chemical epigenetics alters the secondary metabolite composition of guttate excreted by an atlantic-forest-soil-derived penicillium citreonigrum.chemical epigenetic manipulation of penicillium citreonigrum led to profound changes in the secondary metabolite profile of its guttate. while guttate from control cultures exhibited a relatively simple assemblage of secondary metabolites, the guttate collected from cultures treated with 50 mum 5-azacytidine (a dna methyltransferase inhibitor) was highly enriched in compounds representing at least three distinct biosynthetic families. the metabolites obtained from the fungus included six azaphil ...201020450206
a concise history of mycotoxin research.toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins entered human food supplies about the time when mankind first began to cultivate crops and to store them from one season to the next, perhaps 10,000 years ago. the storage of cereals probably initiated the transition by mankind from hunter-gatherer to cultivator, at the same time providing a vast new ecological niche for fungi pathogenic on grain crops or saprophytic on harvested grain, many of which produced mycotoxins. grains have always been the major source of ...201627960261
artificial antigen synthesis and the development of polyclonal antibody-based immunoassay for citreoviridin determination.citreoviridin, a mycotoxin produced by penicillium citreonigrum is a common contaminant of wide range of agri-products and detrimental to human and animal health. therefore it is important to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific immunoassay for citreoviridin detection. in this study, polyclonal antibody against citreoviridin was developed. for the preparation of citreoviridin-bovine serum albumin conjugate (cit-bsa), hydroxyl groups on adjacent carbon atoms were oxidized by sodium periodate, ...201423900904
halogenated metabolites isolated from penicillium citreonigrum.three chromone analogs, 1-3, a chlorinated alkaloid sclerotioramine (4), together with two 11-noreremophilane-type sesquiterpenes with a conjugated enolic oh group and a brominated one, 5 and 6, respectively, were isolated from penicillium citreonigrum (hq738282). compounds 1, 5, and 6 were new. biological tests revealed that 4 exhibited a significant activity (ic50 7.32 μg/ml), and 6 showed a moderate activity (ic50 16.31 μg/ml) in vitro against hepg2 cell line, and 4 also displayed an activity ...201425044593
preparation and identification of monoclonal antibody against citreoviridin and development of detection by ic-elisa.citreoviridin (cit), a neurotoxic mycotoxin produced by penicillium citreonigrum is generally detected in cereal grains and agricultural products worldwide, and has numerous toxicological effects on human and animal health. therefore, it is necessary to develop a rapid, sensitive, and reliable immunoassay method for cit. in this study, artificial antigen cit-klh and cit-bsa was successfully prepared via succinic anhydride and carbodiimide two-step method. cit-klh conjugates were injected into ba ...201425157801
purification and full characterisation of citreoviridin produced by penicillium citreonigrum in yeast extract sucrose (yes) medium.the mycotoxin citreoviridin has been associated with the 'yellow rice' disease, which caused cardiac beriberi in japan. in brazil, the consumption of contaminated rice was suspected to be involved in a recent beriberi outbreak. in this work, citreoviridin was produced by penicillium citreonigrum, cultivated in 500 ml yeast extract sucrose (yes) liquid medium for 8 days at 25ºc, and the toxin extracted with chloroform from the liquid medium and the mycelium. a total of 15.3 g of crude extract was ...201525190053
binding of citreoviridin to human serum albumin: multispectroscopic and molecular docking.citreoviridin (cit), a mycotoxin produced by penicillium citreonigrum, is a common contaminant of wide range of agriproducts and detrimental to human and animal health. in this study, the interaction of cit with human serum albumin (hsa) is researched by steady-state fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible (uv-vis) absorption, circular dichroism (cd) methods, and molecular modeling. the association constants, binding site numbers, and corresponding thermodynamic parameters are used to investigate the ...201525977915
selective cytotoxic eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes from penicillium new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene (1, citreopenin) was isolated from penicillium citreonigrum (hq738282), and the structure was elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic data interpretation and single-crystal x-ray diffraction analysis using cu kα radiation (ccdc 1030588). compound 1 showed weak activity against kb-vin (ic50 = 11.0 ± 0.156 μm), while the known compound 3 exhibited selective cytotoxicity against mda-mb-231 triple-negative breast cancer (tnbc) (ic50 = 5.42 ± 0.167 μm).201526666171
screening and molecular evolution of a single chain variable fragment antibody (scfv) against citreoviridin toxin.citreoviridin (cit), a small food-borne mycotoxin produced by penicillium citreonigrum, is generally distributed in various cereal grains and farm crop products around the world and has caused cytotoxicity as an uncompetitive inhibitor of atp hydrolysis. a high affinity single chain variable fragment (scfv) antibody that can detect the citreoviridin in samples is still not available; therefore, it is very urgent to prepare an antibody for cit detection and therapy. in this study, an amplified an ...201627622814
production of citreoviridin by penicillium citreonigrum strains associated with rice consumption and beriberi cases in the maranhão state, brazil.the aim of this study was to determine the levels of penicillium citreonigrum and citreoviridin present in rice samples from maranhão state, brazil, where an outbreak of beriberi was reported and 32 deaths occurred (7% of the notified cases died in 2006). the ability of p. citreonigrum to produce citreoviridin was assessed, and a total of 420 samples of 21 different kinds of rice were collected. mycobiota isolation and identification, the ability of citreoviridin strains to produce toxin, and th ...201019802756
hypersensitivity pneumonitis in peat moss processing plant workers.a nonsmoking 54-yr-old man, employed in a peat moss packaging plant, developed dyspnea and recurrent fever. the diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (hp) was made. thirteen of 14 coworkers and 13 nonexposed control subjects were studied. five workers were nonsmokers, two were minimal smokers, and six were smokers. hp was found in another subject. monocillium sp. and penicillium citreonigrum, 4.6 x 10(7) cfu/g, were found in the peat moss. three nonsmokers, the two minimal smokers (including ...19989700114
quaternary ammonium biocides as antimicrobial agents protecting historical wood and brick.quaternary ammonium compounds (qacs) are widely used in disinfection of water, surfaces and instruments as well as in textile, leather and food industries because of their relatively low toxicity, broad antimicrobial spectrum, non-volatility and chemical stability. due to these advantages, qacs are also used in restoration and can be applied on historical material. the aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of biocides based on quaternary ammonium salts and containing various excipien ...201626629794
occurrence of penicillium brocae and penicillium citreonigrum, which produce a mutagenic metabolite and a mycotoxin citreoviridin, respectively, in selected commercially available rice grains in thailand.commercially available rice grains in thailand were examined to isolate the monoverticillate penicillium species responsible for toxic yellowed rice. penicillium species were obtained from seven out of 10 rice samples tested. among them, one penicillium citreonigrum isolate and six penicillium brocae isolates were morphologically identified. the p. citreonigrum isolate produced the mycotoxin citreoviridin on a yeast extract sucrose broth medium. mycotoxin surveys showed that citreoviridin was no ...201728617318
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