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eucalypt mads-box genes expressed in developing flowers.three mads-box genes were identified from a cdna library derived from young flowers of eucalyptus grandis w. hill ex maiden. the three egm genes are single-copy genes and are expressed almost exclusively in flowers. the egm1 and egm3 genes shared strongest homology with other plant mads-box genes, which mediate between the floral meristem and the organ-identity genes. the egm3 gene was also expressed strongly in the receptacle or floral tube, which surrounds the carpels in the eucalypt flower an ...19989765522
conservation and synteny of ssr loci and qtls for vegetative propagation in four eucalyptus species.conservation of microsatellite loci, heterozygous in eucalyptus grandis, eucalyptus urophylla, eucalyptus tereticornis and eucalyptus globulus, allowed us to propose homeologies among genetic linkage groups in these species, supported by at least three ssr loci in two different linkage groups. marker-trait associations for sprouting and adventitious rooting ability were also compared in the four species. putative quantitative trait loci (qtls) influencing vegetative propagation traits were locat ...200212582553
a pcr/rflp technique to characterize fungal species in eucalyptus grandis hill ex. maiden ectomycorrhizas.with the increasing awareness of the significance of mycorrhizas, research is focusing on studies to elucidate the contribution of the symbiosis to ecosystem dynamics. in this sense, molecular biology has acquired great significance. pcr/rflp techniques were adapted to characterize ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with eucalyptus grandis. the its region of the fungal rdna from pure cultures and from of mycorrhizas synthesized in vitro was amplified. primers nsa3/nlc2 were used followed by a nest ...200312682832
fractionation of eucalyptus grandis chips by dilute acid-catalysed steam explosion.steam explosion of eucalyptus grandis has been carried out under various pretreatment conditions (200-210 degrees c, 2-5 min) after impregnation of the wood chips with 0.087 and 0.175% (w/w) h2so4. this study, arranged as a 2(3) factorial design, indicated that pretreatment temperature is the most critical variable affecting the yield of steam-treated fractions. pretreatment of 0.175% (w/w) h2so4-impregnated chips at 210 degrees c for 2 min was the best condition for hemicellulose recovery (most ...200312653274
a comparison of heat pulse and deuterium tracing techniques for estimating sap flow in eucalyptus grandis trees.sap flow rates were measured simultaneously by the heat pulse and deuterium tracing techniques in nine eucalyptus grandis w. hill ex maiden. trees at two sites (1) to compare results from the two techniques and (2) to assess the impact of the assumptions underlying the deuterium tracing method on the calculation of sap flow for a range of tree sizes. the trees ranged in height from 4 to 14 m with leaf areas of 5 to 35 m(2). in all trees, sap flow estimated by the deuterium tracing technique was ...199812651419
comparative genetic linkage maps of eucalyptus grandis, eucalyptus globulus and their f1 hybrid based on a double pseudo-backcross mapping approach.comparative genetic mapping in interspecific pedigrees presents a powerful approach to study genetic differentiation, genome evolution and reproductive isolation in diverging species. we used this approach for genetic analysis of an f(1) hybrid of two eucalyptus tree species, eucalyptus grandis (w. hill ex maiden.) and eucalyptus globulus (labill.). this wide interspecific cross is characterized by hybrid inviability and hybrid abnormality. approximately 20% of loci in the genome of the f(1) hyb ...200312838392
xylan-hydrolyzing enzyme system from bacillus pumilus cbmai 0008 and its effects on eucalyptus grandis kraft pulp for pulp bleaching improvement.the extracellular productions of beta-xylanase, beta-xylosidase, beta-glucosidase, beta-mannanase, arabinosidase, alpha-glucuronidase, alpha-galactosidase and fpase from bacillus pumilus cbmai 0008 were investigated with three different xylan sources as substrate. the enzymatic profiles on birchwood, eucalyptus grandis and oat were studied at alkaline and acidic ph conditions. b. pumilus cbmai 0008 grown on the three carbon sources produced mainly beta-xylanase. at ph 10, the levels of xylanase ...200312573558
monitoring on-line desalted lignocellulosic hydrolysates by microdialysis sampling micro-high performance anion exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed electrochemical detection/mass spectrometry.an on-line system based on microdialysis sampling (md), micro-high performance anion exchange chromatography (micro-hpaec), integrated pulsed electrochemical detection (iped), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ms) for the monitoring of on-line desalted enzymatic hydrolysates is presented. continuous monitoring of the enzymatic degradation of dissolving pulp from eucalyptus grandis as well as degradation of sugar cane bagasse in a 5-ml reaction vessel was achieved up to 24 h without ...200212001175
comparison of four trap types for ambrosia beetles (coleoptera, scolytidae) in brazilian eucalyptus stands.eucalyptus spp. plantations represent >60% of the reforested area in brazil. although ambrosia beetle attacks on live trees were at first nonexistent, they have begun to appear with greater frequency. monitoring for pest insects is a key factor in integrated pest management, and baited traps are one of the most widely used methods for insect population detection and survey. we compared the efficiency of the most widely used trap in brazil to survey for ambrosia beetles and other scolytidae, the ...200011142301
root adaptation and nitrogen source acquisition in natural ecosystems.the capacity for nitrate reduction, as measured by nitrate reductase activity (nra), was generally low for a range of plant communities in australia (coastal heathland, rainforest, savanna woodland, monsoon forest, mangrove, open eucalyptus forest, coral cay open forest) and only a loose relationship existed between nra and leaf nitrogen concentration. this suggests that nitrate ions are not the sole nitrogen source in these communities. based on (15)n labeling experiments, we found a range of t ...199614871787
nighttime water use in an irrigated eucalyptus grandis plantation.sap flow measurements showed that a well-watered four-year-old plantation of eucalyptus grandis (hill ex maiden) at wagga wagga, new south wales, australia, used 0.8 mm of water between 2100 and 0500 h on the midwinter night of july 30. sap flow ceased for 2 to 3 h after sunset before recommencing at high rates that reached a maximum of 0.3 mm per h between 0200 and 0300 h. this pattern is inconsistent with the replenishment of tissue water reserves depleted during the day. moreover, maximum lea ...199910562402
modification of the carbohydrate composition of sulfite pulp by purified and characterized beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase of aureobasidium pullulans.both beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase were purified to homogeneity from a xylose-grown culture of aureobasidium pullulans. cellular distribution studies of enzyme activities revealed that beta-xylanase was an extracellular enzyme, during both the exponential and stationary phases, whereas beta-xylosidase was mostly periplasmic associated. the beta-xylanase exhibited very high specificity for xylan extracted from eucalyptus grandis dissolving pulp, whereas the beta-xylosidase was only active on ...199910194394
retrospective selection of elite parent trees using paternity testing with microsatellite markers: an alternative short term breeding tactic for eucalyptus.the conventional way to drive modifications in old forest tree seed orchards is to establish progeny trials involving each parent tree and then evaluate its contribution to the performance of the progeny by estimating its general and specific combining ability (gca and sca). in this work, we successfully applied an alternative parent selection tactic based on paternity testing of superior offspring derived from a hybrid seed orchard established with a single eucalyptus grandis seed parents and s ...200415004676
dry mass allocation, water use efficiency and delta(13)c in clones of eucalyptus grandis, e. grandis x camaldulensis and e. grandis x nitens grown under two irrigation regimes.clonal variation in water use efficiency (wue), dry mass accumulation and allocation, and stable carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)c) of crude leaf fiber extracts was determined in six clones of eucalyptus grandis w. hill ex maiden. grown for 16 months in field lysimeters in two soil water regimes. the relationships between delta(13)c and wue calculated on the basis of leaf, harvestable stem, shoot and whole-plant dry mass accumulation were investigated. there was no clonal variation in dry mass ac ...199614871719
interactive effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide and leaf nitrogen concentration on canopy light use efficiency: a modeling analysis.potential increases in plant productivity in response to increasing atmospheric co(2) concentration are likely to be constrained by nutrient limitations. however, the interactive effects of nitrogen nutrition and co(2) concentration on growth are difficult to define because both factors affect several aspects of growth, including photosynthesis, respiration, and leaf area. by expressing growth as a product of light intercepted and light use efficiency (epsilon), it is possible to decouple the ef ...199614871764
growth and water use of eucalyptus grandis and pinus radiata plantations irrigated with effluent.we studied the growth and water balance of young plantations of pinus radiata d. don and eucalyptus grandis w. hill ex maiden irrigated with effluent for 3 years in a climate of high net evaporation. the plantations were irrigated weekly with secondary-treated municipal effluent at the estimated water-use rate, or at nominally twice or half this rate. control plots were irrigated with bore water at their estimated water-use rate. both species grew rapidly when irrigated with either effluent or b ...199614871765
towards a genus-wide reference linkage map for eucalyptus based exclusively on highly informative microsatellite markers.a novel set of 50 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed and mapped on existing rapd framework maps of eucalyptus grandis and e. urophylla. together with the twenty previously developed microsatellite markers, these were used to align the existing maps for the two most commercially important eucalyptus species in the tropics. sixty-three microsatellite markers were placed on the e. grandis map in 11 linkage groups, and 53 on the e. urophylla map distributed in 10 linkage groups ...200212073036
response of eucalyptus grandis trees to soil water deficits.the use of potential transpiration models to simulate transpiration rates in areas prone to soil water deficits leads to overestimates of water use as the soil dries. therefore, i carried out studies on eucalyptus grandis w. hill ex maiden trees subjected to soil drying at two field sites in the mpumalanga province of south africa to determine the relation between transpiration rate and soil water availability. i hypothesized that, with this relationship defined, simple modeling of the soil wate ...199614871767
cancer chemopreventive activity of euglobal-g1 from leaves of eucalyptus grandis.in the course of our continuing search for novel cancer chemopreventive agents from natural sources, several kinds of eucalyptus plants were screened. consequently, the phlorogrucinol-monoterpene derivative, euglobal-g1 (eg-1), was obtained from the leaves of eucalyptus grandis as an active constituent. eg-1 exhibited the remarkable inhibitory effect on two-stage carcinogenesis test of mouse skin tumors induced by 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (dmba) as an initiator and fumonisin-b1, which has ...200010814880
genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling growth and wood quality traits in eucalyptus grandis using a maternal half-sib family and rapd markers.quantitative trait loci (qtl) mapping of forest productivity traits was performed using an open pollinated half-sib family of eucalyptus grandis. for volume growth, a sequential qtl mapping approach was applied using bulk segregant analysis (bsa), selective genotyping (sg) and cosegregation analysis (csa). despite the low heritability of this trait and the heterogeneous genetic background employed for mapping, bsa detected one putative qtl and sg two out of the three later found by csa. the thre ...19968913761
genetic linkage maps of eucalyptus grandis and eucalyptus urophylla using a pseudo-testcross: mapping strategy and rapd markers.we have used a "two-way pseudo-testcross" mapping strategy in combination with the random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) assay to construct two moderate density genetic linkage maps for species of eucalyptus. in the cross between two heterozygous individuals many single-dose rapd markers will be heterozygous in one parent, null in the other and therefore segregate 1:1 in their f1 progeny following a testcross configuration. meiosis and gametic segregation in each individual can be directly and ...19947982566
structures of euglobal-g1, -g2, and -g3 from eucalyptus grandis, three new inhibitors of epstein-barr virus activation.three new euglobals with acylphloroglucinol-monoterpene structures, named euglobal -g1 (1), -g2 (2), and -g3 (3) were isolated from the chloroform extract of the juvenile leaves of eucalyptus grandis (myrtaceae). the structures of these new compounds were determined on the basis of their spectral data. the compounds strongly inhibited the epstein-barr virus activation.19902168298
an efficient procedure to stably introduce genes into an economically important pulp tree (eucalyptus grandis x eucalyptus urophylla).regeneration problems are one of the main limitations preventing the wider application of genetic engineering strategies to the genus eucalyptus. seedlings from eucalyptus grandis x eucalyptus urophylla were selected according to their regeneration (adventitious organogenesis) and transformation capacity. after in vitro cloning, the best genotype of 250 tested was transformed via agrobacterium tumefaciens. a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (cad) antisense cdna from eucalyptus gunnii was transferr ...200312885162
resistance to rust ( puccinia psidii winter) in eucalyptus: mode of inheritance and mapping of a major gene with rapd markers.rust is one of the most-damaging eucalypt diseases in brazil and is considered a potential threat to eucalypt plantations worldwide. to determine the mode of inheritance of resistance in the eucalyptus grandis- puccinia psidii pathosystem, ten full-sib families, generated from crosses between susceptible and resistant trees, were inoculated with a single-pustule isolate of the pathogen and rust severity was scored. the observed segregation ratios in segregating families suggested major gene cont ...200314504745
nutrient accumulation in trees and soil following irrigation with municipal effluent in australia.irrigation of tree crops is being evaluated as a method of land disposal of municipal effluent in australia. a study was carried out from 1980-84 in which seven tree species were sprinkler-irrigated with effluent at an annual rate of 1191-1752 mm. effective weed control and frequent irrigation resulted in good survival of all species (range 83-100%) at 12 months. total productivity was estimated at age 4 years by measuring biomass of each species inclusive of litter and roots to a soil depth of ...199015092326
response of effluent-irrigated eucalyptus grandis and pinus radiata to salinity and vapor pressure deficits.effects of high vapor pressure deficit (vpd) and soil salinity on growth and physiology of pinus radiata d. don and eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden were studied in a five-year-old plantation irrigated with salt-enhanced effluent (2.2 ds m(-1)) or freshwater (0.2 ds m(-1)) for 14 weeks during spring and summer. salt was then rapidly leached by over-irrigation with low-salinity effluent. soil water and salinity, tree water stress, sap flux, substrate carbon conversion efficiency, foliage and ste ...199812651343
transpiration and canopy conductance in a eucalypt plantation using shallow saline groundwater.tree water use and canopy conductance were monitored in a 20-year-old eucalyptus grandis w. hill ex maiden and eucalyptus camaldulensis dehnh. plantation shown to be using shallow saline groundwater. annual water use, obtained from two years of heat pulse measurements of daily water use, was approximately 300 mm for both species with a winter minimum and a weak maximum in spring. canopy conductance obtained from the ratio of daily water use to daily mean vapor pressure deficit (vpd) was low duri ...199812651341
effects of g, a growth regulator from eucalyptus grandis, on photosynthesis.a growth regulator (g; 4-ethyl-1-hydroxy-4,8,8,10,10 pentamethyl-7,9-dioxo-2,3 dioxyabicyclo (4.4.0) decene-5) from eucalyptus grandis (maiden) reduced stomatal conductance and also photosynthetic capacity when fed through the transpiration stream of detached leaves. the concentration of g required for this effect was high (10(-4) molar), but the amount of g taken up (dose) was below the level which has previously been found in e. grandis leaves. similar effects were observed in detached leaves ...198216662322
age-age and trait-trait correlations for eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden and their implications for optimal selection age and design of clonal trials.previous results from seven locations of eucalyptus grandis clonal trials in colombia supported the a priori contention of sub-dividing them into three different environmental zones for testing and deployment. within these zones, the determination of age-age genetic correlations for both height and mean annual increment (mai) showed that strong age-age correlations are present for a rotation age of 6 years starting at 3 years age and, thereafter, suggesting this age as appropriate for selection. ...200312596004
five phloroglucinol-monoterpene adducts from eucalyptus grandis.five new euglobals possessing the phloroglucinol-monoterpene structure, euglobals g8-g12, together with a known euglobal-iic were isolated from the hexane fraction of the methanol extract of the leaves of eucalyptus grandis. euglobal-g8 is an adduct of formyl-isovaleroyl-phloroglucinol and gamma-terpinene whereas -g9, -g10 and -g11 have the same phloroglucinol moiety fused with alpha-terpinene, while euglobal-g12 has terpinolene fused with the same phloroglucinol moiety. the structures of these ...199811711084
gene flow estimation with microsatellites in a malagasy seed orchard of eucalyptus grandis.eucalyptus grandis has a mixed-mating reproductive system. malagasy eucalyptus seed orchards were established 15 years ago with two aims both based on panmixia: open-pollinated seed production and genetic improvement. the panmixia hypothesis has never been confirmed in the seed orchard. from a seedling seed-orchard stand comprising 349 trees and using data obtained with six selected microsatellite markers, paternity analysis was performed for 724 offspring collected on 30 adult trees. paternity ...200312750775
quantitative characterization of a hardwood milled wood lignin by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.the structure of eucalyptus grandis milled wood lignin (mwl) was investigated by 2d 1h-13c hsqc, hmqc, and 1h-1h tocsy correlation nmr techniques and by quantitative 13c nmr as well as by the permanganate oxidation degradation technique. the combination of 2d nmr and quantitative 13c nmr spectroscopy of nonacetylated and acetylated lignin preparations allowed reliable identification and calculation of the amount of different lignin structures. about 85% of side-chain moieties were estimated on t ...200516332110
cryopreservation of axillary buds of a eucalyptus grandis x eucalyptus camaldulensis hybrid.this paper presents preliminary results from a study to develop methodology for the cryopreservation of axillary buds from an in vitro hybrid eucalyptus grandis (w. hill ex maiden.) x eucalyptus camaldulensis (dehnnh.), maintained for use in a genetic modification programme. axillary buds were encapsulated in an alginate gel, precultured on media containing elevated levels of sucrose, or a combination of sucrose and glycerol. encapsulated buds were then dehydrated by evaporation prior to a two-s ...200111788839
relationships between hydraulic architecture and leaf photosynthetic capacity in nitrogen-fertilized eucalyptus grandis trees.we compared the effects of nitrogen fertilization on shoot hydraulic architecture and leaf photosynthetic properties of eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden trees in hawaii. it was hypothesized that water transport capacity would adjust to nutrient availability, with leaf specific hydraulic conductivity (kl) increasing in fertilized trees in coordination with higher photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area. trees were grown from seedlings in the field for 10 months at four rates of nitrogen (n) f ...200111446997
evaluation of acute toxicity and genotoxicity of liquid products from pyrolysis of eucalyptus grandis wood.slow pyrolysis of eucalyptus grandis wood was performed in an oven laboratory, and smoke was trapped and condensed to yield liquid products. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) and phenolic fractions were isolated from the former liquid products using adsorption column chromatography (acc) and identified by gc/ms. concentrations of pah and phenolic fractions in total pyrolysis liquids were respectively 48.9 microg/g and 8.59% (w/w). acute toxicity of total samples of pyrolysis liquids and th ...200010629278
larvicidal effect of eucalyptus grandis essential oil and turpentine and their major components on aedes aegypti larvae.in the search for new alternatives for the control of aedes aegypti the larvicidal activity of eucalyptus grandis essential oil and pine resin essential oil (turpentine) and their major components (alpha- and beta-pinene and 1,8-cineole) was determined. gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of e. grandis essential oil revealed that its major components are alpha-pinene and 1,8-cineole. similar analysis of turpentine obtained by distillation of the resin pitch of conifers showed that alph ...200717939510
relationship between density and ultrasonic velocity in brazilian tropical woods.in this study, the effect of density on the velocity of an ultrasonic wave in wood is investigated. the aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of density on the longitudinal velocity of an ultrasonic wave, propagated in the longitudinal direction. experiments were conducted on 5cm x 5cm x 5cm wood specimens selected from the following species: pinus caribea (pinus caribea var. caribea), eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus citriodora), eucalyptus grandis (eucalyptus grandis), cupiúba ...200616311030
[distribution pattern of meso-micro soil fauna in eucalyptus grandis plantation].in this paper, meso-micro soil fauna were extracted and collected by baermann's and tullgren' s method, and their distribution pattern in the eucalyptus grandis plantation of hongya county, sichuan province was studied. a total of 13 550 specimens were collected, belonging to 6 phyla, 13 classes, and 26 orders. acarina, nematoda, collembola were the dominant groups, and enchytraeidae was the frequent one. the group and individual numbers of meso-micro soil fauna varied with seasons, being the ma ...200617330474
six new cellulose synthase genes from eucalyptus are associated with primary and secondary cell wall biosynthesis.higher plants contain a family of cellulose synthase catalytic subunit (cesa) genes that encode components of an enzyme complex embedded in the cell membrane. recent studies in several higher plant species have demonstrated that two groups of cesa genes exist, associated with either primary or secondary cell wall deposition. we cloned six full-length cesa cdnas from eucalyptus grandis w. hill ex maiden (egcesa1 through 6) and determined their expression patterns in a variety of organs from an ad ...200616452068
aurapex penicillata gen. sp. nov. from native miconia theaezans and tibouchina spp. in colombia.conidiomata of a fungus resembling chrysoporthe cubensis, a serious canker pathogen of eucalyptus spp. (myrtaceae, myrtales) in tropical and subtropical parts of the world, was found on eucalyptus grandis in colombia. fruiting structures of the fungus could be distinguished from those of c. cubensis by their distinctly orange conidiomatal necks. this fungus also was found on several plant species native to colombia including tibouchina urvilleana, t. lepidota and miconia theaezans (melastomatace ...200616800308
boron impregnation treatment of eucalyptus grandis wood.eucalyptus grandis is suitable for small timber purposes, but its wood is reported to be non-durable and difficult to treat. boron compounds being diffusible, and the vacuum-pressure impregnation (vpi) method being more suitable for industrial-scale treatment, the possibility of boron impregnation of partially dry to green timber was investigated using a 6% boric acid equivalent (bae) solution of boric acid and borax in the ratio 1:1.5 under different treatment schedules. it was found that e. gr ...200717046244
development and assessment of microarray-based dna fingerprinting in eucalyptus grandis.development of improved eucalyptus genotypes involves the routine identification of breeding stock and superior clones. currently, microsatellites and random amplified polymorphic dna markers are the most widely used dna-based techniques for fingerprinting of these trees. while these techniques have provided rapid and powerful fingerprinting assays, they are constrained by their reliance on gel or capillary electrophoresis, and therefore, relatively low throughput of fragment analysis. in contra ...200415290050
coordinated genetic regulation of growth and lignin revealed by quantitative trait locus analysis of cdna microarray data in an interspecific backcross of eucalyptus.phenotypic, genotypic, and transcript level (microarray) data from an interspecific backcross population of eucalyptus grandis and eucalyptus globulus were integrated to dissect the genetic and metabolic network underlying growth variation. transcript abundance, measured for 2,608 genes in the differentiating xylem of a 91 (e. grandis x e. globulus) x e. grandis backcross progeny was correlated with diameter variation, revealing coordinated down-regulation of genes encoding enzymes of the lignin ...200415299141
responses of eucalypt species to aluminum: the possible involvement of low molecular weight organic acids in the al tolerance mechanism.aluminum (al) tolerance mechanisms in crop plants have been extensively researched, but our understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying al tolerance in trees is still limited. to investigate al tolerance in eucalypts, seedlings of six species (eucalyptus globulus labill., eucalyptus urophylla s.t. blake, eucalyptus dunnii maiden, eucalyptus saligna sm., eucalyptus cloeziana f. j. muell. and eucalyptus grandis w. hill ex maiden) and seedlings of six clones of eucalyptus species were ...200415339736
phenol adsorption onto powdered and granular activated carbon, prepared from eucalyptus wood.eucalyptus grandis sawdust, a major waste from the growing uruguayan wood industry, was used in previous work to prepare powdered activated carbon (pac). in the present work, granular activated carbon (gac) was prepared by mixing pac, carboxymethyl cellulose as a binder, and kaolin as reinforcer. ultimate analysis and surface characterization of gac and pac were performed. phenol adsorption was used as a way to compare the characteristics of different pac and gac preparations. kinetics and isoth ...200415464799
13c-nmr study of the ruthenium(ii)-catalyzed degradation of labeled g-factor endoperoxides: proposal of a likely biogenetic pathway and evidence for co2 release.g-factor endoperoxides are natural products acting as phytohormones and contribute to root inhibition and frost resistance in eucalyptus grandis and other myrtaceae. several (z)- and (e)-configured cyclopentane-1,3-dione metabolites of g-factors have been found in some eucalyptus extracts. interestingly, these probable metabolites are identical to the products obtained by ru(ii)-catalyzed reduction of g-factors. in the present work, we, thus, studied the mechanism involved in the formation of th ...200617193272
hydroxymethylation and oxidation of organosolv lignins and utilization of the products.organosolv lignins obtained from eucalyptus grandis, sugarcane bagasse and picea abies by acetosolv, formacell and organocell processes were characterized, fractionated and converted to hydroxymethylated and oxidized products. the reactivity of lignins with formaldehyde did not improve significantly with the fractionation. both eucalyptus acetosolv (eac) and eucalyptus formacell (efo) lignins retained high heterogeneity in relation to the molecular weight distribution but not in relation to stru ...200111480918
drought tolerance, growth partitioning and vigor in eucalypt seedlings and rooted cuttings.to clarify the physiological basis of productivity differences among rooted cuttings and seedlings of eucalypt species, relationships between morphology and water relations were examined in 4-month-old seedlings of eucalyptus grandis w. hill ex maiden, e. urophylla s.t. blake and e. cloeziana f. muell. and in 4-month-old rooted cuttings of three e. grandis cultivars. four-month-old seedlings had greater dry weights, lower leaf area/root dry weight (la/rdw) ratios and lower shoot/root dry weight ...198814972803
effects of purified endo-beta-1,4-xylanases of family 10 and 11 and acetyl xylan esterases on eucalypt sulfite dissolving pulp.sulfite dissolving pulp from eucalyptus grandis contained approximately 3.8% o-acetyl-4-o-methylglucuronoxylan with a molar ratio of xylose:4-o-methylglucuronic acid:acetyl group close to 13.6:1:6.2. the effects produced by purified endo-xylanases from two different glycosyl hydrolase families (family 10 and 11) as well as acetyl xylan esterases were examined and assessed on pulp in relation to their bleaching abilities. the purified endo-xylanases hydrolyzed only a limited portion (less than 30 ...200011051420
power of microsatellite markers for fingerprinting and parentage analysis in eucalyptus grandis breeding populations.we report the genetic analysis of 192 unrelated individuals of an elite breeding population of eucalyptus grandis (hill ex maiden) with a selected set of six highly polymorphic microsatellite markers developed for species of the genus eucalyptus. a full characterization of this set of six loci was carried out generating allele frequency distributions that were used to estimate parameters of genetic information content of these loci, including expected heterozygosity, polymorphism information con ...200415601907
leaf phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations and net photosynthesis in eucalyptus seedlings.seedlings of eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden, e. pilularis smith and e. gummifera (sol. ex gaertner) hochr. were grown in solution culture with 100 micromol phosphorus (p). after eight weeks, half of the seedlings were transferred to solution cultures containing 1 micromol p. after a further four weeks, growth, net photosynthesis and foliar p and nitrogen (n) concentrations were measured. the seeds of e. grandis came from a relatively fertile site and those of the other two species from phosph ...198914972983
genetics of postzygotic isolation in eucalyptus: whole-genome analysis of barriers to introgression in a wide interspecific cross of eucalyptus grandis and e. globulus.the genetic architecture of hybrid fitness characters can provide valuable insights into the nature and evolution of postzygotic reproductive barriers in diverged species. we determined the genome-wide distribution of barriers to introgression in an f(1) hybrid of two eucalyptus tree species, eucalyptus grandis (w. hill ex maiden.) and e. globulus (labill.). two interspecific backcross families (n = 186) were used to construct comparative, single-tree, genetic linkage maps of an f(1) hybrid indi ...200415082559
the influence of pulping and washing conditions on the properties of eucalyptus grandis unbleached kraft pulps treated with chelants.the influence of different addition points of a chelating agent and a counter-ion exchange on the properties of eucalyptus grandis unbleached kraft pulps is studied. seven pulps were considered: two laboratory kraft pulps with or without the inclusion of the chelant dtpmpa (diethylene triamine penta (methylene phosphonic acid)), a mill kraft pulp and four mill pulps after ca(+2) or na(+) counter-ion exchange followed, or not, by washing with dtpmpa addition. the laboratory pulps required lower b ...201019880316
temperature effects on wood anatomy, wood density, photosynthesis and biomass partitioning of eucalyptus grandis seedlings.wood density, a gross measure of wood mass relative to wood volume, is important in our understanding of stem volume growth, carbon sequestration and leaf water supply. disproportionate changes in the ratio of wood mass to volume may occur at the level of the whole stem or the individual cell. in general, there is a positive relationship between temperature and wood density of eucalypts, although this relationship has broken down in recent years with wood density decreasing as global temperature ...200717241967
two-step liquid hot water pretreatment of eucalyptus grandis to enhance sugar recovery and enzymatic digestibility of cellulose.a two-step liquid hot water pretreatment (tslhw) was developed with the objective of achieving complete saccharification of both hemicellulose and cellulose of eucalyptus grandis, thereby avoiding the problems associated with the use of strong acid catalysts. the first step of the pretreatment was studied in the temperature range 180-200 degrees c, and the highest yield of total xylose achieved was 86.4% after 20 min at 180 degrees c. the second-step of the pretreatment was studied in the temper ...201020004094
lumber quality of eucalyptus grandis as a function of diametrical position and log steaming.the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of log steaming and of the diametrical position of boards on the timber quality of eucalyptus grandis. logs with diameters between 20 and 25 cm, between 25 and 30 cm and between 30 and 35 cm were studied. half of logs were kept in its original condition, and the other half was steamed at 90 degrees c for 20 h. later, the logs were cut into flat saw boards, and defects due to growth stress relief were measured. the results show that: (1) boar ...201020007016
why does phosphorus limitation increase wood density in eucalyptus grandis seedlings?wood density influences both the physiological function and economic value of tree stems. we examined the relationship between phosphorus (p) supply and stem wood density of eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden seedlings grown with varying soil p additions and determined how changes in wood anatomy and biomass partitioning affect the relationship. plant height, stem diameter and total biomass increased by 400-500% with increasing p supply. stem wood density decreased sharply from 520 to 380 kg m(-3 ...200616203712
[ecological distribution patterns of soil microbes under artificial eucalyptus grandis stand].in order to find out the ecological distribution patterns of soil microbes under artificial eucalyptus grandis stand, the amount and distribution of soil bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in hongya county of sichuan province were investigated in 2004. the results showed that soil microbial population under eucalyptus grandis stand varied with seasons, being the maximum in autumn, fewer in spring, and the minimum in summer. the numbers were decreased in order of bacteria > actinomycetes > fungi, ...200516262052
interspecific hybridization of eucalyptus as a potential tool to improve the bioactivity of essential oils against permethrin-resistant head lice from argentina.the essential oils extracted from eucalyptus grandis, eucalyptus camaldulensis, eucalyptus tereticornis, and the hybrids e. grandisxe. camaldulensis, and e. grandisxe. tereticornis were analyzed by gc-ms, and evaluated for their fumigant and repellent effects on permethrin-resistant head lice. fumigant activity of both hybrids was higher than that for pure species. e. grandisxe. tereticornis and e. grandisxe. camaldulensis showed kt50 values of 12.99 and 13.63min, respectively. e. grandis, e. ca ...200818261899
automation of solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry extraction of eucalyptus volatiles.solid-phase microextraction (spme) coupled with gas chromatography (gc)-ion-trap mass spectrometry (itms) is employed to analyze fragrance compounds from different species of eucalyptus trees: eucalyptus dunnii, eucalyptus saligna, eucalyptus grandis, and hybrids of other species. the analyses are performed using an automated system for preincubation, extraction, injection, and analysis of samples. the autosampler used is a combipal and has much flexibility for the development of spme methods an ...200211954651
proteomic analysis of the cambial region in juvenile eucalyptus grandis at three ages.recent advances in genomics and proteomics have provided an excellent opportunity to understand complex biological processes such as wood formation at the gene and protein levels. the aim of this work was to describe the proteins participating in the processes involved in juvenile wood formation by isolating proteins from the cambial region of eucalyptus grandis, at three ages of growth (6-month-old seedlings, 3- and 6-year-old trees), and also to identify proteins differentially expressed. usin ...200717533644
egmyb2, a new transcriptional activator from eucalyptus xylem, regulates secondary cell wall formation and lignin biosynthesis.summary egmyb2, a member of a new subgroup of the r2r3 myb family of transcription factors, was cloned from a library consisting of rna from differentiating eucalyptus xylem. egmyb2 maps to a unique locus on the eucalyptus grandis linkage map and co-localizes with a quantitative trait locus (qtl) for lignin content. recombinant egmyb2 protein was able to bind specifically the cis-regulatory regions of the promoters of two lignin biosynthetic genes, cinnamoyl-coenzyme a reductase (ccr) and cinnam ...200516098109
optimization of acid hydrolysis from the hemicellulosic fraction of eucalyptus grandis residue using response surface methodology.biotechnological conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals requires hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction into monomeric sugars. hydrolysis can be performed enzymatically and with dilute or concentrate mineral acids. the present study used dilute sulfuric acid as a catalyst for hydrolysis of eucalyptus grandis residue. the purpose of this paper was to optimize the hydrolysis process in a 1.4 l pilot-scale reactor and investigate the effects of the acid concentration, temperature and res ...200716473004
genetic mapping in eucalyptus urophylla and eucalyptus grandis using rapd markers.two single-tree linkage maps were constructed for eucalyptus urophylla and eucalyptus grandis, based on the segregation of 480 random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers in a f1 interspecific progeny. a mixture of three types of single-locus segregations were observed: 244 1:1 female, 211 1:1 male, and 25 markers common to both, segregating 3:1. markers segregating in the 1:1 ratio (testcross loci) were used to establish separate maternal and paternal maps, while markers segregating in the ...199618469954
eucalyptus applied genomics: from gene sequences to breeding tools.eucalyptus is the most widely planted hardwood crop in the tropical and subtropical world because of its superior growth, broad adaptability and multipurpose wood properties. plantation forestry of eucalyptus supplies high-quality woody biomass for several industrial applications while reducing the pressure on tropical forests and associated biodiversity. this review links current eucalypt breeding practices with existing and emerging genomic tools. a brief discussion provides a background to mo ...200818537893
an accurate and non-labor intensive method for the determination of syringyl to guaiacyl ratio in lignin.the syringyl to guaiacyl (s:g) ratio of hardwood lignin has long been identified as a significant parameter in delignification processes and more recent results have shown that it is also important in determining the amount of ethanol that can be obtained from fermentation of hydrolyzed wood. acidolysis of klason or acid insoluble lignin in dioxane/water/hcl was being investigated when syringyl and guaiacyl nuclei with a diketone-containing sidechain were observed as the major products. the area ...200919576762
methyl jasmonate does not induce changes in eucalyptus grandis leaves that alter the effect of constitutive defences on larvae of a specialist herbivore.the up-regulation of secondary metabolic pathways following herbivore attack and the subsequent reduction in herbivore performance have been identified in numerous woody plant species. eucalypts constitutively express many secondary metabolites in the leaves, including terpenes and formylated phloroglucinol compounds (fpcs). we used clonal ramets from six clones of eucalyptus grandis and two clones of e. grandis x camaldulensis to determine if methyl jasmonate (meja) treatment could induce chang ...200818481100
high-throughput gene and snp discovery in eucalyptus grandis, an uncharacterized genome.benefits from high-throughput sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology may be most apparent for species with high societal or economic value but few genomic resources. rapid means of gene sequence and snp discovery using this novel sequencing technology provide a set of baseline tools for genome-level research. however, it is questionable how effective the sequencing of large numbers of short reads for species with essentially no prior gene sequence information will support contig assembli ...200818590545
plants used for treating respiratory infections in rural maputaland, kwazulu-natal, south africa.traditional remedies are frequently used in treating various respiratory ailments, and are very important in the primary health care of the people living in rural maputaland, kwazulu-natal, south africa. novel information gathered from surveys like the present study is important in preserving indigenous knowledge.201121497646
weak chemiluminescence emission during base induced rearrangement of g-factors.a rearrangement in basic medium of the natural endoperoxide g3-factor extracted from eucalyptus grandis is described. evidence to support a 1,2-dioxetane intermediate that decomposes with weak luminescence emission (quantum yield) is presented.200818219413
use of biochar as bulking agent for the composting of poultry manure: effect on organic matter degradation and humification.the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of biochar (produced by slow pyrolysis of eucalyptus grandis biomass) as bulking agent for the composting of poultry manure. three composting mixtures were prepared by the turned-pile system by mixing poultry manure with different organic wastes used as bulking agent (biochar, coffee husk and sawdust) in a proportion of 1:1 (fresh weight). despite the inert nature of biochar, the composting mixture prepared with biochar underwent an organic matter de ...201019796932
genetic control of eucalyptus urophylla and e. grandis resistance to canker caused by chrysoporthe cubensis.chrysophorte cubensis induced canker occurs in nearly all tropical and subtropical regions where eucalypts are planted, causing losses in both wood quality and volume productivity, especially so in the warmer and more humid regions of brazil. the wide inter and intra-specific genetic variability of resistance to canker among eucalyptus species facilitates the selection of resistant plants. in this study, we evaluated resistance to this pathogen in five eucalyptus grandis (g) and 15 e. urophylla ...201021637427
characterization of a small cryptic plasmid from endophytic pantoea agglomerans and its use in the construction of an expression vector.a circular cryptic plasmid named ppaga (2,734 bp) was isolated from pantoea agglomerans strain ege6 (an endophytic bacterial isolate from eucalyptus). sequence analysis revealed that the plasmid has a g+c content of 51% and contains four potential orfs, 238(a), 250(b), 131(c), and 129(d) amino acids in length without homology to known proteins. the shuttle vector plgm1 was constructed by combining the ppaga plasmid with pgfpmut3.0 (which harbors a gene encoding green fluorescent protein, gfp), a ...201121637551
cloning and endogenous expression of a eucalyptus grandis udp-glucose dehydrogenase cdna.udp-glucose dehydrogenase (ugdh) catalyzes the oxidation of udp-glucose (udp-glc) to udp-glucuronate (udp-glca), a key sugar nucleotide involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides. a full-length cdna fragment coding for ugdh was cloned from the cambial region of 6-month-old e. grandis saplings by rt-pcr. the 1443-bp-orf encodes a protein of 480 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 53 kda. the recombinant protein expressed in escherichia coli catalyzed the conversi ...201021637578
glyphosate applied at low doses can stimulate plant growth.glyphosate blocks the shikimic acid pathway, inhibiting the production of aromatic amino acids and several secondary compounds derived from these amino acids. non-target plants can be exposed to low doses of glyphosate by herbicide drift of spray droplets and contact with treated weeds. previous studies have reported that low doses of glyphosate stimulate growth, although these data are very limited. the objective of this study was to determine the effects of low glyphosate doses on growth of a ...200818293284
sage transcript profiling of the juvenile cambial region of eucalyptus grandis.despite the importance of eucalyptus spp. in the pulp and paper industry, functional genomic approaches have only recently been applied to understand wood formation in this genus. we attempted to establish a global view of gene expression in the juvenile cambial region of eucalyptus grandis hill ex maiden. the expression profile was obtained from serial analysis of gene expression (sage) library data produced from 3- and 6-year-old trees. fourteen-base expressed sequence tags (ests) were searche ...200818381271
[physiological bases of herbages shade-tolerance in eucalyptus grandis and herbage inter-cultivated system].the study on the physiological bases of the shade-tolerance of dactylis glomerata, lolium perenne, and hemarthria compressa inter-cultivated in eucalyptus grandis forests with different canopy densities showed that with increasing canopy density, the light saturation point (lsp), light compensation point (lcp), chlorophyll a/b (chla/chlb), and the contents of proline (pro), soluble sugar (ss) and soluble protein (sp) of the three herbages decreased gradually, but the apparent quantum yield (aqy) ...200819102302
in situ determination of lignin phenolics and wood solubility in imidazolium chlorides using (31)p nmr.corn stover, norway spruce, and eucalyptus grandis were pulverized to different degrees. these samples were subjected to quantitative analyses, upon the basis of predissolution into the imidazolium chloride-based ionic liquids [amim]cl and [bnmim]cl followed by labeling of hydroxyl groups as phosphite esters and quantitative (31)p nmr analysis. analysis of different pulverization degrees provided semiempirical data to chart the solubility of norway spruce in these ionic liquids. further method r ...200919754164
[effects of landscape structure and eucalyptus genotype on the abundance and biological control of glycaspis brimblecombei moore (hemiptera: psyllidae)].glycaspis brimblecombei moore is an australian native pest of eucalyptus detected in brazil in 2003. since then, it has spread fast and colonized plantations in several states of the country. this study aimed to investigate the influence of cerrado remnants on the abundance and biological control of g. brimblecombei. we placed yellow sticky card traps to capture insects in four plantations of hybrid clones of eucalyptus urophylla x eucalyptus grandis ('urograndis') and four plantations of e. uro ...201020305903
differential expression of three eucalyptus secondary cell wall-related cellulose synthase genes in response to tension stress.trees constitute the majority of lignocellulosic biomass existing on our planet. trees also serve as important feedstock materials for various industrial products. however, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of cellulose synthase (cesa) genes of trees. here, the cloning and characterization of three cesa genes (egracesa1, egracesa2, and egracesa3) from an economically important tree species, eucalyptus grandis, are reported. all three genes were specifically expressed in xylem cells ...200818281718
[community structure of soil fauna in eucalyptus grandis plantations at different slope locations].to understand the effects of slope location on the community structure of soil fauna in eucalyptus grandis plantation, an investigation was made on the soil fauna in 3 e. grandis plantations at different slope locations in the hilly area of sichuan province from january to october 2009. a total of 39,2762 individuals were observed, belonging to 146 groups, 7 phyla, 16 classes, and 31 orders. the community composition, trophic group, diversity, and seasonal dynamics of soil fauna in the plantatio ...201021265162
influence of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on leaf lifespan and allocation of above-ground growth in eucalyptus plantations.eucalyptus grandis (w. hill ex maiden) leaf traits and tree growth were studied over 3 years after the establishment of two adjacent complete randomized block designs in southern brazil. in a nitrogen (n) input experiment, a treatment with the application of 120 kg n ha(-1) was compared to a control treatment without n addition, and in a potassium (k) input experiment a control treatment without k addition was compared to a treatment with the application of 116 kg k ha(-1). young leaves were tag ...200919203937
a microarray-based method for the parallel analysis of genotypes and expression profiles of wood-forming tissues in eucalyptus grandis.fast-growing eucalyptus grandis trees are one of the most efficient producers of wood in south africa. the most serious problem affecting the quality and yield of solid wood products is the occurrence of end splitting in logs. selection of e. grandis planting stock that exhibit preferred wood qualities is thus a priority of the south african forestry industry. we used microarray-based dna-amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) analysis in combination with expression profiling to develop f ...200919473481
effect of overexpression of radish plasma membrane aquaporins on water-use efficiency, photosynthesis and growth of eucalyptus trees.eucalyptus is a diverse genus of flowering trees with more than 700 genotypic species which are mostly native to australia. we selected 19 wild provenances of eucalyptus camaldulensis grown in australia, compared their growth rate and drought tolerance and determined the protein levels of plasma membrane aquaporins (pips). there was a positive relationship between the drought tolerance and pip content. pips are divided into two subgroups, pip1 and pip2. most members of the pip2 subgroup, but not ...201020124554
effects of an inducible aiia gene on disease resistance in eucalyptus urophylla × eucalyptus grandis.n-acyl-homoserine lactones (ahls) are metabolites of mostly gram-negative bacteria and are critical signaling molecules in bacterial quorum-sensing systems. at threshold concentrations, ahls can activate the expression of pathogenic genes and induce diseases. therefore, reducing ahl concentrations is a key point of disease control in plants. ahl-lactonase, which is expressed by aiia, is widespread in bacillus sp and can hydrolyze ahls. in the present study, we cloned aiia from bacillus subtilis ...201626905275
new records of the cryphonectriaceae from southern africa including latruncellus aurorae gen. sp. nov.the cryphonectriaceae accommodates some of the world's most important tree pathogens, including four genera known from native and introduced myrtales in africa. surveys in the past 3 y in southern africa have led to the discovery of cankers with fruiting structures resembling those of the cryphonectriaceae on trees in the myrtales in namibia, south africa, swaziland and zambia. these fungi were identified with morphological characteristics and dna sequence data. for the first time we report chry ...201121262988
decay resistance of thermally-modified eucalyptus grandis wood at 140 degrees c, 160 degrees c, 180 degrees c, 200 degrees c and 220 degrees c.the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment on the biological resistance of eucalyptus grandis wood to the decay fungus picnoporus sanguineus. boards from 5 years and 11 months old e. grandis trees, taken from the stock possessed by the duratex-sa company, were thermally-modified at 140 degrees c, 160 degrees c, 180 degrees c, 200 degrees c and 220 degrees c in the laboratory of wood drying and preservation from unesp, botucatu, sp, brazil. samples of each treatme ...201020655200
an antimicrobial evaluation of plants used for the treatment of respiratory infections in rural maputaland, kwazulu-natal, south africa.abundant availability of medicinal plants in the study area offers low cost health care, but scientific validation is needed in order to lend credibility to the traditional use against respiratory infections.201222960551
the eucalyptus grandis nbs-lrr gene family: physical clustering and expression hotspots.eucalyptus grandis is a commercially important hardwood species and is known to be susceptible to a number of pests and pathogens. determining mechanisms of defense is therefore a research priority. the published genome for e. grandis has aided the identification of one important class of resistance (r) genes that incorporate nucleotide binding sites and leucine-rich repeat domains (nbs-lrr). using an iterative search process we identified nbs-lrr gene models within the e. grandis genome. we cha ...201526793216
[decomposition of eucalyptus-alder mixed litters and dynamics of soil faunal community].in order to understand the decomposition characteristics of eucalyptus (eucalyptus grandis) -alder (alnus formosana) mixed litters and the roles of soil fauna in the decomposition process, litter samples of the two tree species were collected from the suji town of leshan, sichuan province, and mixed with different proportions. the mixtures were put in 6-, 30-, and 260-mesh litterbags to investigate their mass loss and the dynamics of soil faunal community during the process of decomposition. dif ...201121774303
behavioral response of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) larvae to synthetic and natural attractants and repellents.aedes aegypti (l.) (diptera: culicidae) is the key vector of three important arboviral diseases: dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya. immature stages of this species inhabit human-made containers placed in residential landscapes. in this study, we evaluated a few compounds in a sensitive behavioral assay with ae. aegypti larvae. the orientation of larvae to different compounds was surveyed using a performance index (pi). the pi represents the response to each odorant, where a value of +1 is in ...201526352935
population genetic analysis and phylogeny reconstruction in eucalyptus (myrtaceae) using high-throughput, genome-wide genotyping.a set of over 8000 diversity arrays technology (dart) markers was tested for its utility in high-resolution population and phylogenetic studies across a range of eucalyptus taxa. small-scale population studies of eucalyptus camaldulensis, eucalyptus cladocalyx, eucalyptus globulus, eucalyptus grandis, eucalyptus nitens, eucalyptus pilularis and eucalyptus urophylla demonstrated the potential of genome-wide genotyping with dart markers to differentiate species, to identify interspecific hybrids a ...201121310251
a high-density transcript linkage map with 1,845 expressed genes positioned by microarray-based single feature polymorphisms (sfp) in eucalyptus.abstract:201121492453
main lepidopteran pest species from an eucalyptus plantation in minas gerais, brazil.lepidoptera species were monitored in a plantation of eucalyptus grandis in the municipality of bom despacho, state of minas gerais, brazil from march 1987 to february 1992. a total of 547 species were collected and divided in: primary pests: 13; secondary pests: 20; species without defined importance to eucalyptus: 79; and non-identified species: 435. these four groups had a mean of 5231.29; 338.18; 438.16 and 2222.87 individuals with a total of 8229.87 individuals collected per trap. the numbe ...200618494322
[effects of fertilization level on diurnal variation of gas exchange of young eucalyptus grandis leaf].different levels (0, 90, 180, and 270 g per tree) of compound fertilizer containing 15% n, 15% p2o5, and 15% k2o were applied to young eucalyptus grandis to study the diurnal variations of its leaf stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular co2 concentration (ci), net photosynthesis rate (pn), transpiration rate (tr), water use efficiency (wue), and vapor pressure deficit on leaf surface (vpdl) as well as the variation of leaf chlorophyll content, aimed to approach the relationships of e. grandis ...201021360993
a snare-like superfamily protein sbslsp from the halophyte salicornia brachiata confers salt and drought tolerance by maintaining membrane stability, k(+)/na(+) ratio, and antioxidant machinery.about 1000 salt-responsive ests were identified from an extreme halophyte salicornia brachiata. among these, a novel salt-inducible gene sbslsp (salicornia brachiata snare-like superfamily protein), showed up-regulation upon salinity and dehydration stress. the presence of cis-regulatory motifs related to abiotic stress in the putative promoter region supports our finding that sbslsp gene is inducible by abiotic stress. the sbslsp protein showed a high sequence identity to hypothetical/uncharact ...201627313584
insecticidal activity of essential oils from eleven eucalyptus spp. and two hybrids: lethal and sublethal effects of their major components on blattella germanica.the aim of the current study was to evaluate the fumigant activity of the essential oils from 11 species of the genus eucalyptus and two of their hybrids on first instar of blattella germanica l. the fumigant activity and repellence of the four major monoterpene components of these essential oils also were tested. fumigant activity was evaluated by exposing nymphs to the vapors emitted by 50 microl of essential oil or monoterpene in a closed container. the lowest knockdown time 50% (kt50) values ...201121510210
[rapid evaluation of ant diversity in land use systems in southern bahia, brazil].we aimed to compare the soil ant diversity in different land use systems from atlantic forest area, in southern bahia state, brazil. the ants were sampled in 16 sites: two primary forest sites (un-logged forest); three young secondary forests (<8 years old); three intermediate secondary forests (8-20 years old); three old secondary forests (>20 years old); three eucalyptus grandis plantations (3-7 years old), and two introduced pastures. each site was sampled in three sampling points 15 m apart, ...201020877979
molecular weight distributions and linkages in lignocellulosic materials derivatized from ionic liquid media.a novel and reproducible method is described for accurately determining the molecular weight distribution by size exclusion chromatography (sec) of whole lignocellulosic materials. this approach offers the opportunity to compare the molecular weight distributions of intact milled woods and its component fractions, lignins and holocelluloses, all from the same source, thus highlighting the potential of the technique and the contributions of the individual components to the chromatogram. the metho ...201121235206
correspondence between performance of eucalyptus spp trees selected from family and clonal tests.we examined the correspondence in performance between trees selected from a family test and their respective clones from a clonal test of eucalyptus. full-sib families were obtained from controlled pollination among individuals of eucalyptus grandis and between e. grandis and e. urophylla. the hybridizations did not follow a factorial scheme. the family tests were carried out at three locations in eun+ípolis and itabela counties, in bahia, brazil, in 2003. four hundred and ninety-seven high-perf ...201121732281
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