electron microscopy of akabane virus.electron microscopy of negatively stained purified virus and of thin sections of infected cells and tissues showed akabane virus being similar in morphology and morphogenesis to members of the family bunyaviridae.197941431
encephalomyelitis in mice experimentally infected with akabane virus.lesions in the central nervous system of mice, induced by intracerebral injection of akabane virus, were observed by the fluorescent antibody technique and histological method. fluorescent antigens were recognized in the cytoplasm of nerve cells, but were not detected exactly in any other part. fluoresced nerve cells were distributed almost all over the central nervous system, especially in medulla oblongata and spinal cord. the appearance of fluorescent antigens was followed by histological cha ...1979395444
the pathogenesis of congenital encephalopathies in sheep experimentally induced by akabane virus. 1979457942
congenital abnormalities in newborn lambs following akabane virus infection in pregnant clarify the pathogenicity of akabane virus for ovine embryos, pregnant ewes were inoculated intravenously with the virus. as a result, all of them were affected with viremia and showed an increase in neutralizing antibody 2 weeks after inoculation. the virus was recovered from many organs of embryos which were inoculated with it at 29--45 days of pregnancy and sacrificed 9--30 days later. in particular, some of these embryos which were sacrificed 15 days after inoculation were found suffering ...1979537648
an attenuated strain of akabane virus: a candidate for live virus attempt was made to attenuate the high virulent obe-1 strain of akabane virus by adaptation to low temperature. in it the virus was subjected to passage through hmlu-1 cell cultures at 30 degrees c. cloning was carried out on the virus which had undergone 20 passages through these cultures to select a strain adapted to low temperature. finally, ten clones were obtained. as a result, nine strains of clone in which virus replication was poor in hmlu-1 cell cultures at 40 degrees c were obtained ...1979537649
viruses isolated from culicoides midges in south africa during unsuccessful attempts to isolate bovine ephemeral fever virus.five viruses, unrelated to bovine ephemeral fever virus (befv), were isolated from culicoides biting-midges collected during the summer months of the years 1968-69 and 1969-70 near a cattle herd in which cases of bef occurred and at an open horse stable at onderstepoort. these viruses were investigated by means of serological, electron-microscopical and physicochemical tests. it was established that 2 isolates, cul. 1/69 and cul. 2/69, were related to each other and belonged to the palyam subgro ...1979551368
deformities of chick embryos in experimental akabane virus infection.a material containing 10(3.0) approximately 10(5.0) tcid50 of akabane virus was inoculated into 6-day-old chick embryos by the yolk sac route. death of embryos did not increase in the course of embryonic development till 18 days of age, as compared with control groups. later than 18 days of age, however, the numbers of dead and peeping but unhatched embryos increased, making the hatching rate significantly low. deformities, such as arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly, appeared in almost all the d ...1978570255
experimental placental transfer of akabane virus in the hamster.transplacental infection of hamster fetuses was produced by inoculation of pregnant hamsters with 10(6.3) plaque-forming units (pfu) of akabane virus by either the intraperitoneal or the subcutaneous route. virus with titers as high as 10(7.5) pfu/g of tissue was detected first in the placenta and later in the fetus. virus could also be readily isolated from blood, lung, spleen, and liver of both pregnant and nonpregnant hamsters, but it reached higher titers and persisted longer in the placenta ...1978629464
pathogenicity of different strains of akabane virus for mice. 1978652042
antibodies to akabane virus in australia.neutralising antibody to akabane virus was shown to develop in cattle in northern australia throughout the year and also on the east coast of new south wales in the summer during 1975/1976. other species found to have antibody to akabane virus were buffaloes, horses, camels and sheep, but no antibody was found in domestic chickens, ducks, wallabies or man. the biting midge culicoides brevitarsis has been detected in all the major areas where antibody was demonstrated in this study.1978655964
congenital abnormalities in calves associated with akabane virus and aino virus. 1978687271
congenital bovine epizootic arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly.epizootics of congenital neurological defects in calves have been recorded at various intervals in south eastern new south wales for over 40 years. in 1974 a particularly severe outbreak occurred. field observations of the clinical entities, their time of appearance, distribution and incidence were recorded in an attempt to determine an epidemiological pattern. the neurological entities observed occupied different time spans in the epizootic, the order of appearance being polioencephalomyelitis, ...1978687275
a survey of antibody to aino virus in cattle and other species in australia.a serological survey of healthy cattle in australia showed that antibodies to aino virus were present in serums from cattle in northern australia and down the east coast as far as central new south wales in 1975, 1976 and 1977, but occurred with a lower frequency than antibodies to akabane virus. in contrast to the findings with akabane virus, no neutralising antibodies to aino virus were detected in serums from camels, dogs or horses. antibodies to both viruses were detected in buffaloes and sh ...1978718555
the growth of akabane virus in chicken embryos.akabane virus produced either death or developmental abnormalities including arthrogryposis in chicken embryos inoculated by the yolk sac route when four days old. the effects depended on the dose of virus. yolk sac inoculation of seven-day-old embryos did not result in abnormal embryos, but some chickens were viraemic when they hatched. inoculation of older embryos intravenously, into the allantoic cavity, or onto the chorioallantoic membrane had no effect on the embryo and akabane virus was no ...1978725341
isolations of akabane virus from sentinel cattle and culicoides brevitarsis.a total of 14 isolations of akabane virus were made from the blood of five cattle during sub-clinical infection. the serial isolation of this virus from four of these animals suggests a viraemia of at least 3 or 4 days. neutralising antibody to akabane virus in the serum of infected calves reached an initial peak titre of 32 to 256 four to five days after the viraemia but later uose further to a range of 64 to 512. three isolations of akabane virus were made from culicoides brevitarsis collected ...1978753220
congenital abnormalities in newborn lambs after infection of pregnant sheep with akabane virus.akabane virus (a bunyavirus) has been associated with epizootics of congenital deformities in cattle, sheep, and goats. experimental studies using mouse-adapted virus inoculated intravenously into pregnant sheep gave an inapparent infection. neutralizing antibodies were detected on day 5, and peaks in the titer were seen at days 10 and 48. ewes infected at day 30 to 36 of pregnancy produced five (31% incidence) deformed lambs. sera from four of these possessed neutralizing antibodies to akabane ...1977832900
development of akabane virus and its immunogen in hmlu-1 cell culture. 1977854086
experimental infection of pregnant goats with akabane virus.ten pregnant goats were inoculated intravenously with a newly isolated strain of akabane virus. as a result, vertical infection and experimental reproduction of congenital morphological abnormality were accomplished. fetuses were removed from two of them 10 days after inoculation and used for recovery of the virus. clinically, the goats were free from any abnormal sign. mild viremia was demonstrated in one of them inoculated with the virus at 30 days of pregnancy, but the fetus removed from thi ...1977857166
congenital abnormalities in newborn calves after inoculation of pregnant cows with akabane virus.a fresh isolate of akabane virus was inoculated intravenously into 11 seronegative pregnant cows at 62 to 96 days of gestation. two of the cows were slaughtered 18 days post-inoculation, and the fetuses were examined; the remaining cows were allowed to give birth. all the inoculated cows developed viremia and neutralizing antibody for the virus, indicating that the cows were actually infected with the virus, although fever or any other clinical abnormalities were not noted. the virus further inf ...1977892909
the isolation of akabane virus from a normal bull. 1977901328
pathology of congenital bovine epizootic arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly and its relationship to akabane virus. 1977921638
epizootic congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome in cattle: isolation of akabane virus from affected fetuses.previous serolgoical studies strongly suggested akabane virus to be the etiologic agent of epizootic abortion and congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly in cattle, and this view was further corroborated in this study by the isolation of the virus from an aborted fetus in an epizootic of the disease and from a fetus extracted froma cow which was suggested by serologic tests to have a recent infection with the virus. the latter fetus had histological changes of encephalomyelitis and polymyositi ...1976962588
akabane virus isolated in kenya. 1976982784
congenital bovine epizootic arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in australia. distribution of antibodies to akabane virus in australian cattle after the 1974 the end of the 1974 epizootic of bovine congenital arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in south-eastern new south wales, an australia-wide serological survey (about 4,000 serums) was made to determine the ditribution of cattle possessing serum neutralising antibodies against akabane virus. eighty per cent of the serums from cattle in northern australia (western australia, northern territory, and queensland) were positive. a detailed study in the epizootic area in new south wales (particularly ...19761016149
serological evidence for the association of akabane virus with epizootic bovine congenital arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly syndromes in new south wales. 19751164273
serologic evidence for etiologic role of akabane virus in epizootic abortion-arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly in cattle in japan, the outbreak of abortions, premature births, stillbirths and congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly (ah) syndrome in japan during the summer through winter of 1972-73 and 1973-74, precolostral sera from calves with congenital ah syndrome and normal calves were tested for neutralizing antibodies against some arboviruses, i.e. akabane, aino, getah and japanese encephalitis (je) viruses. the incidence of antibody for akabane virus was very high in calves with ah syndrome (49/59 or 83 per cent ...19751170831
letter: akabane disease: epizootic abortion, premature birth, stillbirth and congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly in cattle, sheep and goats caused by akabane virus. 19751222008
letter: congenital abnormalities in foetal lambs after inoculation of pregnant ewes with akabane virus. 19751222009
serological survey for bovine bacterial and viral pathogens in captive arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx pallas, 1776).tests for antibodies to bovine bacterial and viral pathogens were conducted on 239 sera from 128 arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from seven locations (taif, riyadh and mahazat as said, saudi arabia; san diego, united states of america [usa]; shaumari, jordan; qatar; and bahrain). no antibodies to pasteurella multocida type e or epizootic haemorrhagic disease 1 virus were found. antibodies to brucella abortus, p. multocida type b, p. multocida type d, lumpy skin disease virus and akabane virus were ...19921305861
isolation and identification of arboviruses from the sultanate of oman.sentinel herds and a vector surveillance system were used to identify the presence of arboviruses in oman. two strains of bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 4 and two strains of akabane virus, were isolated and identified. both btv isolates and one akabane virus isolate came from goats while the second akabane isolate came from culicoides imicola. this is the first isolation of an akabane virus from culicoides in arabia. vector competence studies with the oman viruses in laboratory reared c. variip ...19911850363
an investigation of transovarial transmission of akabane virus in culicoides brevitarsis. 19902118340
an outbreak of congenital hydranencephaly and cerebellar hypoplasia among calves in south kyushu, japan: a pathological outbreak of congenital hydranencephaly and cerebellar hypoplasia occurred between november 1985 and may 1986 in miyazaki, south kyushu, japan. seventy-three calves had nervous signs of varying severity such as inability to stand, locomotor difficulties, defective vision and difficulty in sucking. at necropsy, 62 calves had macroscopic lesions in the central nervous system: hydranencephaly accompanied by cerebellar hypoplasia in 47; hydranencephaly alone in eight; and dilatation of the lateral ...19902236906
antibody competition studies with gold-labelling immunoelectron microscopy.competitive studies, involving neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (ntmabs) to outercoat proteins of akabane virus were performed by immunoelectron microscopy. the experiments were designed to determine whether the ntmabs were directed against the same or spatially different epitopes. characteristics of ntmabs in direct and indirect gold-labelling studies were determined. it was found that the protein a method gave cross-contamination of the immuno-gold complexes whereas direct conjugation of the ...19882450888
laboratory investigation of a naturally occurring outbreak of arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly in texas epizootic of abortions, weak lambs, stillbirths, and congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly occurred in a sheep flock in west texas. the outbreak began during the first week of january 1987 and continued through the third week of february 1987. lambs born after february 1987 were not affected. a high incidence of antibodies to cache valley virus (texas 7856 isolate) was demonstrated in the ewes' serum and in precolostral serum from affected lambs. no virus was isolated from tissues and bod ...19892488650
encephalitis of cattle caused by iriki isolate, a new strain belonging to akabane virus.a disease characterized by nervous signs was found in 10 calves in two districts in kagoshima prefecture, japan, from october to november, 1984. histopathological changes of nonpurulent encephalitis were found in every case. an agent, named iriki isolate, was isolated from the cerebellum of a calf in hmlu-1 cell cultures. all of the affected calves possessed neutralizing antibody to the virus. a high seropositive rate to the virus in cohabiting cattle and cattle kept in the epizootic area, and s ...19892494374
detection of antibodies against akabane virus in bovine sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent enzyme-linked immunonosorbent assay was established for detection of antibodies to akabane virus in bovine sera. the assay was shown to be a useful serological tool for studies on akabane virus infection.19892505436
a farming systems study of abortion in dairy cattle on the atherton tableland. 2. the pattern of infectious diseases.the role of infectious agents on dairy farms on the atherton tableland in tropical north queensland was studied as part of a comprehensive investigation into the causes of bovine abortion. the prevalence of antibody in serums collected from 7 herds whose annual abortion rates ranged from 3% to 21% were as follows: leptospira hardjo 49.9% (426/853), l. pomona 0.4% (3/851), bovine virus diarrhoea (bvd) 33.7% (35/104). infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibr) 11.5% (12/105), akabane virus 92.2 ...19892505741
elisa test for the serodiagnosis of akabane virus infection in cattle.a simple elisa test has been developed for the detection of igg and igm antibodies to akabane virus in bovine serum. the test is specific and its sensitivity higher than the serum neutralisation assay. detection of igm antibodies can serve as a rapid method of diagnosing primary infection with akabane virus. the superiority of elisa resides mainly in the rapidity of performance and that it can be performed with inactivated reagents at high dilutions of serum samples. thus it might enable the sur ...19892508282
culicoides: biological vectors of akabane virus.akabane virus replicated in culicoides nubeculosus and culicoides variipennis after intrathoracic inoculation and was maintained in both species of midge for at least 9 days post-infection. the virus also replicated to high concentration in c. variipennis after oral infection and was transmitted through a membrane by this species of midge 7-10 days after infection. the experiments described in this paper provided the first definitive evidence that culicoides spp. are able to act as fully compete ...19892609498
possible windborne spread to western turkey of bluetongue virus in 1977 and of akabane virus in outbreak of bluetongue in sheep started in the menderes valley, aydin province, western turkey, in october 1977. the severity of the disease indicated that it had not been there before but had been introduced into the area. analysis showed that, while it was possible for the virus to have been brought into the area by movement of infected animals, there was also a period of south-easterly winds which could have carried infected midges from cyprus, where bluetongue was present. during the nigh ...19852862205
improved hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition tests for akabane virus using formalinized goose erythrocytes.when formalinized instead of fresh goose erythrocytes were used in the hemagglutination (ha) test system of the akabane virus, the agglutinability of the erythrocytes increased and became less salt-dependent. the improved method based on these findings should facilitate the hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) test and may be useful for epidemiological studies of the akabane virus.19863095571
demonstration of akabane virus antigen in experimentally infected mice using immunoperoxidase method. 19873106691
appearance of slow-reacting and complement-requiring neutralizing antibody in cattle infected with akabane virus.slow-reacting complement-requiring neutralizing (nt) antibody was detected in sera from cattle 2 weeks after infection with akabane virus. bovine sera obtained 3 or 4 weeks after infection contained slow-reacting noncomplement-requiring nt antibody. the slow-reacting complement-requiring nt antibody was sensitive to 2-mercaptoethanol (2-me), whereas the slow-reacting noncomplement-requiring nt antibody was resistant to 2-me. the initial phase may represent the igm response and the later phase a ...19873116752
neutralising antibodies to akabane virus in free-living wild animals in africa.a total of 2,895 sera collected between 1963 and 1983 from 41 different species of free-living wildlife in 11 african countries south of the sahara was examined for serum neutralising antibodies to akabane virus. antibodies were demonstrated in 25 species including 16 species not previously reported to be susceptible to this virus. results indicate that infection is widespread in africa and has been present for a considerable time. the prevalence of antibodies suggests that some free-living spec ...19873122394
isolation of akabane virus from the biting midge culicoides oxystoma in japan.akabane virus was isolated from the biting midge, culicoides oxystoma, collected in a cowshed in kagoshima on kyushu island of japan. this is the first report on the isolation of akabane virus from biting midges of the genus culicoides in japan. two calves kept as bait in the cowshed seroconverted to akabane virus. these results strongly suggest that c. oxystoma may be a vector of akabane virus.19873124329
myopathy and encephalopathy in chick embryos experimentally infected with akabane virus.chick embryos infected with akabane virus by the yolk sac route at 6 days of incubation developed polymyositis and encephalitis. at 3 to 7 days after inoculation, skeletal muscles had myotubule degeneration, clumping of muscle cell nuclei, and infiltration of heterophils; dysplasia and aplasia were evident at 9 to 15 days after inoculation. changes in the cerebral neostriatum and optic lobes at 2 to 11 days after inoculation included necrosis of primordial nervous tissue, hemorrhages, and hyperp ...19883125658
akabane disease in sheep.perinatal lamb mortality, associated with malformations of the cns due to akabane viral infection, occurred in 4 of 9 flocks of ewes lambing on 3 farms between 26 may and 14 november, 1976. cases were restricted to ewes conceiving prior to the second week of march and lambing between 26 may and 19 july. as judged by seroconversion in sentinel flocks on 2 of the farms, field infection with akabane virus occurred mainly between mid-february and mid-april. malformations of the cns occurred in 42.5% ...19883135792
the development of akabane virus-induced congenital abnormalities in cattle.a prospective study of the incidence and severity of congenital deformities of calves, attributable to maternal infection by akabane virus, was carried out on a population of 174 susceptible animals that were between one and nine months pregnant at the time of infection. the study was carried out in the hunter valley of new south wales during 1983, after an epidemic of akabane virus infection in late february to early march 1983. the incidence of virus-induced abnormalities in calves and fetuses ...19883137718
maturation of immunological reactivity in the fetal lamb infected with akabane virus.the development of cell-mediated immunological reactivity was studied in fetal lambs infected with akabane virus. examination of hepatic cells from fetuses between 40 and 75 days' gestation that had been infected via the transplacental route revealed inconsistent responses to akabane, together with a uniform failure to respond to non-specific mitogens which contrasted with the behaviour of control, uninfected lambs. following direct inoculation of fetal lambs with virus between 50 and 120 days' ...19883141486
transmission of akabane virus from the ewe to the early fetus (32 to 53 days).the role of the placental junction in aka virus infection in the ewe was examined during the time when the chorionic villi were first becoming firmly attached to the maternal caruncles. the studies were made over 21 days covering the period between 32 and 53 days of pregnancy. viral tropism in the fetal membranes and tissues of the fetuses was identified by virus isolation and immuno-fluorescence studies. areas of virus replication were noted from 24 h post-inoculation in the fetal membranes and ...19883141487
prevalence of neutralising antibodies to akabane virus in the arabian peninsula.serum-neutralising antibodies to akabane virus were found in a wide range of domestic animals in all countries of the arabian peninsula but the virus does not seem to be endemic there. sentinel herds in oman and n. yemen did not detect any akabane activity between august 1984-november 1986 and may 1983-november 1984, respectively. however, there is strong evidence to suggest that akabane virus incursions have recently taken place in kuwait, saudi arabia and bahrain as neutralising antibodies wer ...19883176312
congenital hydranencephaly and arthrogryposis of corriedale sheep.a syndrome of congenital malformations in corriedale sheep characterised by brachygnathia inferior, campylognathia, tetraemlic arthrogryposis, kyphoscoliosis, hydranencephaly and hypoplasia of the brain stem, cerebellum and spinal cord occurring in various combinations is described. histologically there was generalised hypomyelinogenesis and hypoplasia of the central nervous system with neurogenic atrophy of skeletal muscle. the syndrome resembled that caused by congenital infection with akabane ...19883390091
variability in limb malformations and possible significance in the pathogenesis of an inherited congenital neuromuscular disease of charolais cattle (syndrome of arthrogryposis and palatoschisis).limb abnormalities in 30 calves with an inherited congenital neuromuscular disorder known as syndrome of arthrogryposis and palatoschisis were classified according to the range of severity of joint deformity in either flexion or extension, and restricted joint movement. joint movement was variably affected; it was either normal, lax, restricted in the range of mobility, or occasionally, fixed. the characteristic findings were: bilateral hyperextension of the hind fetlock, flexion deformity of th ...19853976131
a study of the host range and distribution of antibody to akabane virus (genus bunyavirus, family bunyaviridae) in kenya.serum neutralizing antibody to akabane virus (genus bunyavirus, family bunyaviridae) was found in a high proportion (50-95%) of cattle sampled in kenya, while sheep and goats had fewer positive (13-33%). camel and horse sera also contained antibody to the virus (70% and 50% respectively). the antibody was found in animals from the high altitude temperature type of grasslands, drier bushed and wooded grasslands and the semi-desert. no arthrogryposis nor hydranencephaly has been encountered in ken ...19854020110
growth of epizootic hemorrhagic disease, akabane, and ephemeral fever viruses in aedes albopictus cells maintained at various temperatures.the growth curves of one epizootic hemorrhagic disease (ehd) virus serotype (reoviridae), two akabane virus strains (bunyaviridae) and three bovine ephemeral fever (bef) group viruses (rhabdoviridae) were determined in aedes albopictus cells maintained at 15, 20, 28 and 33 degrees c. ae albopictus cells supported the growth of all the viruses although not necessarily at all temperatures. because none of the viruses exhibited cytopathic effect in ae albopictus cells, growth was assayed in baby ha ...19854051908
neutralizing antibody against akabane virus in precolostral sera from calves with congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome. 19744451432
infection of israeli culicoides with african horse sickness, blue tongue and akabane viruses.type 9 african horse sickness virus and type 4 bluetongue virus multiplied to a high titre in an israeli strain of culicoides puncticollis after intrathoracic inoculation. akabane virus persisted for at least 10 days in this midge after intrathoracic inoculation but with little evidence of virus multiplication. all 3 viruses failed to multiply in c. puncticollis after ingestion by the oral route and all were inactivated by 4 days post infection. five other species of israeli culicoides supported ...19816120643
identification of four complementary rna species in akabane virus-infected cells.the analysis of rna extracted from purified akabane virus demonstrated the presence of three size classes of single-stranded rnas with sedimentation coefficients of 31s (large, l), 26s (medium, m), and 13s (small, s). molecular weights of these rna species were estimated to be 2.15 x 10(6), 1.5 x 10(6), and 0.48 x 10(6) for the l, m, and s rnas, respectively. hybridization analysis involving viral genomic rna and rna from virus-infected cells resulted in the identification of four virus-specific ...19836194309
bluetongue in western october 1977 clinical bluetongue broke out in aydin province, western turkey and spread to adjacent provinces in the autumn months of 1978 and 1979. the outbreak was caused by a virus of serotype 4 and appeared to occur in a totally susceptible population. it was eventually controlled by widespread use of attenuated type-specific vaccine. bluetongue virus was isolated from sheep on several occasions and also from a calf with congenital arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly. this latter finding i ...19826289510
[experimental infection of pigs with akabane virus]. 19836675277
teratogenicity of australian simbu serogroup and some other bunyaviridae viruses: the embryonated chicken egg as a model.the use of embryonated chicken eggs as a model for assessing the teratogenic potential of animal viruses was investigated with 12 members of the bunyaviridae family. infection of 4-day-old embryonated chicken eggs via the yolk sac with 10 of the viruses resulted in deaths or congenital deformities that were similar to those observed in akabane virus infections of fetal ruminants and included arthrogryposis, scoliosis, mandible defects, and retarded development. statistical analysis showed that t ...19846690412
experimental intrauterine infection of akabane virus. pathological studies of skeletal muscles and central nervous system of newborn hamsters with relevances to the fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy.a vertical infection system in hamsters produced by inoculating with akabane virus was established as an experimental model of congenital muscular dystrophy (fukuyama type) (fcmd) and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (amc) in humans. swollen fetuses, mummified fetuses, arthrogryposis and cranial deformities were produced in 13 of 415 newborn hamsters inoculated transplacentally (3.1%). the incidence was significantly higher than that in the control group (p less than 0.05). eight cases present ...19816789696
akabane disease and akabane virus. 19806792415
the consequences of infection of cattle with akabane virus at the time of insemination. 19816798085
experimental infection of bulls with akabane virus.eight bulls were inoculated with akabane virus and the clinical effects, development of viraemia and serological response to infection were followed. in addition semen was collected regularly from each bull both before and after inoculation. the bulls had a viraemia which occurred between days 2 and 9 after inoculation and which lasted for three to five days. virus neutralising antibodies were detected in the serum of all bulls by days 7 to 10. semen samples were tested for virus by inoculation ...19816798655
[akabane disease and akabane virus]. 19806821503
light and immunofluorescent microscopic observation of cultured cells infected with akabane virus. 19806991753
akabane disease in cattle: congenital abnormalities caused by viral infection. spontaneous disease.akabane disease, an infectious disorder causing congenital abnormalities in calves, was studied in naturally affected calves between 1972 and 1974 in japan. the animals included one three-month fetus from which a strain of akabane virus (obe-1) was isolated, and a total of 177 stillborn or premature fetuses and deformed or infirm newborn calves that died within a few days of birth. the three-month fetus had nonpurulent encephalomyelitis in the undifferentiated central nervous system, characteriz ...19827200278
akabane disease in cattle: congenital abnormalities caused by viral infection. experimental disease.nonpurulent encephalomyelitis and polymyositis were primary lesions of cattle and goats experimentally infected with akabane virus. two caprine fetuses, two months old, were infected placentally and examined 11 days after inoculation; twin caprine fetuses, three months old, were inoculated intramuscularly through the dam's uterus and examined nine days after inoculation. both lesions were seen in each fetus. reactive proliferation of immature endothelial cells was a significant encephalitic chan ...19827200279
neutralising antibodies to akabane virus in ruminants in cyprus.neutralising antibodies to akabane virus, a cause of arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly, were demonstrated in serum samples from 33 sheep, 3 goats and 1 bovine among 285 serum samples collected in south-eastern cyprus from december 1970 onwards. twenty-four of the 29 sheep having positive antibodies came from one farm in liopetri. no positive sera came from animals born after 1969, no association with abortions or stillbirths was noted and no arthrogryposis or hydranencephaly was observed in cyp ...19817256874
propagation and persistent infection of akabane virus in cultured mosquito cells. 19817328980
encephalitogenic effect of akabane virus on mice, hamsters and guinea pigs. 19807442819
effect of heparin on hemagglutination by akabane and aino viruses belonging to the simbu group of bunyaviruses.heparin inhibited the hemagglutinin activity of akabane and aino viruses. the minimal inhibitory concentration of heparin required to inhibit 8 hemagglutination (ha) u of akabane and aino viruses was 10 u/ml. goose erythrocytes failed to combine with the ha inhibitory factor of heparin. on the other hand, goose erythrocytes treated with heparinase had greatly reduced agglutinability by akabane virus. virus-heparin complex formation was observed by sedimenting heparin with the virus particles.19957571376
akabane virus.akabane virus, an arthropod-borne bunyavirus, is the major cause of epizootics of congenital malformations in ruminants in australia, japan, korea, and israel, and is suspected to be a cause of sporadic outbreaks elsewhere. blood-sucking insects, such as biting midges, transmit the virus horizontally to vertebrates. climatic factors influence the seasonal activity and geographic range of the vector population and, therefore, occurrence of related disease. inoculated ruminants seroconvert rapidly ...19947728635
the distribution of akabane virus in the middle east.serological evidence was used to confirm an outbreak of akabane disease in cattle in the turkish province of aydin in 1980. thereafter, serum collections from the middle east were screened for the presence of neutralizing antibodies to akabane virus. the results indicate that the virus was present in a number of provinces on the south turkish coast in 1979 and 1980 but that it probably did not persist into 1981; the virus had also been present on cyprus in 1980 and on at least one previous occas ...19948062874
hydranencephaly in newborn calves in zambia.hydranencephaly without arthrogryposis was observed in three newborn holstein-friesian calves, born during one week in a 400-cow dairy herd in zambia. the affected calves were blind and exhibited nystagmus and depressed behavior. akabane virus infection was suspected based on the pathological findings and etiological data, however, we could not determine the exact causative agent.19938357935
effect of heparin on hemagglutination by pseudorabies virus.heparin inhibited hemagglutination (ha) by pseudorabies virus (prv), but not ha by akabane virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, fukuoka virus, getah virus, japanese encephalitis virus, and parainfluenza virus type 3 belonging to the families bunyaviridae, adenoviridae, rhabdoviridae, togaviridae, flavivi-idae, and paramyxoviridae, respectively. the minimal inhibitory concentration of heparin required to inhibit 8 ha u of prv ranged from 0.005 to 0.01 u/ml. mouse erythrocytes failed to combine with t ...19938381261
an outbreak of akabane virus-induced abnormalities in calves after agistment in an endemic region.during 1988, 2 farmers in the bega district agisted pregnant cattle in the hunter valley of new south wales. on return to the district to calve, 54% of calves from herd 1 and 30% of calves from herd 2 were affected with congenital arthrogryposis or hydranencephaly caused by akabane virus infection. field observations and laboratory findings from this outbreak are presented, illustrating the danger of moving immunologically naive animals into areas where akabane virus is endemic.19938457173
detection of akabane viral antigen and immunoglobulin-containing cells in ovine fetuses by use of immunoperoxidase staining.akabane virus (akv) strain obe-1 was inoculated iv into 17 pregnant sheep. ten fetuses infected at 29 to 45 days of gestation and examined 29 to 30 days later had akv antigen in the following groups of cells: neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord, ganglion cells in the cranial and abdominal ganglia, layer of ganglion cells in the retina, ganglion cells (auerbach's plexus) in small intestine, hepatocytes, cells in the arterial wall of mesenteric membrane, and trophoblast cells in the plac ...19938498746
australian-indonesian collaboration in veterinary arbovirology--a review.australian-indonesian collaboration in veterinary development programs has led to significant advances in the study of arboviruses. this paper reviews the resulting knowledge of arboviral infections of livestock in indonesia. the first recognized arboviral disease of animals in indonesia was bovine ephemeral fever. serology indicates that the virus is widespread, as are related rhabdoviruses. local sheep appear resistant to bluetongue disease, but imported sheep have suffered mortalities. blueto ...19958545953
the isolation of akabane virus (iriki strain) from calves in taiwan.nonsuppurative encephalitis in calves aged 4-12 months, cow abortion and fetal deformities were endemic in dairy farms in taiwan in recent years. a virological investigation emphasizing on arthpodborn virus (arbovirus) was conducted. total of 11 strains of akabane virus were isolated from endemic districts between june and july of 1992. among them, seven viruses were isolated from blood samples of 15 calves showing nervous signs. another 4 akabane viruses were isolated from clinically healthy ca ...19968819843
setaria marshalli infection in neonatal calves.a total of 50 filariid worms of setaria spp. was recovered from the peritoneal cavity of three neonatal calves infected with the akabane virus. the parasites were identified as s. marshalli by their morphological characteristics. males were 41-52 mm long and females 68-98 mm. most of them were fully matured, indicating that the calves were infected prenatally. this is the first report of prenatal infection in calves by s. marshalli in korea.19968843697
antigenic diversity of akabane virus detected by monoclonal antibodies.the antigenic properties of 21 japanese field isolates and two australian strains of akabane (aka) virus (simbu serogroup, bunyavirus) isolated from 1959 to 1990 were compared by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), plaque-reduction neutralization (prnt) and hemagglutination inhibition (hi) tests using monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to the obe-1 strain of aka virus. sixteen mabs were established by fusing p3x63ag8u1 mouse myeloma cells and spleen cells from balb/c mice immunized with the obe ...19979085550
akabane virus: serological survey of antibodies in livestock in the investigation was conducted to assess the prevalence of akabane virus antibodies in domestic ruminants from different ecological zones of sudan. neutralizing antibodies were demonstrated in sheep, goats and cattle sampled between 1979 and 1980 from el obeid, nyala, kassala, jonglei and sennar. the highest prevalence was in jonglei where 27% of six sheep, 36% of eleven goats and 47% of 90 cattle had antibodies to the virus. although antibodies were demonstrated in 8% of 79 dams and 15% of 70 d ...19969239934
restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of akabane virus nucleoprotein gene.the nucleoprotein genes of akabane virus s rna segment from 21 japanese and two australian isolates were amplified by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) using a primer set containing the initiation and termination codon of the gene. the rt-pcr products were sufficiently produced from the purified virion rnas of all the isolates, and then analyzed by enzymatic digestion with 11 restriction endonucleases. digestion with the eight restriction enzymes revealed sequence vari ...19979342713
effect of bovine herpes virus-1, bluetongue virus and akabane virus on the in vitro development of bovine embryos.bovine oocytes enclosed by follicular epithelial (fe) cells were exposed to bovine herpes virus-1 (bhv-1), bluetongue virus (btv) and akabane virus (av), matured in culture for 24 h and then in vitro fertilized. in the bhv-1-exposed group, bhv-1 was isolated from medium 3 days after in vitro fertilization at a high titer, and a severe cytopathic effect was observed in the fe cells. oocytes in the bhv-1-exposed group developed to the 2-cell to 8-cell stage, but failed to develop into blastocysts. ...19979355248
rapid detection of antigenic diversity of akabane virus isolates by dot immunobinding assay using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.akabane (aka) virus is an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the simbu group of the genus bunyavirus. neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against aka virus were prepared, and the neutralizing epitopes of the virus were defined by competitive binding assay. five distinct antigenic domains were identified and were designated a, b, c, d, and e. domains a and c consisted of two epitopes each. it was demonstrated that seven neutralizing epitopes exist on the g1 glycoprotein of aka virus. dot im ...19989521142
prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to akabane virus in ruminants in saudi arabia.a total number of 2125 serum samples collected from indigenous sheep and goats and locally-raised cattle from different localities in saudi arabia, were screened for akabane virus-neutralizing antibodies. the overall prevalence of antibodies was 32% in the animals examined. however the prevalence in cattle was 49%, while in sheep and goats it was 17%. no clinical cases of akabane have been confirmed so far in saudi arabia; but virus isolation attempts are ongoing.19989673576
nucleotide sequencing of s-rna segment and sequence analysis of the nucleocapsid protein gene of the newly isolated akabane virus pt-17 strain.the nucleotide sequences of the s-rna of akabane viruses jagar-39, obe-1, iriki and the newly isolated pt-17 strains and the aino virus were determined and compared. the results reveal that the s-rnas of the four akabane strains share 96.9% homology in nucleotide sequences. only one amino acid difference out of the 233 amino acids of the nucleocapsid protein (n) and three amino acid differences in the 91 amino acids of the nonstructural protein (nss) were found among the akabane viruses. amino a ...19989739462
study of akabane infection in saudi arabia by the use of sentinel ruminants.two sentinel herds of calves (eastern and central regions of saudi arabia) and one of sheep and goats (south western region) were established to study akabane virus infection. the herd at the al-ahsa oasis (eastern region) showed evidence of akabane viral activity, as reflected by the presence of maternal (colostral) antibody, which had waned to insignificant concentrations by the time the calves had reached the age of 5 months. there was no evidence of subsequent seroconversion. the other two s ...19989839208
preferential infection of neuronal and astroglia cells by akabane virus in primary cultures of fetal bovine brain.akabane virus is a member of the genus bunyavirus; it is pathogenic for ruminants and transmitted by arthropod vectors. infection of adult cattle and sheep causes a transient viremia without obvious clinical signs, while infection of pregnant animals often causes fetal abnormalities including hydranencephaly, poliomyelitis and arthrogryposis. infectious virus or viral antigens is present in the brain, spinal cord and skeletal muscle of infected fetuses. to understand the interaction between akab ...200010781726
effects of antigen-retrieval pretreatments for immunohistochemical detection of akabane viral antigen.effects of various antigen-retrieval pretreatment techniques for immunohistochemical detection of akabane virus antigen were examined with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues taken from mice intracerebrally inoculated with the virus. the results indicated that no pretreatment is necessary for the detection of the antigen, and excessive enzymatic pretreatment of sections may lead to false-negative results.200010907866
detection of akabane viral antigens in spontaneous lymphohistiocytic encephalomyelitis in cattle.a 5-month-old japanese black bull calf and twenty-seven 1-27-day-old calves exhibiting neurological signs between august and october 1998 were examined. the bull calf exhibited rapid breathing, fever, hypersensitivity, and ataxia and was euthanized 4 days after the onset of symptoms. the 27 calves primarily exhibited ataxia, and 15 had arthrogryposis. histological examination of the bull calf revealed perivascular infiltraction by mononuclear cells, diffuse to multifocal gliosis, and neuronal ne ...200011108451
demonstration of akabane virus antigen using immunohistochemistry in naturally infected newborn calves.eight newborn calves showing ataxia were necropsied and examined histologically. six of seven cerebrospinal fluid samples collected from these animals had neutralizing antibody for akabane virus (akv). all examined calves had nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis, localized mainly in the midbrain and spinal cord. corresponding to the encephalitic lesion, akv antigen was demonstrated in neuroglial cells in the brain stem and neuronal cells in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. this is the first stud ...200111280378
encephalomyelitis associated with akabane virus infection in adult cows.between august and september 2000, five 2-7-year-old cows in korea exhibited neurologic signs and were diagnosed as infected with akabane virus based on the results of histopathology, immunohistochemistry, serology, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) analysis. immunohistochemistry and rt-pcr were equally effective and sensitive for diagnosing akabane virus infection during the early stage of infection. typical lymphohistiocytic inflammation characterized by perivascular ...200212009066
akabane and bovine ephemeral fever virus infections.akabane and bovine ephemeral fever viruses are exotic to the american continent. both viruses are spread by insect vectors, and each causes disease of varying severity in food-producing animals. however, there are few other similarities between the agents and the diseases that they cause. they do not share the same insect vectors, the mammalian host range is different, and the clinical manifestations of virus infection vary markedly. akabane virus is a cause of severe congenital defects, but adu ...200212442580
sequence analysis of the medium rna segment of three simbu serogroup viruses, akabane, aino, and peaton viruses.the sequence analysis was carried out for the medium (m) rna segment of the akabane virus (akav), aino virus (ainv), and peaton virus (peav) of the simbu serogroup of the genus orthobunyavirus of the family bunyaviridae. the complementary sequences of the m rna segments of akav, ainv, and peav contain a single large open reading frame (orf), like other orthobunyaviruses. the orfs potentially encode 1401 amino acids (aa), 1404 aa, and 1400 aa polypeptides, respectively. the identity of the m segm ...200312727343
natural infections of pigs with akabane virus.akabane (aka) virus is considered a pathogen of herbivores in nature. however, we found that pig populations in fields were infected in taiwan. an isolate (nt-14) of aka virus was obtained from pigs. the nt-14 virus was able to infect pigs by the oronasal route. subsequently, low levels of infectious virus particles were excreted into the oronasal discharge during the stage of viremia but they were not sufficient to infect new porcine hosts via contact transmission. the prevalence of serum neutr ...200312742710
first cases of animal diseases published since 2000. 3. this third article of a series of papers listing first case reports of animal diseases published since 2000, the following seven cases of cattle diseases are discussed: al amyloidosis. canola oil intoxication. disseminated intracytoplasmic neuronal vacuolation. encephalomyelitis associated with akabane virus infection in adult cows. lower limb deformity: "mirror image duplication of the plantar/palmar half of the distal portion of the digit". lupinus argenteus intoxication. novel propionibact ...200314535583
detection and quantitation of akabane and aino viruses by multiplex real-time reverse-transcriptase pcr.a multiplex, quantitive reverse-transcriptase real-time pcr, using mgb taqman chemistry, for detecting akabane virus (akav) and aino virus (ainv) is described. each specific probe was labeled with a different fluorescent dye--vic for detecting akav and 6-carboxy-fluorescein (fam) for detecting ainv. all available sequences of viral s rna were aligned and primers and probes were designed so that akav primers and probes would recognize all akavs but not ainv, and vice versa. the parameters for mul ...200414738981
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