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hydrolysis of plant cuticle by plant pathogens. properties of cutinase i, cutinase ii, and a nonspecific esterase isolated from fusarium solani pisi.the properties of the homogeneous cutinase i, cutinase ii, and the nonspecific esterase isolated from the extracellular fluid of cutin-grown fusarium solani f. pisi (r.e. purdy and p.e. kolattukudy (1975), biochemistry, preceding paper in this issue) were investigated. using tritiated apple cutin as substrate, the two cutinases showed similar substrate concentration dependence, protein concentration dependence, time course profiles, and ph dependence profiles with optimum near 10.0. using unlabe ...1975239740
detection of mutagens produced by fungi with the salmonella typhimurium assay.forty-one fungal isolates (one isolate per species) representing common plant pathogens and food crop contaminants were grown on sterile, polished rice and assayed for mutagenic activity in the salmonella typhimurium-microsome system. initially, single doses of aqueous and chloroform extracts of the moldy rice were assayed against the ta100 tester strain by incorporating extracts into the growth medium and by applying small quantities on disks placed on the agar surface. suspected activity was e ...1978354528
induction of a biopolyester hydrolase (cutinase) by low levels of cutin monomers in fusarium solani f.sp. pisi.cutin hydrolysate induced the production of an extracellular cutinase by glucose-grown fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. the rate of production depended on the amount of cutin hydrolysate added up to 80 mug/ml, and saturation was attained at this level. glucose was found to be a repressor of cutinase production. a radial immunodiffusion assay for cutinase was developed, and the induction of cutinase by cutin hydrolysate was confirmed by this direct assay. when cutinase was induced by cutin hydrolysat ...1978415052
lipid body content and persistence of chlamydospores of fusarium solani in soil.chlamydospores of fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. low or high in lipid content, were produced in soil from "low and high reserve" macroconidia, respectively. the development of "low and high reserve" populations of macroconidia and chlamydospores in soil was studied. the rate of conversion of macroconidia into chlamydospores is influenced by the lipid content of the macroconidia. the long-term persistence of chlamydospores in soil seems to be independent of the lipid content of the chlamydospore ce ...1978754878
hydrolysis of plant cuticle by plant pathogens. purification, amino acid composition, and molecular weight of two isozymes of cutinase and a nonspecific esterase from fusarium solani f. pisi.the extracellular fluid of the plant pathogen, fusarium solani f. pisi, grown on the plant cuticular polymer, cutin, was shown to contain cutinase and p-nitrophenyl palmitate hydrolase activities (r.e. purdy and p.e. kolattukudy (1973), arch. biochem. biophys. 159, 61). from this extracellular fluid two isozymes of cutinase and a nonspecific esterase (p-nitrophenyl palmitate hydrolase) were isolated using sephedex g-100 gel filtration, qae-sephadex chromatography, and se-sephedex chromatography. ...19751156575
in vitro effect of some antibiotics on the growth and respiration of fusarium solani f. pisi. 19751236090
cutinase is not required for fungal pathogenicity on pea.cutinase, a fungal extracellular esterase, has been proposed to be crucial in the early events of plant infection by many pathogenic fungi. to test the long-standing hypothesis that cutinase of nectria haematococca (fusarium solani f sp pisi) is essential to pathogenicity, we constructed cutinase-deficient mutants by transformation-mediated gene disruption of the single cutinase gene of a highly virulent n. haematococca strain. four independent mutants were obtained lacking a functional cutinase ...19921392588
structure of the cutinase gene and detection of promoter activity in the 5'-flanking region by fungal transformation.the cutinase gene from fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (nectria hematococa) was cloned and sequenced. sau3a fragments of genomic dna from the fungus were cloned in a lambda charon 35 vector. when restriction fragments generated from the inserts were screened with 5' and 3' probes from cutinase cdna, a 5.5-kilobase ssti fragment hybridized with both probes, suggesting the presence of the entire cutinase gene. a 2,818-base pair segment was sequenced, revealing a 690-nucleotide open reading frame that ...19892703464
pectate lyase from fusarium solani f. sp. pisi: purification, characterization, in vitro translation of the mrna, and involvement in pathogenicity.since indirect experimental evidence suggested that penetration of fusarium solani f. sp. pisi into its host (pisum sativum) involved pectin-degrading enzymes (w. köller, c. r. allan, and p. e. kolattukudy (1982) physiol, plant pathol. 20, 47-60), direct tests were made for the production of such degradative enzymes by this pathogen. when the organism was grown on pectin, a pectate lyase (ec 4.2.2.2) was released into the media. this lyase was purified to apparent homogeneity from the culture fi ...19873310898
antibiotic activity of the pyrenocines.pyrenocine a, a phytotoxin produced by pyrenochaeta terrestris (hansen) gorenz, walker and larson, possesses general antibiotic activity against plants, fungi, and bacteria. effective doses for 50% inhibition (ed50s) are 4 micrograms/ml for onion seedling elongation; 14, 20, 20, and 25 micrograms/ml for the germination of asexual spores of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae, fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, mucor hiemalis, and rhizopus stolonifer, respectively. pyrenocine a also inhibits the linear myc ...19873594310
[plants affecting the phytopathogenic fungi. iv. fusarium solani f. pisi (jones) snyd. et hans]. 19705535932
cloning of a new pectate lyase gene pelc from fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (nectria haematococca, mating type vi) and characterization of the gene product expressed in pichia pastoris.antibodies prepared against a pectate lyase (pla) produced by a phytopathogenic fungus fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (nectria haematococca, mating type vi) were previously found to protect the host against infection. the cdna and gene (pela) for pla were cloned and sequenced. a new pectate lyase gene, pelc, was isolated from a genomic library of f. solani pisi with pela cdna as a probe. a 1.3-kb dna fragment containing the pelc gene and its flanking regions was identified and sequenced. the coding ...19957487098
induction of a tomato anionic peroxidase gene (tap1) by wounding in transgenic tobacco and activation of tap1/gus and tap2/gus chimeric gene fusions in transgenic tobacco by wounding and pathogen attack.the anionic peroxidase genes of tomato, tap1 and tap2, are induced by wounding in tomato fruits and by elicitor treatment in cell suspension cultures. these homologous genes code for anionic peroxidases that are postulated to cause polymerization of the phenolic residues into wall polymers in wound-healing and pathogen-infected tissues. an expression construct containing the entire tap1 gene with its 5' and 3' flanking sequences was introduced into tobacco by agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated g ...19937678769
construction of a recombinant wine yeast strain expressing a fungal pectate lyase gene.a gene fusion between the saccharomyces cerevisiae actin gene promoter and the cdna of the fusarium solani f. sp. pisi pela gene has been constructed. this expression cassette has been introduced into the industrial wine yeast strain t73. the resulting recombinant strain is able to secrete active pela enzyme into the culture medium. in preliminary microvinification experiments the wine produced by this pectinolytic strain is indistinguishable from wine produced using the non-transformed strain o ...19957729670
cloning and expression of cdna encoding a protein that binds a palindromic promoter element essential for induction of fungal cutinase by plant cutin.previous studies showed that a palindromic sequence located at -159 base pairs is essential for induction of cutinase gene in fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (nectria haematococca mating type vi) by the hydroxy fatty acids from plant cutin and that a 50-kda nuclear protein binds to a promoter that contains this element. screening of a phage lambda gt11 expression library with the concatenated palindromic sequence as the probe identified a cdna encoding a palindrome-binding protein (pbp). nucleotide ...19957744822
identification of elements in the pda1 promoter of nectria haematococca necessary for a high level of transcription in vitro.expression of the pda1 gene in the ascomycete nectria haematococca mpvi (anamorph: fusarium solani) is induced by exposure of mycelium to pisatin, an isoflavonoid phytoalexin produced by its host plant, garden pea. the pda1 gene encodes a cytochrome p-450 monooxygenase which detoxifies pisatin. regulatory elements controlling transcription from the pda1 promoter were identified using a homologous nectria in vitro transcription system through analysis of 5' deletions, specific oligonucleotide com ...19968569685
cloning of cutinase transcription factor 1, a transactivating protein containing cys6zn2 binuclear cluster dna-binding motif.hydroxy fatty acids from plant cutin were shown previously to induce the expression of the cutinase gene via a palindromic sequence located at -159 base pairs of the cutinase gene in fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (nectria hematococca mating type vi). of the two overlapping palindromes in this sequence, palindrome 2 was found to be essential for the inducibility of cutinase by hydroxy fatty acids. screening of a phage expression library with the concatenated palindrome 2 as probe detected a distinc ...19979139694
cloning and expression of cdna encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase from a phytopathogenic filamentous fungus.we have cloned a mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) designated fusarium solani f. sp. pisi mitogen-activated protein kinase (fsmapk) from the phytopathogenic filamentous fungus f. solani f. sp. pisi t8 strain. a single open reading frame (orf) of 1068 bp encoding a polypeptide of 355 amino acids (aa) with a predicted molecular mass of 41,194 da was found in the cloned 1583-bp cdna insert. fsmapk is highly homologous to spk1 of fission yeast, fus3 of budding yeast, mserk1 of alfalfa, sur-1 o ...19979305760
cloning and characterization of pl1 encoding an in planta-secreted pectate lyase of fusarium oxysporum.a pectate lyase (pl1) from the tomato vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici was previously characterized, and evidence was obtained for its production in planta. the gene encoding pl1 was isolated from a genomic library of f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. pl1 encodes a 240 amino-acid polypeptide with one putative n-glycosylation site and a 15 amino-acid n-terminal signal peptide. pl1 showed 89%, 67%, 55% and 56% identity with the products of the fusarium solani f.sp. pisi p ...199910022947
cutinase: from molecular level to bioprocess development.this review analyzes the role of cutinases in nature and their potential biotechnological applications. the cloning and expression of a fungal cutinase, fusarium solani f. pisi, in escherichia coli and saccharomyces cerevisiae hosts are described. the three-dimensional structure of this cutinase is also analyzed and its function as a lipase is discussed and compared with other lipases. the biocatalytic applications of cutinase are described taking into account the preparation of different cutina ...199910556791
deduced amino-acid sequence and possible catalytic residues of a novel pectate lyase from an alkaliphilic strain of bacillus.the nucleotide sequence of the gene for a highly alkaline, low-molecular-mass pectate lyase (pel-15) from an alkaliphilic bacillus isolate was determined. it harbored an open reading frame of 672 bp encoding the mature enzyme of 197 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 20 924 da. the deduced amino-acid sequence of the mature enzyme showed very low homology (< 20.4% identity) to those of known pectinolytic enzymes in the large pectate lyase superfamily (the polysaccharide lyase family 1 ...200010759850
transgenic arabidopsis plants expressing a fungal cutinase show alterations in the structure and properties of the cuticle and postgenital organ fusions.a major structural component of the cuticle of plants is cutin. analysis of the function of cutin in vivo has been limited because no mutants with specific defects in cutin have been characterized. therefore, transgenic arabidopsis plants were generated that express and secrete a cutinase from fusarium solani f sp pisi. arabidopsis plants expressing the cutinase in the extracellular space showed an altered ultrastructure of the cuticle and an enhanced permeability of the cuticle to solutes. in a ...200010810146
regulation of constitutively expressed and induced cutinase genes by different zinc finger transcription factors in fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (nectria haematococca).cutin monomers, generated by the low levels of constitutively expressed cutinase, induce high levels of cutinase that can help pathogenic fungi to penetrate into the host through the cuticle whose major structural polymer is cutin. we cloned three highly homologous cutinase genes, cut1, cut2, and cut3, from fusarium solani f. pisi (nectria haematococca). amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of cut1 and cut2/3 matched with that of the peptides from cutinase 1 and cutinase 2, r ...200211756444
monacrosporium janus sp. nov., a new nematode-trapping hyphomycete parasitizing sclerotia and hyphae of sclerotinia sclerotiorum.during an investigation of mycoparasitic fungi on sclerotia of sclerotinia sclerotiorum in china, a new fungal species was consistently encountered and isolated from natural soils taken from soybean fields of shandong and jiangsu provinces. the fungus is featured by its sphaeroid conidia with 1-2 transverse septa, but mostly (>65%) with only one septum at the base. it resembles monacrosporium indicum, m. sphaeroides and m. sinense, but can be distinguished from the first two species by lack of b ...200312967217
an analysis of the phylogenetic distribution of the pea pathogenicity genes of nectria haematococca mpvi supports the hypothesis of their origin by horizontal transfer and uncovers a potentially new pathogen of garden pea: neocosmospora boniensis.the filamentous fungus nectria haematococca mating population vi (mpvi) contains a cluster of genes required to cause disease on pea. this cluster of pea pathogenicity genes (the pep cluster) is located on a supernumerary chromosome that is dispensable for normal growth in culture. the genes in the pep cluster have a different g+c content and codon usage compared with the genes located on the other chromosomes and a non-homogeneous distribution within the species. these features suggest that the ...200415118835
mechanism by which contact with plant cuticle triggers cutinase gene expression in the spores of fusarium solani f. sp. pisi.spores of the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium solani f. sp. pisi were shown to produce the extracellular enzyme, cutinase, only when cutin or cutin hydrolysate was added to the spore suspension. dihydroxy-c(16) acid and trihydroxy-c(18) acid, which are unique cutin monomers, showed the greatest cutinase-inducing activity. experiments with several compounds structurally related to these fatty acids suggested that both a omega-hydroxyl and a midchain hydroxyl are required for cutinase-inducing act ...198616593666
proof for the production of cutinase by fusarium solani f. pisi during penetration into its host, pisum sativum.rabbit antibody to cutinase-i, isolated from fusarium solani f. pisi, was conjugated to ferritin. with this ferritin-conjugated antibody it was shown that germinating spores of this fungus excreted cutinase during the penetration of the host pisum sativum. this result constitutes the most specific and strongest evidence for an enzymic penetration of a plant cuticle by a pathogen during infection.197716660031
glycosidic enzyme activity in pea tissue and pea-fusarium solani interactions.membrane barriers which prevent direct contact between fusarium solani and pea endocarp tissue prevent fungal spores from inducing phytoalexin production. conversely, preinduced host resistance responses are not readily transported from the plant across the membrane barrier to fusarium macroconidia.crude enzyme extracts from pea endocarp tissues partially degrade fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli cell walls. activities of the glycosidic enzymes, chitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase, chitosanase, beta-d-n ...198016661404
antifungal hydrolases in pea tissue : ii. inhibition of fungal growth by combinations of chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase.chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase purified from pea pods acted synergistically in the degradation of fungal cell walls. the antifungal potential of the two enzymes was studied directly by adding protein preparations to paper discs placed on agar plates containing germinated fungal spores. protein extracts from pea pods infected with fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli, which contained high activities of chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase, inhibited growth of 15 out of 18 fungi tested. protein extracts f ...198816666407
fsfks1, the 1,3-beta-glucan synthase from the caspofungin-resistant fungus fusarium solani.the cell wall, a mesh of carbohydrates and proteins, shapes and protects the fungal cell. the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of one of the main components of the fungal wall, 1,3-beta-glucan synthase, is targeted by the antifungal caspofungin acetate (cfa). clinical isolates of candida albicans and aspergillus fumigatus are much more sensitive to cfa than clinical isolates of fusarium species. to better understand cfa resistance in fusarium species, we cloned and sequenced fsfks1, which en ...200616835448
comparison of the hydrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate fibers by a hydrolase from fusarium oxysporum lch i and fusarium solani f. sp. pisi.the hydrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate (pet) fibers by two fungal hydrolases was investigated. the hydrolase from a newly isolated fusarium oxysporum strain (lch 1) was more efficient in releasing terephthalic acid from pet fibers compared to the enzyme from f. solani f. sp. pisi dsm 62420 when equal amounts of p-nitrophenyl butyrate-hydrolyzing activity were employed. pet fabrics treated under the same conditions with the enzyme from f. oxysporum lch 1 also showed a considerably higher in ...200717136729
production of fusarium solani f. sp. pisi cutinase in fusarium venenatum a3/5.fusarium venenatum a3/5 was transformed using the aspergillus niger expression plasmid, pigf, in which the coding sequence for the f. solani f. sp. pisi cutinase gene had been inserted in frame, with a kex2 cleavage site, with the truncated a. niger glucoamylase gene under control of the a. niger glucoamylase promoter. the transformant produced up to 21 u cutinase l(-1) in minimal medium containing glucose or starch as the primary carbon source. glucoamylase (165 u l(-1) or 8 mg l(-1)) was also ...200717505784
ctf1, a transcriptional activator of cutinase and lipase genes in fusarium oxysporum is dispensable for virulence.cutinolytic enzymes are secreted by fungal pathogens attacking the aerial parts of the plant, to facilitate penetration of the outermost cuticular barrier of the host. the role of cutinases in soil-borne root pathogens has not been studied thus far. here we report the characterization of the zinc finger transcription factor ctf1 from the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum, a functional orthologue of ctf1alpha that controls expression of cutinase genes and virulence in the pea stem pathogen ...200818705871
molecular assays reveal the presence and diversity of genes encoding pea footrot pathogenicity determinants in nectria haematococca and in agricultural soils.the aim of this study was to develop molecular assays for investigating the presence and diversity of pathogenicity genes from the pea footrot pathogen nectria haematococca (anamorph fusarium solani f.sp. pisi) in soils.200919226389
characterization of a 20 kda dnase elicitor from fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli and its expression at the onset of induced resistance in pisum sativum.summary dnase released from fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli (fsph dnase) has previously been reported to induce pathogenesis-related (pr) genes, phytoalexin accumulation and disease resistance against subsequent challenge with the true pea pathogen, fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (fspi). this report is a further analysis of dnase production with probes specific for both the gene and protein. n-terminal analysis of the approximately 20 kda fsph dnase protein facilitated both the development of anti- ...200120573002
an abc transporter and a cytochrome p450 of nectria haematococca mpvi are virulence factors on pea and are the major tolerance mechanisms to the phytoalexin pisatin.the fungal plant pathogen nectria haematococca mpvi produces a cytochrome p450 that is responsible for detoxifying the phytoalexin pisatin, produced as a defense mechanism by its host, garden pea. in this study, we demonstrate that this fungus also produces a specific atp-binding cassette (abc) transporter, nhabc1, that enhances its tolerance to pisatin. in addition, although both mechanisms individually contribute to the tolerance of pisatin and act as host-specific virulence factors, mutations ...201121077772
thctf1 transcription factor of trichoderma harzianum is involved in 6-pentyl-2h-pyran-2-one production and antifungal activity.we describe the cloning and characterization of the trichoderma harzianum thctf1 gene, which shows high sequence identity with a transcription factor gene of fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. in t. harzianum, disruption of the thctf1 gene by homologous recombination gave rise to transformants that in plate experiments did not show the yellow pigmentation observed in the wild-type strain. in several trichoderma spp. a yellow pigmentation and a coconut aroma have been related to the production of 6-pen ...200919007898
comparison of soil receptivity to thielaviopsis basicola, aphanomyces euteiches, and fusarium solani f. sp. pisi causing root rot in pea.abstract soil receptivity as a quantifiable characteristic ranging from conduciveness to suppressiveness to soilborne pea pathogens thielaviopsis basicola and aphanomyces euteiches was determined by analysis of differences in disease response curves obtained by artificial introduction of inoculum into natural field soil samples. several parameters, including maximum root rot severity, the area under the health index curve, scores on the first axis of a principal component analysis (pca) on dose ...199718945109
breeding for highly fertile isolates of nectria haematococca mpvi that are highly virulent on pea and in planta selection for virulent recombinants.abstract the heterothallic ascomycete nectria haematococca mating population vi (anamorph fusarium solani) is a broad host range pathogen. field isolates of this fungus that are pathogenic on pea tend to be female sterile, of low fertility, and the same mating type (mat-1), whereas female fertile isolates of either mating type that are highly fertile tend to be nonpathogenic on this plant. to facilitate genetic analysis of traits that may be important in the ability of n. haematococca to parasit ...200118944283
increase of the hydrophilicity of polyethylene terephthalate fibres by hydrolases from thermomonospora fusca and fusarium solani f. sp. pisi.treatment of polyethylene terephthalate fibres with hydrolase preparations from thermomonospora (thermobifida) fusca and fusarium solani f. sp. pisi resulted in an increase of the hydrophilicity of the fibres determined by measurement of their dyeing behaviour with reactive dyes and their water absorption ability. reflectance spectrometry of treated fibres dyed with a reactive dye showed that the colour became more intense corresponding to an increase of hydroxyl groups on the fibre surfaces and ...200616791721
localization of fungal components in the pea-fusarium interaction detected immunochemically with anti-chitosan and anti-fungal cell wall antisera.antisera specific for purified cell walls of fusarium solani f. sp. pisi and phaseoli and of shrimp shell chitosan were utilized as immunochemical probes to determine the location of fungal components in the pea-fusarium interaction.within 15 minutes after inoculation, fungal cell wall components appear to enter the plant cell and to accumulate inside the plant cell wall as fungal growth on the plant tissue is inhibited. the accumulation patterns of chitosan and all components containing hexosam ...198116661621
a binuclear zinc transcription factor binds the host isoflavonoid-responsive element in a fungal cytochrome p450 gene responsible for detoxification.the pda1 gene of the filamentous fungus nectria haematococca mpvi (anamorph: fusarium solani) encodes pisatin demethylase, a cytochrome p450. pisatin is a fungistatic isoflavonoid produced by garden pea (pisum sativum), a host for this fungus. pisatin demethylase detoxifies pisatin and functions as a virulence factor for this fungus. pisatin induces pda1 expression both in cultured mycelia as well as during pathogenesis on pea. the regulatory element within pda1 that provides pisatin-responsive ...200312823815
mitosis and motor proteins in the filamentous ascomycete, nectria haematococca, and some related fungi.among filamentous fungi, mitosis has been studied in-depth in just a few species. the mitotic apparatuses in the ascomycetous fusarium spp. are the most clearly and readily visualized in vivo within this group; fluorescent labeling is unnecessary. this superior cytological tractability has enabled detailed studies and revealing experiments that have led the way toward a more complete understanding of fungal mitosis. some of the most important discoveries include the role of half-spindles in deve ...200211804038
identification of a novel peld gene expressed uniquely in planta by fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (nectria haematococca, mating type vi) and characterization of its protein product as an endo-pectate lyase.antibodies prepared against a pectin-inducible pectate lyase (pla) produced by a phytopathogenic fungus fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (nectria haematococca, mating type vi) were previously found to protect the host from infection. the gene (pela) and two of its homologs were cloned and sequenced. here we report the isolation of a new pectate lyase gene, peld, from a genomic library of f. solani pisi. a 1.5-kb dna fragment containing peld and its flanking regions was sequenced. the nucleotide seque ...19968806739
cloning of a novel constitutively expressed pectate lyase gene pelb from fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (nectria haematococca, mating type vi) and characterization of the gene product expressed in pichia pastoris.since plant-pathogenic fungi must penetrate through pectinaceous layers of the host cell wall, pectin-degrading enzymes are thought to be important for pathogenesis. antibodies prepared against a pectin-inducible pectate lyase (pectate lyase a [pla]) produced by a phytopathogenic fungus, fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (nectria haematococca, mating type vi), was previously found to protect the host from infection. the gene (pela) and its cdna were cloned and sequenced. here we report the isolation o ...19958522511
identification of regulatory elements in the cutinase promoter from fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (nectria haematococca).the cutinase gene from fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (nectria haematococca) is induced upon contact with the plant cuticular polymer, cutin, by the unique hydroxy fatty acid monomers released by cutinase carried by virulent strains of the fungus, and this gene is also catabolite-repressed by glucose. functional elements of the cutinase promoter were studied in vivo by transforming f. solani pisi with fusions of 5'-flanking regions of the cutinase gene and the gene encoding chloramphenicol acetyltr ...19948132657
location of pathogenicity genes on dispensable chromosomes in nectria haematococca mpvi.nectria haematococca mpvi can be found in many different biological habitats but has been most studied as a pathogen of pea (pisum sativum). genetic analyses of isolates obtained from a variety of biological sources has indicated that a number of genes control pathogenicity on pea but that one important pea pathogenicity (pep) gene is pda, which confers the ability to detoxify the pea phytoalexin pisatin. in these studies, all naturally occurring isolates that lacked pda (i.e. pda- isolates) and ...19947847894
mechanism of action of cutinase: chemical modification of the catalytic triad characteristic for serine hydrolases.cutinase from fusarium solani f. sp. pisi was inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate and phenylboronic acid, indicating the involvement of an active serine residue in enzyme catalysis. quantitation of the number of phosphorylated serines showed that modification of one residue resulted in complete loss of enzyme activity. one essential histidine residue was modified with diethyl pyrocarbonate. this residue was buried in native cutinase and became accessible to chemical modification only after ...19826809046
depolymerization of a hydroxy fatty acid biopolymer, cutin, by an extracellular enzyme from fusarium solani f. pisi: isolation and some properties of the enzyme. 19734784475
cutinase in cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus: suppression of cutinase gene expression in isogenic hypovirulent strains containing double-stranded rnas.plant-pathogenic fungi produce cutinase, an enzyme required to degrade plant cuticles and facilitate penetration into the host. the absence of cutinase or a decrease in its production has been associated with a decrease in pathogenicity of the fungus. a set of isogenic strains of cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, was tested for the presence and amounts of cutinase activity. the virulent strain of c. parasitica produced and secreted significantly higher amounts of cutinase tha ...19921406643
isolation and analysis of a novel inducible pectate lyase gene from the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (nectria haematococca, mating population vi).a pectate lyase produced by fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (nectria haematococca, mating population vi) was previously shown to be essential for host infection (m. s. crawford and p. e. kolattukudy, arch. biochem. biophys. 258:196-205, 1987). pectate lyase genes have not been cloned from any phytopathogenic fungi. a gene, designated pela, encoding an inducible pectate lyase was isolated from f. solani f. sp. pisi. a probe was synthesized by polymerase chain reaction with oligonucleotide primers bas ...19921400187
host recognition by pathogenic fungi through plant flavonoids.a common characteristic among fungal pathogens of plants is that each specializes on a narrow range of specific plants as hosts. one adaptation to a specific host plant is the recognition of the host's chemicals which can be used to trigger genes or developmental pathways needed for pathogenesis. the production of characteristic flavonoids by plants, particularly those exuded from roots by legumes, appear to be used as signals for various microbes, including symbionts as well as pathogens. nectr ...200212083470
cloning and expression analysis of nhl1, a gene encoding an extracellular lipase from the fungal pea pathogen nectria haematococca mp vi (fusarium solani f. sp. pisi) that is expressed in planta.the filamentous fungus nectria haematococca (anamorph fusarium solani f. sp. pisi) resides in soil, and attacks pea seedlings in the area of the underground epicotyl and upper tap root, causing foot rot disease. we detected lipase activity during in vitro growth of n. haematococca. subsequently, a lipase gene was cloned and functionally characterised by heterologous expression in saccharomyces cerevisiae. the full-length cdna of 1152 bp was cloned using a 3' race-pcr approach coupled with cdna l ...200111361331
fusarium polycaprolactone depolymerase is cutinase.polycaprolactone (pcl), a synthetic polyester, is degraded by a variety of microorganisms, including some phytopathogens. many phytopathogens secrete cutinase, a serine hydrolase that degrades cutin, the structural polymer of the plant cuticle. we compared wild-type strains and a cutinase-negative gene replacement mutant strain of fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (d. j. stahl and w. schäfer, plant cell 4:621-629, 1992) and a wild-type strain of fusarium moniliforme to show that fusarium cutinase is a ...19968593048
cutinase gene disruption in fusarium solani f sp pisi decreases its virulence on pea.fusarium solani f sp pisi (nectria haematococca) isolate 77-2-3 with one cutinase gene produced 10 to 20% of the cutinase produced by isolate t-8 that has multiple cutinase genes, whereas cutinase gene-disrupted mutant 77-102 of isolate 77-2-3 did not produce cutinase. on the surface of pea stem segments, lesion formation was most frequent and most severe with t-8, less frequent and less severe with 77-2-3, and much less frequent and much milder with the gene-disrupted mutant. microscopic examin ...19948069105
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