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biosynthesis of the linkage unit joining peptidoglycan to poly(n-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate) in walls of micrococcus varians atcc 29750. 1979761625
identification of coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from lambs as staphylococcus caseolyticus.a group of 17 strains of coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from slaughtered lambs, and which could not be identified with the conventional methods, exhibited high levels of dna homology (92%) with the s. caseolyticus reference strain. the isolates described in this study provide a more extensive comprehension of s. caseolyticus. the original description of this species was based on only two strains isolated from milk. to our knowledge, s. caseolyticus had never been previously associated ...19921547620
[occurrence of staphylococcal species in clinically healthy domestic animals].the incidence of staphylococcus species in healthy animals was investigated in young and adult individuals of cattle, in pigs and in domestic fowl, using the method of selective isolation of strains. a total of 6066 samples was examined; 4567 strains were revealed and they included all known species, except staphylococcus caseolyticus, s. saccharolyticus, s. schleiferi and s. lugdunensis. 3.8% of strains failed to be identified with any species. the test samples were taken from slaughtered anima ...19911926684
[isolation of micrococcus caseolyticus from two cases of chronical bovine mastitis]. 19724666493
[specificity of the nuclear protease produced by micrococcus caseolyticus]. 19715551628
biosynthesis of teichoic acid in micrococcus varians atcc 29750. characterization of a further lipid intermediate. 19807358174
delimiting the genus staphylococcus through description of macrococcus caseolyticus gen. nov., comb. nov. and macrococcus equipercicus sp. nov., and macrococcus bovicus sp. no. and macrococcus carouselicus sp. nov.four species of the newly proposed genus macrococcus, namely macrococcus caseolyticus gen. nov., comb. nov. (formerly staphylococcus caseolyticus schleifer, kilpper-bälz, fischer, faller and endl 1982, 19vp), macrococcus equipercicus sp. nov., macrococcus bovicus sp. nov. macrococcus carouselicus sp. nov., are described on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis comparing 16s rrna sequences, dna-dna liquid hybridization, dna base composition, normalized ribotype patterns, macrorestriction pattern a ...19989734040
diversity, dynamics, and activity of bacterial communities during production of an artisanal sicilian cheese as evaluated by 16s rrna analysis.the diversity and dynamics of the microbial communities during the manufacturing of ragusano cheese, an artisanal cheese produced in sicily (italy), were investigated by a combination of classical and culture-independent approaches. the latter included pcr, reverse transcriptase-pcr (rt-pcr), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) of 16s rrna genes (rdna). bacterial and lactobacillus group-specific primers were used to amplify the v6 to v8 and v1 to v3 regions of the 16s rrna gene, r ...200211916708
aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive komodo dragons.during the months of november 1996, august 1997, and march 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive komodo dragons (varanus komodoensis). twenty-eight gram-negative and 29 gram-positive species of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 komodo dragons. a greater number of wild than captive dragons were positive for both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. the average number of bacterial species within the saliva o ...200212238371
combining denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16s rdna v3 region and 16s-23s rdna spacer region polymorphism analyses for the identification of staphylococci from italian fermented sausages.separation of amplified v3 region from 16s rdna by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (pcr-dgge) and 16s-23s rdna intergenic spacer region polymorphism (isr-pcr) analyses were tested as tool for differentiation of staphylococcal strains commonly isolated from fermented sausages. variable v3 regions of 25 staphylococcal reference strains and 96 wild strains of species belonging to the genera staphylococcus, micrococcus and kocuria were analyzed. pcr-dgge profiles obtained were species-specif ...200314529185
diversity and dynamics of communities of coagulase-negative staphylococci in traditional fermented sausages.evaluation of composition and evolution of the coagulase-negative staphylococci (cns) communities in two traditionally fermented sausages (salsiccia and soppressata lucana) produced in basilicata, southern italy.200415239693
rapid and reliable identification of staphylococcus equorum by a species-specific pcr assay targeting the soda gene.rapid and reliable identification of staphylococcus (s.) equorum was achieved by species-specific pcr assays. a set of primers targeting the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (soda) gene of s. equorum was designed. species-specificity of the primer set was evaluated by using a total of 112 strains (including 27 reference strains of the dsm collection), representing 26 different species of the genus staphylococcus, 3 species of the genus kocuria, and different strains of macrococcus caseol ...200415612627
culture-dependent and -independent methods to investigate the microbial ecology of italian fermented sausages.in this study, the microbial ecology of three naturally fermented sausages produced in northeast italy was studied by culture-dependent and -independent methods. by plating analysis, the predominance of lactic acid bacteria populations was pointed out, as well as the importance of coagulase-negative cocci. also in the case of one fermentation, the fecal enterocci reached significant counts, highlighting their contribution to the particular transformation process. yeast counts were higher than th ...200515812029
complete genome sequence of macrococcus caseolyticus strain jcscs5402, [corrected] reflecting the ancestral genome of the human-pathogenic staphylococci.we isolated the methicillin-resistant macrococcus caseolyticus strain jcsc5402 from animal meat in a supermarket and determined its whole-genome nucleotide sequence. this is the first report on the genome analysis of a macrococcal species that is evolutionarily closely related to the human pathogens staphylococcus aureus and bacillus anthracis. the essential biological pathways of m. caseolyticus are similar to those of staphylococci. however, the species has a small chromosome (2.1 mb) and lack ...200919074389
study of microbial diversity in raw milk and fresh curd used for fontina cheese production by culture-independent methods.the bacterial populations of raw milk employed for the production of fontina cheese in alpine farms located in different valleys and altitudes (from 700 to 2246 m above sea level) were investigated by culture independent techniques. total microbial dna was isolated from milk and curd samples and used as template in polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to study the hypervariable v3 region of the bacterial 16s rrna gene and analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge). representative band ...200919232767
staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec-like element in macrococcus caseolyticus.macrococcus is a bacterial genus that is closely related to staphylococcus, which typically is isolated from animal skin and products. the genome analysis of multidrug-resistant macrococcus caseolyticus strain jcsc5402, isolated from chicken, previously led to the identification of plasmid pmccl2, which carries a transposon containing an unusual form of the macrococcus mec gene complex (meca(m)-mecr1(m)-meci(m)-blaz(m)). in m. caseolyticus strain jcsc7096, this mec transposon containing the mec ...201020086147
diversity of the predominant spoilage bacteria in water-boiled salted duck during storage.the spoilage microbiota in water-boiled salted duck during storage at 4 degrees c was determined using culture-dependent and independent methods. analysis of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) patterns of pcr amplicons targeting the v3 region of the 16s rdna and sequencing of the bands allowed profiling of the microbiota present in the duck. community dna extracts were prepared directly from water-boiled salted duck and from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both mrs ...201020629890
catalase-positive cocci in fermented sausage: variability due to different pork breeds, breeding systems and sausage production technology.the aim of this study was to compare the ecology of catalase-positive cocci (cpc) present in traditional fermented sausages produced using different breeds of pork, each of which was raised in two different environments and processed using two different technologies. semi-quantitative molecular methods were used to determine bacterial identities. almost all fermentations were characterised by a significant increase in cpc during the first few days of fermentation, reaching values of 10(5)-10(6)  ...201222202871
Biochemical characterization and FAD-binding analysis of oleate hydratase from Macrococcus caseolyticus.A putative fatty acid hydratase gene from Macrococcus caseolyticus was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme was a 68 kDa dimer with a molecular mass of 136 kDa. The enzymatic products formed from fatty acid substrates by the putative enzyme were isolated with high purity (>99%) by solvent fractional crystallization at low temperature. After the identification by GC-MS, the purified hydroxy fatty acids were used as standards to quantitatively determine specific activit ...201122203098
microbial infections are associated with embryo mortality in arctic-nesting geese.to address the role of bacterial infection in hatching failure of wild geese, we monitored embryo development in a breeding population of greater white-fronted geese (anser albifrons) on the arctic coastal plain of alaska. during 2013, we observed mortality of normally developing embryos and collected 36 addled eggs for analysis. we also collected 17 infertile eggs for comparison. using standard culture methods and gene sequencing to identify bacteria within collected eggs, we identified a poten ...201526048928
antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes in aerobic bacteria isolated from pork at slaughter.the aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance, integrons, and transferability of resistance markers in 243 aerobic bacteria recovered from pork at slaughter in the people's republic of china. the organisms belonged to 22 genera of gram-negative bacteria (92.2%) and gram-positive bacteria (7.8%). high levels of resistance were detected to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ampicillin (36.2 to 54.3%), and lower levels were detected to ...201627052863
screening of microorganisms from deep-sea mud for antarctic krill (euphausia superba) fermentation and evaluation of the bioactive compounds.twelve kinds of strains were isolated from deep-sea mud which can use antarctic krill powder as the sole carbon/nitrogen source. these strains were identified by 16s rdna sequence analysis and grouped into eight different genera, including bacillus, shewanella, psychrobacter, klebsiella, macrococcus, aeromonas, acinetobacter, and saccharomyces. after fermentation of antarctic krill powder using these strains, bioactive compounds including total phenolics, free amino acids, and enzyme activities ...201525416479
bacterial dynamics during yearlong spontaneous fermentation for production of ngari, a dry fermented fish product of northeast india.ngari is the most popular traditionally processed non-salted fish product, prepared from sun-dried small cyprinid fish puntius sophore (ham.) in manipur state of northeast india. the microbial involvement in ngari production remained uncertain due to its low moisture content and yearlong incubation in anaerobically sealed earthen pots without any significant change in total microbial count. the culture-independent pcr-dgge analysis used during this study confirmed a drastic bacterial community s ...201525637876
bacterial biota of nigeen lake waters (kashmir valley).one of the greatest apprehensions of water consumers all over the world with respect to the quality of drinking water is its contamination with pathogenic microorganisms. this research work determined the potential bacterial contaminants of the waters of nigeen lake, a subsidiary of dal lake and is regarded as a separate lake in kashmir. the study was carried out from may 2014 to november 2014 excluding august and september at four different sites. during the study the bacterial flora showed var ...201627165539
diversity, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of culturable bacterial endophyte communities in aloe vera.twenty-nine culturable bacterial endophytes were isolated from surface-sterilized tissues (root, stem and leaf) of aloe vera and molecularly characterized to 13 genera: pseudomonas, bacillus, enterobacter, pantoea, chryseobacterium, sphingobacterium, aeromonas, providencia, cedecea, klebsiella, cronobacter, macrococcus and shigella. the dominant genera include bacillus (20.7%), pseudomonas (20.7%) and enterobacter (13.8%). the crude and ethyl acetate fractions of the metabolites of six isolates, ...201526454221
capture of micrococcin biosynthetic intermediates reveals c-terminal processing as an obligatory step for in vivo maturation.thiopeptides, including micrococcins, are a growing family of bioactive natural products that are ribosomally synthesized and heavily modified. here we use a refactored, modular in vivo system containing the micrococcin p1 (mp1) biosynthetic genes (tclijklmnps) from macrococcus caseolyticus str 115 in a genetically tractable bacillus subtilis strain to parse the processing steps of this pathway. by fusing the micrococcin precursor peptide to an affinity tag and coupling it with catalytically def ...201627791142
microbiological changes, shelf life and identification of initial and spoilage microbiota of sea bream fillets stored under various conditions using 16s rrna gene analysis.sea bream fillets are one of the most important value-added products of the seafood market. fresh seafood spoils mainly owing to bacterial action. in this study an exploration of initial and spoilage microbiota of sea bream fillets stored under air and commercial modified atmosphere packaging (map) at 0 and 5 °c was conducted by 16s rrna gene sequence analysis of isolates grown on plates. sensory evaluation and enumeration of total viable counts and spoilage microorganisms were also conducted to ...201525312872
control of shigatoxin-producing escherichia coli in cheese by dairy bacterial strains.bio-preservation could be a valuable way to control shigatoxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) in cheese. to this end, 41 strains were screened for their inhibitory potential on model cheese curd and on pasteurized and raw milk uncooked pressed cheeses. strains of lactococcus lactis, lactococcus garvieae, leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, leuconostoc citreum, lactobacillus sp, carnobacterium mobile, enterococcus faecalis, enterococcus faecium, macrococcus caseolyticus and hafnia alvei reduced s ...201626678131
novel structure of enterococcus faecium-originated ermb-positive tn1546-like element in staphylococcus aureus.we determined the resistance determinants in 274 erythromycin-resistant methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus (mssa) isolates during a 13-year period, 2000 to 2012. the resistance phenotypes, inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (imls), constitutive mls (cmls), and macrolide-streptogramin (ms) resistance phenotypes, were examined by a double-disk diffusion d test. the ermb gene was more frequent (35%; 97/274) than ermc (27%; 75/274) or erma (21%; 58/274). all 97 ermb-positive is ...201627480862
bacterial ecology of pdo coppa and pancetta piacentina at the end of ripening and after map storage of sliced product.the objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiota of two typical italian pdo delicatessens coppa and pancetta piacentina, produced in piacenza area (italy). classical and molecular approaches were employed, in order to acquire knowledge on their bacterial ecology and its evolution after slicing and map storing; thus, the biodiversity of characteristic bacterial community, already present or introduced during such procedures, was studied in both full ripened and sliced samples from two p ...201424361828
diversity of lactic acid bacteria during fermentation of a traditional chinese fish product, chouguiyu (stinky mandarinfish).chouguiyu, or stinky mandarinfish, is a traditional chinese fermented fish product made of mandarinfish by spontaneous fermentation at the anaerobic condition with low-salt concentration. in order to get a primary understanding of the microbial community presenting in the chouguiyu fermentation, 61 cultures of lactic acid bacteria (lab) from various fermentation period were isolated using mrs agar plates and characterized based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic approaches including am ...201324245896
description of auricoccucs indicus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from skin of human ear.in present study, a gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, small spherical bacterium, strain s31t was isolated from skin surface (external ear lobe) of a healthy human subject and characterized using polyphasic approach of bacterial taxonomy. based on 1507 bp 16s rrna gene sequence comparison, strain s31t showed highest (92.8%, ay119686) sequence similarity with macrococcus brunensis ccug 47200t followed by macrococcus caseolyticus dsm 20597t (92.7% ap009484) and formed a separate c ...201728086066
novel methicillin resistance gene mecd in clinical macrococcus caseolyticus strains from bovine and canine sources.methicillin-resistant macrococcus caseolyticus strains from bovine and canine origins were found to carry a novel mecd gene conferring resistance to all classes of β-lactams including anti-mrsa cephalosporins. association of β-lactam resistance with mecd was demonstrated by gene expression in s. aureus and deletion of the mecd-containing island in m. caseolyticus. the mecd gene was located either on an 18,134-bp m. caseolyticus resistance island (mcrimecd-1) or a 16,188-bp mcrimecd-2. both islan ...201728272476
macrococcus canis sp. nov., a skin bacterium associated with infections in dogs.gram-stain positive cocci were isolated from miscellaneous sites of the skin of healthy dogs as well as from infection sites in dogs. the closest relative by sequencing of the 16s rrna was macrococcus caseolyticus with 99.7% sequence identity, but compared to m. caseolyticus, the novel strains shared only 90.8% to 93.5% dna identity to cpn60, dnaj, rpob, and soda partial genes, respectively. the two species also exhibited other phenotypic characteristics and the majority displayed a visible haem ...201627902286
screening agars for mrsa: evaluation of a stepwise diagnostic approach with two different selective agars for the screening for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa).colonization with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) poses a hygiene risk that does not spare field hospitals or military medical field camps during military deployments. diagnostic options for unambiguously identifying mrsa isolates are usually scarce in military environments. in this study, we assessed the stepwise application of two different selective agars for the specific identification of mrsa in screening analyses.201526199735
first staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec containing a mecb-carrying gene complex independent of transposon tn6045 in a macrococcus caseolyticus isolate from a canine infection.a methicillin-resistant mecb-positive macrococcus caseolyticus (strain km45013) was isolated from the nares of a dog with rhinitis. it contained a novel 39-kb transposon-defective complete mecb-carrying staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (sccmeckm45013). sccmeckm45013 contained 49 coding sequences (cdss), was integrated at the 3' end of the chromosomal orfx gene, and was delimited at both ends by imperfect direct repeats functioning as integration site sequences (isss). sccmeckm45013 ...201525987634
radiation-resistant macrococcus caseolyticus (a) isolated from radiation-processed semidried prawns.a radiation-resistant bacterial isolate from gamma-radiation-processed (5 kgy) semidried prawns was identified as a new strain of macrococcus caseolyticus and was designated as m. caseolyticus (a) on the basis of morphological and biochemical characterization and 16s rrna sequencing. dna-dna hybridization studies with m. caseolyticus dsm 20597(t) further confirmed the isolate as m. caseolyticus. major fatty acids present in m. caseolyticus (a) were c14:0, c16:1ω11c, and c18:1ω9c, whereas c15:0an ...201525515772
methicillin resistance in staphylococcus isolates: the "mec alphabet" with specific consideration of mecc, a mec homolog associated with zoonotic s. aureus lineages.livestock-associated (la) methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) have globally emerged during the past decade. in europe, this was particularly due to the occurrence of la-mrsa strains associated with the clonal complex (cc) 398 as defined by multilocus sequence typing. however, more recently animal-adapted clonal lineages of s. aureus showing phenotypic methicillin resistance have been identified such as cc130, cc599, cc59, cc1943 and cc425. these newly emerging la-mrsa ccs/sts caus ...201425034857
short communication: prevalence of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci and staphylococcus aureus isolated from bulk milk on organic and conventional dairy farms in the united states.the objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcus spp. in bulk tank milk samples from 288 organic and conventional dairy farms located in new york, wisconsin, and oregon from march 2009 to may 2011. due to recent publications reporting the presence mecc (a meca homolog not detected by traditional meca-based pcr methods), a combination of genotypic and phenotypic approaches was used to enhance the recovery ...201424582450
detection of the staphylococcal multiresistance gene cfr in macrococcus caseolyticus and jeotgalicoccus pinnipedialis.to investigate the presence and the genetic environment of the multiresistance gene cfr in jeotgalicoccus pinnipedialis and macrococcus caseolyticus from pigs.201222577104
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