost moth, hepialus xiaojinensis, during an ophiocordyceps sinensis fungal infection.hepialus xiaojinensis is an economically important species of lepidopteran insect. the fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis can infect its larvae, which leads to mummification after 5-12 months, providing a valuable system with which to study interactions between the insect hosts and pathogenic fungi. however, little sequence information is available for this insect. a time-course analysis of the fat body transcriptome was performed to explore the host immune response to o. sinensis infection. in tota ...201526165779
[effect of wound to growth of larva of host to ophiocordyceps sinensis during artificial breeding].to clear the effect of the wound to the growth of the larva of the host to the ophiocordyceps sinensis, the wounds of same severity at the same position were made artificially to the larva and which were artificial fed at the same environment and condition. the results indicated that, over the winter, the survival rate of the wounded of the infection larva was lower than that of the healthy larva, but the weight had no significant difference between the wounded and the healthy larva. the surviva ...201526080546
complete mitochondrial genome of hepialus gonggaensis (lepidoptera: hepialidae), the host insect of ophiocordyceps sinensis.the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of hepialus gonggaensis was sequenced for the first time. the complete mtdna sequence was 15,940 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, two rrna genes, 22 trna genes, and an at-rich region, the gene composition and the arrangement of which were identical to other insects of hepialidae. the overall base composition of the heavy strand was 41.14% a, 40.24% t, 11.17% c, and 7.45% g, with an at content of 81.37%. the necleotide sequence data of ...201625970516
rapid authentication of cordyceps by lateral flow dipstick.cordyceps (dongchongxiacao), a valuable traditional chinese medicine, is composed of the fruiting body of ophiocordyceps sinensis (family: ophiocordycipitaceae) on a caterpillar of ghost-moth species (family: hepialidae). owing to its multiple potential functions, cordyceps are in great demand and represent significant economic value. adulterants or substitutes named cordyceps or chongcao from related fungi have been reported. in this study, polymerase chain reaction (pcr) coupled with a lateral ...201525919051
transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the entomopathogenic fungus hirsutella sinensis isolated from ophiocordyceps sinensis.ophiocordyceps sinensis, a worm and fungus combined mixture which hirsutella sinensis is parasitic on the caterpillar body, has been used as a traditional medicine or healthy food in china for thousands of years. h. sinensis is reported as the only correct anamorph of o. sinensis and its main active ingredients are similar to the natural o. sinensis.201525765329
bacterial diversity in native habitats of the medicinal fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis on tibetan plateau as determined using illumina sequencing data.ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most well-known traditional chinese medicinal fungi. in this study, bacterial diversity in the soils of native habitats of o. sinensis was investigated using illumina sequencing data. a total of 525,000 sequences of v6-16s rrna were analyzed. the number of otus from each sample ranged from 13,858 to 15,978 at 97% sequence similarity cut-off. the results demonstrated that the deep sequencing approach provides improved access to rare genotypes. richness indice ...201525743069
use of ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. cordyceps sinensis) combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (acei)/angiotensin receptor blockers (arb) versus acei/arb alone in the treatment of diabetic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.ophiocordyceps sinensis (o. sinensis; syn. cordyceps sinensis) has been used in clinical therapy for diabetic kidney disease (dkd) for more than 15 years. o. sinensis is a household name in china and it is available even in supermarket. however, the precise role of o. sinensis has not been fully elucidated with meta-analysis. the aim of this study was to review existing evidence on the effectiveness of o. sinensis for the treatment of dkd. we identified 60 trials involving 4288 participants. ove ...201525682973
investigation and analysis of microbiological communities in natural ophiocordyceps sinensis.ophiocordyceps sinensis is a fungus that parasitizes caterpillars, and more than 30 species of filamentous fungi have been isolated from its fruiting body. however, its microbiological diversity remains unclear. based on the clone library and quantitative pcr techniques, the bacterial flora and mycobiota of 3 different samples (larva, stromata/sclerotia, and surface soil) from natural o. sinensis specimens were investigated using primer sets that targeted the 16s rrna gene and internal transcrib ...201525578897
scientific validation of the chinese caterpillar medicinal mushroom, ophiocordyceps sinensis (ascomycetes) from india: immunomodulatory and antioxidant activity.in the present study, we aimed to elucidate the antioxidant property and anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of the indian species of ophiocordyceps sinensis (aecs), which demonstrates medicinal activity against numerous diseases. the chemical composition of aecs was quantified using a colorimeteric technique to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. antioxidant activity was determined by assays for 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)diammonium salt ...201425404219
altered proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural cordyceps sinensis during maturation.to examine the maturational changes in proteomic polymorphisms resulting from differential expression by multiple intrinsic fungi in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural cordyceps sinensis (cs), an integrated micro-ecosystem.201425310818
cordyceps fungi as natural killers, new hopes for medicine and biological control factors.the cordyceps genus includes many species of fungi, most of which are endoparasitoids on arthropods.the distribution of these fungi is cosmopolitan, but many occur in regions such as asia with a hot, humid climate. these pathogens of insect pests are promising candidates for use as biological control factors. entomopathogenic fungi including the famous cordyceps sinensis produce bioactive compounds. lately cordyceps sinensis was renamed ophiocordyceps sinensis. this fungus has a long history as ...201425281812
cloning of mating-type gene mat1-1 from the caterpillar medicinal mushroom, cordyceps militaris (ascomycetes) using tail-pcr technology.cordyceps militaris and ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. cordyceps sinensis), 2 well-known traditional chinese medicines, contain the same bioactive components and share a similar developmental process. in this study, one c. militaris strain preserved in our laboratory was proven to be a mat1 mating-type strain using a polymerase chain reaction-based mating-type assay. a 5000-bp nucleotide sequence of the mating-type mat1-1 from c. militaris was amplified by thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase ...201425271980
phylogeography and evolution of a fungal-insect association on the tibetan plateau.parasitoidism refers to a major form of interspecies interactions where parasitoids sterilize and/or kill their hosts typically before hosts reach reproductive age. however, relatively little is known about the evolutionary dynamics of parasitoidism. here, we investigate the spatial patterns of genetic variation of chinese cordyceps, including both the parasitoidal fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis and its host insects. we sampled broadly from alpine regions on the tibetan plateau and obtained sequ ...201425263531
impact of climate change on potential distribution of chinese caterpillar fungus (ophiocordyceps sinensis) in nepal himalaya.climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity l ...201425180515
chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal value of fruit bodies and submerged cultured mycelia of culinary-medicinal higher basidiomycetes mushrooms.this research gives the results of a proximate analysis (moisture, ash, crude protein, fat, total carbohydrates, and total energy); a bioactive compounds analysis (γ-aminobutyric acid [gaba], ergothioneine, lovastatin, and cordycepin); fatty acid and amino acid analysis; and an analysis of macro- and microelement content of fruit bodies and mycelia of 15 higher basidiomycetes medicinal mushroom strains belonging to 12 species. the results obtained demonstrate that almost all investigated mushroo ...201424941169
mycelial fermentation characteristics and anti-fatigue activities of a chinese caterpillar fungus, ophiocordyceps sinensis strain cs-hk1 (ascomycetes).mycelial fermentation of an ophiocordyceps sinensis strain cs-hk1 was carried out in various volumes of stirred-tank fermenters from 1.6-l and 15-l laboratory scale to 2000-l industrial scale. the mycelial growth in most fermenters had a higher rate, due probably to more efficient oxygen supply, than in shake-flasks. the mycelial fermentation was successfully scaled up to 2000-l industrial fermenters, achieving 30 g/l maximum biomass in 5 days. the cs-hk1 mycelia formed hairy and fluffy pellets ...201424941032
improving training condition assessment in endurance cyclists: effects of ganoderma lucidum and ophiocordyceps sinensis dietary supplementation.the main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. this paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. we report the effects of a brief 3-m ...201424799948
detection of ophiocordyceps sinensis in the roots of plants in alpine meadows by nested-touchdown polymerase chain reaction.ophiocordyceps sinensis, one of the most important income sources of rural tibetan families, is an entomopathogenic fungus that parasitizes the ghost moth thitarodes larvae, which live in alpine meadows on the tibetan plateau and in the himalayas. the annual yield of o. sinensis has gradually declined in recent years. however, there is no effective method to sustain or increase the yield of o. sinensis artificially because the life cycle of the o. sinensis anamorph remains unclear. here we detec ...201424742830
genetic diversity and distribution patterns of host insects of caterpillar fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis in the qinghai-tibet plateau.the caterpillar fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world, and it requires host insects in family hepialidae (lepidoptera) to complete its life cycle. however, the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structures of the host insects remain to be explored. we analyzed the genetic diversity and temporal and spatial distribution patterns of genetic variation of the host insects throughout the o. sinensis distribution. abundant haplotype and nucleotide d ...201424667533
comparative phylogenetic relationships and genetic structure of the caterpillar fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis and its host insects inferred from multiple gene sequences.ophiocordyceps sinensis (ascomycota: ophiocordycipitaceae) is a native fungal parasite of hepialidae caterpillars and one of the most economically important medicinal caterpillar fungi in china. however, little is known about the phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships between o. sinensis and its host insects. in this study, nuclear its and β-tubulin sequences from o. sinensis and mitochondrial coi, coii, and cytb sequences from its hosts were analyzed across 33 populations sampled from five ...201424500473
transcriptome analysis of the ophiocordyceps sinensis fruiting body reveals putative genes involved in fruiting body development and cordycepin biosynthesis.ophiocordyceps sinensis is a highly valuable and popular medicinal fungus used as a tonic and roborant for thousands of years in traditional asian medicine. however, unsustainable harvesting practices have endangered this species and very little is known about its developmental programming, its biochemistry and genetics. to begin to address this, the transcriptome of the medicinal o. sinensis fruiting body was analyzed by high-throughput. in this o. sinensis 454-est dataset, four mating type gen ...201424440419
the artificial cultivation of medicinal caterpillar fungus, ophiocordyceps sinensis (ascomycetes): a review.caterpillar fungus, ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. cordyceps sinensis), is highly valued in china as a dietary supplement or tonic food and natural remedy. the combination of the fungus and dead insect has been used as a traditional chinese medicine for centuries, and evidence shows its efficacy on immunomodulatory potentials. the price of o. sinensis has continued to increase over the last few years due to growing worldwide demand, driving research to determine methods of artificial cultivation ...201324266368
isolation of the mat1-1 mating type idiomorph and evidence for selfing in the chinese medicinal fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis.ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most valued medicinal fungi in china. research on the mating system and sexual development is vitally important to this endangered species. previous efforts devoted to investigate the mating type (mat) locus of o. sinensis, however, resulted in an incomplete understanding. in this study, the mat1-1 locus of o. sinensis was investigated. the conserved α-box and hmg-box regions of the mat1-1-1 and mat1-1-3 genes, respectively, and a conserved region of the dna ...201324012300
dna barcoding the commercial chinese caterpillar fungus.chinese caterpillar fungus (ophiocordyceps sinensis) has been widely used as tonic in asian medicine. considering its curative effect and high cost, various counterfeit versions of o. sinensis have been introduced and are commercially available. these counterfeits have morphological characteristics that are difficult to distinguish based on morphology alone, thereby causing confusion and threatening its safe use. in this study, internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences as a dna barcode were an ...201323927075
advances in research of the artificial cultivation of ophiocordyceps sinensis in china.ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. cordyceps sinensis), a traditional chinese medicine called dongchongxiacao (dcxc) in chinese, is well known and has been used in asia countries since the fifteenth century, and it contains some valuable medicinal component defined by modern pharmacological science. dcxc only appears at high altitudes on the qinghai-tibetan plateau. consequently, it is difficult to find and harvest. because of its rarity and medicinal value, dcxc has always been one of the most expen ...201423875938
evaluation of nutritional and physical stress conditions during vegetative growth on conidial production and germination in ophiocordyceps sinensis.the influence of nutritional and physical stress on sporulation, conidial germination and vegetative biomass of ophiocordyceps sinensis, one of the most important medicinal fungi in china and now globally, was evaluated using a two-stage culture method. all the treatments, except nutrient deprivation, enhanced conidial production and vegetative biomass to some extent. however, conidia produced under stress showed decreased germination in comparison with those continuously cultured on the enriche ...201323731440
a real-time qpcr assay to quantify ophiocordyceps sinensis biomass in thitarodes larvae.ophiocordyceps sinensis, an entomogenous fungus parasitic in the larvae of moths (lepidoptera), is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi, and it only distributed naturally on the tibetan plateau. the parasitical amount of o. sinensis in various tissues of the host thitarodes larvae has an important role in study the occurrence and developmental mechanisms of o. sinensis, but there no an effective method to detect the fungal anamorph. a real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr) system, including a pai ...201323625225
non-concerted its evolution in fungi, as revealed from the important medicinal fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis.the internal transcribed spacer (its) of nuclear ribosomal dna (nrdna) has been widely used as a molecular marker in phylogenetic studies and has been selected as a dna barcode for fungi. it is generally believed that nrdna conforms to concerted evolution in most eukaryotes; however, intraindividual-intraspecific polymorphisms of this region were reported in various organisms, suggesting a non-concerted evolutionary process. in ophiocordyceps sinensis, one of the most valuable medicinal fungi, a ...201323618625
detection of ophiocordyceps sinensis in soil by quantitative real-time pcr.ophiocordyceps sinensis, one of the best known entomopathogenic fungi in traditional chinese medicine, parasitizes larvae of the moth genus thitarodes, which lives in soil tunnels. however, little is known about the spatial distribution of o. sinensis in the soil. we established a protocol for dna extraction, purification, and quantification of o. sinensis in soil with quantitative real-time pcr targeting the internal transcribed spacer region. the method was assessed using 34 soil samples from ...201323540339
on the reliability of dna sequences of ophiocordyceps sinensis in public databases.some dna sequences in the international nucleotide sequence databases (insd) are erroneously annotated, which has lead to misleading conclusions in publications. ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. cordyceps sinensis) is a fungus endemic to the tibetan plateau, and more than 100 populations covering almost its distribution area have been examined by us over recent years. in this study, using the data from authentic materials, we have evaluated the reliability of nucleotide sequences annotated as o. si ...201323397071
a systematic review of the mysterious caterpillar fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis in dong-chongxiacao ( dōng chóng xià cǎo) and related bioactive ingredients.the caterpillar fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn.cordyceps sinensis), which was originally used in traditional tibetan and chinese medicine, is called either "yartsa gunbu" or "dongchongxiacao ( dōng chóng xià cǎo)" ("winter worm-summer grass"), respectively. the extremely high price of dongchongxiacao, approximately usd $20,000 to 40,000 per kg, has led to it being regarded as "soft gold" in china. the multi-fungi hypothesis has been proposed for dongchongxiacao; however, hirsutella sinensis ...201324716152
development of conventional and nested pcr assays for the detection of ophiocordyceps sinensis.ophiocordyceps sinensis, endemic to the tibetan plateau, is one of the most important medicinal fungi with a huge economic value. in the present study, specific primer pairs were designed based on a comprehensive its sequence dataset of o. sinensis and its related fungi, and tested for specificity and sensitivity through pcr experiments using 27 individuals of o. sinensis from different geographical origins and 40 other related fungal species in terms of phylogeny or ecology. a primer pair highl ...201322915189
characterization of a coelomic gregarine parasite from thitarodes pui (lepidoptera: hepialidae) in the tibetan plateau.thitarodes pui, one of the host species of entomopathogenic fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis, has great economic importance in the tibetan plateau. we report here, for the first time, a gregarine parasite found in the coelom of 7th instar and adults of t. pui. gregarine gamonts (ovoid, ~15×8 μm) underwent syzygy to produce reproductive gametocysts in t. pui larval hemolymph. all infected t. pui carried 2-17 mature gametocysts filled with numerous oocysts (lemon-shaped, 17.17±0.73×6.49±0.4 μm). tra ...201222884674
[maturation of cordyceps sinensis associates with alterations of fungal expressions of multiple ophiocordyceps sinensis mutants in stroma of cordyceps sinensis].to examine maturational changes in expressions of ophiocordyceps sinensis (o.sinensis) transition and transversion mutation genotypes in cordyceps sinensis (c.sinensis) stroma.201222692321
determining novel molecular markers in the chinese caterpillar fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis by screening a shotgun genomic library.the chinese caterpillar fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis, endemic to alpine regions on the tibetan plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world. genetic differentiation within this fungus was observed; however, due to lack of highly efficient molecular markers, the overall genetic structure of this fungus has not been clarified. in this study, a shotgun genomic library of o. sinensis was constructed, and >181,848 nt were analyzed from >250 random clones. primers from 33 sequen ...201222466955
isolation, characterization of melanin derived from ophiocordyceps sinensis, an entomogenous fungus endemic to the tibetan plateau.melanins are pigments of high molecular weight formed by oxidative polymerization of phenolic or indolic compounds. in this present study, a black pigment was isolated from the fermentation broth of ophiocordyceps sinensis, an entomogenous fungus which is endemic to the tibetan plateau by alkaline extraction, acid hydrolysis, and repeated precipitation. it was designed as melanin since the physical and chemical properties including its ultraviolet (uv) and infrared (ir) spectra of the black pigm ...201222261188
two new for science species of genus cordyceps fr. (ascomycetes) from indian himalaya.two new species for science, cordyceps kurijimeaensis and c. nirtolii (clavicipitaceae, ascomycetes), collected from the forests of the munsyari region of the himalayan hills (uttarakhand state, india) are described and illustrated. c. kurijimeaensis has the same host, larvae of hepialus armoricanus, as does cordyceps (=ophiocordyceps) sinensis, and c. nirtolii was found on melanotus communis. morphology and other diagnostic characteristics show a close relationship between c. kurijimeaensis and ...201223510219
a survey of the geographic distribution of ophiocordyceps sinensis.ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the best known fungi in traditional chinese medicine. many efforts have been devoted to locating the production areas of this species resulting in various reports; however, its geographic distribution remains incompletely understood. distribution of o. sinensis at the county level is clarified in this work based on both a literature search and fieldwork. more than 3600 publications related to o. sinensis were investigated, including scientific papers, books, and ...201122203553
growth and cultural-morphological characteristics of vegetative mycelia of medicinal caterpillar fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis g.h. sung et al. (ascomycetes) isolates from tibetan plateau (p.r.china).the morphological and cultural characteristics of vegetative mycelia of 29 tibetan strains of medicinal caterpillar fungus ophiocordyceps sinensis (= cordyceps sinensis) were studied. data on mycelial growth of the above-mentioned fungi strains on different types of nutrients, the macro- and micromorphological description of colonies grown on different agar media, and anamorph stage identification are provided. it was shown that strains of o. sinensis demonstrated moderately slow growth on selec ...201122181845
chemical screening and identification of high cordycepin containing cultured isolate(s) of medicinal chinese caterpillar mushroom, ophiocordyceps sinensis (berk.) g.h. sung et al.forty isolates of ophiocordyceps sinensis collected from himalayan alpine meadows of uttarakhand, india, and cultivated on jhangora (echinochloa crusgalli) grains were screened to identify the isolate(s) of high cordycepin content. the cultured mycelia were extracted with 50% methanol-chloroform and analyzed by hptlc using chloroform:methanol (6:1 v/v) as mobile phase and densitometry scanning at 263 nm. cordycepin varied from 0.002% to 0.029% was detected in twenty-one isolates. compared to nat ...201122164762
development of microsatellite markers for ophiocordyceps sinensis (ophiocordycipitaceae) using an issr-tail-pcr method.microsatellite primers were developed for ophiocordyceps sinensis, an endangered medicinal fungus endemic to the tibetan plateau, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure.201122130274
host insect species of ophiocordyceps sinensis: a review.ophiocordyceps sinensis (≡ cordyceps sinensis) is one of the most valued medicinal fungi in china, used for its invigorating effects in strengthening the body and restoring energy. the fungus parasitizes larvae of moths and converts them into sclerotia from which the fungus fruiting body grows. since the late 1950s, considerable effort has been devoted to the study of host insects related to the fungus. in the present paper, the research history of insect species associated with ophiocordyceps s ...201121998547
molecular cloning and characterization of two heat shock proteins in thitarodes pui (lepidoptera: hepialidae).heat shock proteins (hsps) show transient expression in response to rapid temperature increase. the larvae of thitarodes insects are the host of ophiocordyceps sinensis, with high cold-tolerance. in order to study the adaptive mechanisms to temperature change, we cloned and sequenced the full-length cdnas of two hsp genes (designated as tp-hsp90 and tp-hsp70) using the technique of rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) from t. pui. the complete cdna sequences of tp-hsp90 and tp-hsp70 are 2,842 ...201121766152
[detection of multiple ophiocordyceps sinensis mutants in premature stroma of cordyceps sinensis by massarray snp maldi-tof mass spectrum genotyping].to examine the mutants of ophiocordyceps sinensis (os) in the stroma of premature cordyceps sinensis (cs).201121503123
high diversity of the fungal community structure in naturally-occurring ophiocordyceps sinensis.ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. cordyceps sinensis), which is a parasite of caterpillars and is endemic to alpine regions on the tibetan plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world. "natural o. sinensis specimens" harbor various other fungi. several of these other fungi that have been isolated from natural o. sinensis specimens have similar chemical components and/or pharmaceutical effects as o. sinensis. nevertheless, the mycobiota of natural o. sinensis specimens has not be ...201021179540
rdna-targeted pcr primers and fish probe in the detection of ophiocordyceps sinensis hyphae and conidia.ophiocordyceps sinensis (berk.) sung, sung, hywel-jones & spatafora (syn. cordyceps sinensis) one of the entomopathogenic fungi, is a rare traditional chinese medicine (tcm) found in the qinghai-tibetan plateau. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) methods are necessary to identify the mycelia or spores of o. sinensis from its habitat and to monitor its dispersal, colonization and infectivity. to develop both primers and probe specific to o. sinensis, rib ...201020826189
genetic diversity of ophiocordyceps sinensis, a medicinal fungus endemic to the tibetan plateau: implications for its evolution and conservation.ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. cordyceps sinensis), endemic to alpine regions on the tibetan plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world. huge commercial demand has led to excessive harvest and a dramatic decline in its numbers. the diversity of terrains and climates on the tibetan plateau and the broad insect host range (more than 50 species in the family hepialidae) may have resulted in substantial intraspecific genetic diversity for this fungus. the objective of this stud ...200920003548
the structure and histochemistry of sclerotia of ophiocordyceps sinensis.the structure and histochemistry of sclerotia of ophiocordyceps sinensis (synonym: cordyceps sinensis) are described. the remains of the caterpillar epidermis and sometimes setae of the caterpillar were attached to the pigmented layer that is external to the rind of the sclerotium. the outer aerial hyphae and hyphae of the inner medulla were densely interwoven around the epidermis of the caterpillar; these eventually differentiated into the rind of the sclerotium. the medulla of the sclerotium c ...200918833754
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