the transmission of canine ehrlichiosis to the wild dog lycaon pictus (temminck) and black-backed jackal canis mesomelas schreber.canine ehrlichiosis was successfully transmitted from the domestic dog to three wild dogs lycaon pictus and three black-backed jackals canis mesomelas. wild dogs showed symptoms of anorexia and depression as well as anaemia, leucopaenia and mild thrombocytopaenia. black-backed jackals were asymptomatic. morulae of ehrlichicia canis were found in peripheral blood smears from all experimental animals. the disease was also successfully transmitted from black-backed jackal to the domestic dog.1979553960
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxii. ixodid ticks on domestic dogs and on wild carnivores.ixodid ticks were collected from 4 dogs on smallholdings near grahamstown, eastern cape province, on 1 or more occasions each week for periods ranging from 9-36 months. fourteen tick species were recovered and the seasonal abundance of adult haemaphysalis leachi and adult rhipicephalus simus was determined. complete collections of ticks were made from 50 caracals (felis caracal) in the cradock, graaff-reinet and southwell regions in the eastern cape province. the animals from cradock and graaff- ...19873444612
hydatid disease in the turkana district of kenya. iii. the significance of wild animals in the transmission of echinococcus granulosus, with particular reference to turkana and masailand in kenya.the results are given of a study on the role of wildlife in the transmission of echinococcus granulosus in the turkana and narok districts of kenya. a total of 76 wild carnivores belonging to three separate species was examined from turkana district. echinococcus adults were found in 11 of 38 silver-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) and in six of 22 golden jackals (canis aureus). this is the first record of golden jackals being infected with this parasite in kenya. none of 16 spotted hyaenas (cro ...19836882057
the transmission of babesia canis to the wild dog lycaon pictus (temminck) and black-backed jackal canis mesomelas schreber.babesia canis was successfully transmitted from the domestic dog to 3 wild dogs lycaon pictus and 4 black-backed jackals canis mesomelas. both wild dogs and black-backed jackals showed no clinical signs or clinical pathological evidence of disease. trophozoites of babesia canis were found in peripheral blood smears from all experimental animals. the disease was also successfully transmitted from both black-backed jackals and wild dogs to the domestic dog.19807252967
free-living jackals (canis mesomelas)-potential reservoir hosts for ehrlichia canis in kenya.using a modified cell culture test, ehrlichia canis was found in eight of 15 free-living jackals (canis mesomelas) and 14 of 31 dogs owned by pastoral communities in the same areas of kenya. two cross-bred puppies inoculated with blood from infected jackals developed mild, transient clinical disease, and e. canis was recovered from the puppies. tick species found on the jackals were similar to those found on the infected dogs. ehrlichia canis was not found in eight spotted hyaenas (crocuta crocu ...19807463598
application of immunoperoxidase techniques to formalin-fixed brain tissue for the diagnosis of rabies in southern africa.two immunoperoxidase techniques, viz. avidin-biotin complex (abc) and peroxidase-anti-peroxidase (pap) procedures, were applied to paraffin-wax-embedded brain-tissue sections, from brains which had been fixed in 10% formalin, to demonstrate the presence of rabies-virus antigen by light microscopy. these techniques positively identified both "viverrid" and "canid" rabies-virus antigen in tissues sections of species commonly infected with rabies virus in southern africa, viz. the domestic dog (can ...19947541123
serologic survey of selected canine pathogens among free-ranging jackals in kenya.serum samples from 76 free-ranging adult jackals of three species from four localities in kenya were examined for circulating antibodies against four canine pathogens: rabies virus, canine parvovirus (cpv-2), canine distemper virus (cdv), and ehrlichia canis. samples were collected between april 1987 and january 1988. among black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas), the most sampled species, the mean prevalence of antibodies to cpv-2, cdv, rabies virus, and e. canis was 34% (14 positive/55 sampled) ...19947760476
surveillance and control of anthrax and rabies in wild herbivores and carnivores in namibia.anthrax has been studied intensively in etosha national park, namibia since 1966; in addition, since 1975, mortality due to rabies and all other causes has been recorded, totalling 6,190 deaths. standard diagnostic procedures demonstrated that at least 811 deaths (13%) were due to anthrax and 115 deaths (2%) were caused by rabies. of the total number of deaths due to anthrax, 97% occurred in zebra (equus burchelli), elephant (loxodonta africana), wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus) and springbok ...19938518440
a canine distemper virus epidemic in serengeti lions (panthera leo).canine distemper virus (cdv) is thought to have caused several fatal epidemics in canids within the serengeti-mara ecosystem of east africa, affecting silver-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) and bat-eared foxes (otocyon megalotis) in 1978 (ref. 1), and african wild dogs (lycaon pictus) in 1991 (refs 2, 3). the large, closely monitored serengeti lion population was not affected in these epidemics. however, an epidemic caused by a morbillivirus closely related to cdv emerged abruptly in the lion p ...19968559247
efficacy of sad (berne) rabies vaccine given by the oral route in two species of jackal (canis mesomelas and canis adustus).eight black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) and seven side-striped jackals (canis adustus) were given sad (berne) rabies vaccine by direct oral instillation. three different vaccine doses were used: 10(6.3), 10(6.8) and 10(7.5) median tissue culture infectious doses. two additional jackals were given vaccine in chicken heads. one group of jackals was challenged with a lethal dose of jackal-derived rabies virus 1 mo after vaccination and a second group 12 mo after vaccination. all 17 vaccinated ...19958592368
the black-backed jackal (carnivora: canidae) in namibia as intermediate host of two sarcocystis species (protozoa: sarcocystidae).two structurally different sarcocysts are reported from the black-backed jackal (canis mesomelas) in namibia by means of light and transmission electron microscopy for the first time. they cannot be attributed to any of the hitherto described sarcocystis species from carnivora, of which the ultrastructure of the cyst wall is known.19958745738
ancylostoma genettae, a. protelesis, a. somaliense: three new species from wild carnivora in the somali republic.ancylostoma braziliense was found in somalia in acinonyx jubatus, canis familiaris, c. mesomelas, crocuta crocuta, felis catus, f. libyca, genetta genetta, otocyon megalotis, proteles cristatus; a. caninum in a. jubatus, c. familiaris, c. mesomelas, c. crocuta; a. duodenale in c. crocuta; a. iperodontatum in lynx caracal; a. paraduodenale in felis serval; a. tubaeforme in a. jubatus, f. catus, f. libyca; arthrocephalus gambiense in ichneumia albicauda; uncinaria parvibursata in mellivora capensi ...19958778662
aspects of rabies epidemiology in tsumkwe district, namibia.aspects of rabies epidemiology were investigated in the tsumkwe district, namibia, during december 1993 and january 1994. a cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey for rabies antibodies was carried out in domestic (n = 70) and wild dogs [lycaon pictus (n = 6)]. an overall seroprevalence rate of 30% was found in domestic dogs, but it must be borne in mind that seroconversion can result from infections from either rabies or rabies-related viruses. older dogs were more likely to be seropositive ...19979204502
contribution to the knowledge of helminthofauna of wild mammals of somalia.within a survey of parasitic infections in wild mammals of somalia, during the first semester of 1983 and the second of 1984, endoparasites were collected from 11 host species: gazella soemmeringi, gazella spekei, madoqua saltiana, phacochoerus aethiopicus, xerus rutilus, lepus sp., genetta genetta, herpestes (galerella) sanguineus, felis sylvestris libyca, felis caracal, canis mesomelas. a total of 22 species of helminths (20 nematode and 2 metacestode species) were identified. lepus sp. is a n ...19969257339
rabies in zimbabwe: reservoir dogs and the implications for disease control.using detailed field study observations of the side-striped jackal (canis adustus) and a simple stochastic model of the transmission dynamics of the virus and host demography, we discuss the epidemiology of rabies virus infection in the jackal population of zimbabwe. of the two jackal species in zimbabwe, the other being the black-backed jackal (canis mesomelas), the bulk of notified rabies cases are in side-striped jackals. specifically, we show that the side-striped jackal population itself do ...19989684293
efficacy of sag-2 oral rabies vaccine in two species of jackal (canis adustus and canis mesomelas).trials were carried out to test the efficacy of sag-2 oral rabies vaccine in two species of jackals, namely the side-striped jackal (c. adustus) and the black-backed jackal (c. mesomelas). the first trial tested the efficacy of sag-2 when given by direct oral administration at doses of 6.5 and 7.5 log10 median tissue culture infectious doses (tcid50). one side-striped jackal which had received the higher dose did not seroconvert and succumbed to challenge, while all other jackals seroconverted a ...199910075161
presence of antibodies to canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus type 1 in free-ranging jackals (canis adustus and canis mesomelas) in zimbabwe.a survey of free-ranging jackals (canis adustus and canis mesomelas) in zimbabwe was conducted to determine the prevalence of serum antibodies to canine distemper virus (cdv), canine parvovirus (cpv) and canine adenovirus type 1 (cav-1). sera from 16 canis adustus and 22 canis mesomelas were collected from 1990 to 1993 from various regions of zimbabwe and assayed by means of immunofluorescent techniques. seroprevalence in c. adustus and c. mesomelas respectively were 50% and 63.6% for cdv, 12.5% ...199910631712
temporal patterns of domestic and wildlife rabies in central namibia stock-ranching area, 1986-1996.eleven years (1986-1996) of wildlife- and domestic-rabies data from the agriculture stock-ranching area of central namibia were studied using time-series analysis. nine hundred and sixty three rabies cases were observed in domestic ruminants (5.4 cases/mo), black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas, 1.3 cases/mo), domestic dogs (0.5 case/mo), and bat-eared foxes (otocyon megalotis, 0.1 case/mo). the incidence of rabies for all species did not change significantly over the whole study period. however ...200010665948
a molecular phylogeny of the canidae based on six nuclear loci.we have reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of 23 species in the dog family, canidae, using dna sequence data from six nuclear loci. individual gene trees were generated with maximum parsimony (mp) and maximum likelihood (ml) analysis. in general, these individual gene trees were not well resolved, but several identical groupings were supported by more than one locus. phylogenetic analysis with a data set combining the six nuclear loci using mp, ml, and bayesian approaches produced a mo ...200516213754
a retrospective study of wildlife rabies in zimbabwe, between 1992 and assess the epidemiological features of wildlife rabies in zimbabwe, a retrospective study covering a period of 12 years (1992-2003) was conducted using rabies records of the central veterinary laboratories (cvl), department of veterinary technical services at harare. records of monthly and annual wildlife rabies were perused with regard to total samples submitted to the cvl and corresponding positive cases. positive cases were analyzed in relation to the animal species involved, seasonal tren ...200918758985
molecular epidemiology of rabies: focus on domestic dogs (canis familiaris) and black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) from northern south africa.phylogenetic relationships of rabies viruses recovered from black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) and domestic dogs (canis familiaris) in northern south africa were investigated to determine whether the black-backed jackal is an emerging maintenance host species for rabies in this region. a panel of 123 rabies viruses obtained from the two host species between 1980 and 2006 were characterised by nucleotide sequencing of the cytoplasmic domain of the glycoprotein gene and the non-coding g-l inte ...200919061924
epidemiology, pathology, and genetic analysis of a canine distemper epidemic in namibia.severe population declines have resulted from the spillover of canine distemper virus (cdv) into susceptible wildlife, with both domestic and wild canids being involved in the maintenance and transmission of the virus. this study (march 2001 to october 2003) collated case data, serologic, pathologic, and molecular data to describe the spillover of cdv from domestic dogs (canis familiaris) to black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) during an epidemic on the namibian coast. antibody prevalence in j ...200919901377
rabies virus and canine distemper virus in wild and domestic carnivores in northern kenya: are domestic dogs the reservoir?rabies virus (rv) and canine distemper virus (cdv) can cause significant mortality in wild carnivore populations, and rv threatens human lives. we investigated serological patterns of exposure to cdv and rv in domestic dogs (canis familiaris), african wild dogs (lycaon pictus), black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas), spotted hyenas (crocuta crocuta), striped hyenas (hyaena hyaena) and african lions (panthera leo), over a 10-year period, in a kenyan rangeland to assess the role domestic dogs may ...201223459924
black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) are natural hosts of babesia rossi, the virulent causative agent of canine babesiosis in sub-saharan africa.babesia rossi, which is transmitted by haemaphysalis spp. and is highly virulent to domestic dogs, occurs only in sub-saharan africa. since dogs are not native to the region, it has been postulated that the natural host of b. rossi is an indigenous african canid. although various attempts at artificial infection indicated that black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) could become subclinically infected with b. rossi, data on occurrence of b. rossi in free-ranging jackals was lacking. a long-term b ...201728285591
black-backed jackal exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus, and bacillus anthracis in etosha national park, namibia.canine distemper virus (cdv) and rabies virus (rabv) occur worldwide in wild carnivore and domestic dog populations and pose threats to wildlife conservation and public health. in etosha national park (enp), namibia, anthrax is endemic and generates carcasses frequently fed on by an unusually dense population of black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas). using serology, phylogenetic analyses (on samples obtained from february 2009-july 2010), and historical mortality records (1975-2011), we assesse ...201222493112
lactobacillus faecis sp. nov., isolated from animal faeces.three lactic acid bacteria were isolated from faeces of a jackal (canis mesomelas) and raccoons (procyron lotor). the isolates formed a subcluster in the lactobacillus salivarius phylogenetic group, closely related to lactobacillus animalis, lactobacillus apodemi and lactobacillus murinus, by phylogenetic analysis based on 16s rrna and reca gene sequences. levels of dna-dna relatedness revealed that the isolates belonged to the same taxon and were genetically separated from their phylogenetic re ...201323907223
comparative molecular phylogeny and evolution of sex chromosome dna sequences in the family canidae (mammalia: carnivora).to investigate the molecular phylogeny and evolution of the family canidae, nucleotide sequences of the zinc-finger-protein gene on the y chromosome (zfy, 924-1146 bp) and its homologous gene on the x chromosome (zfx, 834-839 bp) for twelve canid species were determined. the phylogenetic relationships among species reconstructed by the paternal zfy sequences closely agreed with those by mtdna and autosomal dna trees in previous reports, and strongly supported the phylogenetic affinity between th ...201222379982
morphology of the lingual papillae of the black-backed jackal (canis mesomelas).we examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult black-backed jackal (canis mesomelas) by using scanning electron microscopy. the filiform papilla on the lingual apex exhibited a crown-like shape with several pointed processes. the connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was u-shaped. the filiform papillae on the lingual body had several pointed processes. the connective tissue core of the filiform papillae consisted of one large and several small conical papillae. the fungiform papilla ...201425274405
large sequence divergence among mitochondrial dna genotypes within populations of eastern african black-backed discussions about the relative rate of molecular evolution, intraspecific variability in rate is rarely considered. an underlying assumption is that intraspecific sequence differences are small, and thus variations in rate would be difficult to detect or would not affect comparisons among distantly related taxa. however, several studies on mammalian mitochondrial dna (mtdna) have revealed considerable intraspecific sequence divergence. in this report, we test for differences in the rate of in ...19901968637
genotyping and comparative pathology of spirocerca in black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) in south africa.the pathology of spirocercosis, a disease caused by the infestation of carnivores with the nematode spirocerca lupi, has been extensively described in domestic dogs and coyotes. however, it has not been described in wild carnivores in south africa. the aim of this study was to evaluate whether black-backed jackals are a host for spirocerca species and to provide a detailed description of the associated pathology. jackals were also stratified according to age and the spirocerca species recovered ...201728814297
spatial variation in anthropogenic mortality induces a source-sink system in a hunted mesopredator.lethal carnivore management is a prevailing strategy to reduce livestock predation. intensity of lethal management varies according to land-use, where carnivores are more intensively hunted on farms relative to reserves. variations in hunting intensity may result in the formation of a source-sink system where carnivores disperse from high-density to low-density areas. few studies quantify dispersal between supposed sources and sinks-a fundamental requirement for source-sink systems. we used the ...201829388025
effects of host traits and land-use changes on the gut microbiota of the namibian black-backed jackal (canis mesomelas).host traits and environmental factors drive the natural variation in gut microbiota, and disruption in homeostasis can cause infections and chronic diseases. african wildlife is increasingly facing human-induced agricultural habitats, which also amplifies the contact probability with livestock with unknown consequences for wildlife gut microbiotas and the risk of transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria. we applied high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16s rrna genes and microsatellite ...201729029220
characterization of taenia madoquae and taenia regis from carnivores in kenya using genetic markers in nuclear and mitochondrial dna, and their relationships with other selected the present study, we have extended earlier taxonomic, biochemical and experimental investigations to characterize two species of taenia from carnivores in kenya by use of the sequences of a variable domain (d1) of nuclear ribosomal dna and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and nadh dehydrogenase 1 genes of mitochondrial dna. emphasis was placed on the characterization of taenia madoquae from the silver-backed jackal (canis mesomelas) and taenia regis from the lion (panthera leo), given the ...200717600673
the epidemiology of rabies in zimbabwe. 2. rabies in jackals (canis adustus and canis mesomelas).the epidemiology of rabies in canis adustus (the side-striped jackal) and canis mesomelas (the black-backed jackal) in zimbabwe is described using data collected from 1950-1996. cases in the two species made up 25.2% of all confirmed cases, second only to domestic dogs. since the species of jackal cases was not recorded on rabies submission forms, the country was divided into areas according to species dominance and jackal cases were assigned to either c. adustus or c. mesomelas dominant zones o ...199910396757
biology of the black-backed jackal canis mesomelas with reference to rabies.the black-backed jackal is represented in rabies records from southern africa and is suspected of playing an important role in the disease in this region. the basic biology of the species suggests that it does have certain characteristics that could make it an ideal rabies vector. however, the engimatically low incidence of rabies in undisturbed jackal populations suggests that more subtle processes may be involved. it is suggested that jackal society is arranged in the form of cryptic packs and ...19937777322
serum cortisol concentrations in captive tamed and untamed black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) and translocated dogs.serum cortisol levels were found to be higher in a group of captive untamed black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) than in a group of tame black-backed jackals. repeated venipuncture of domestic dogs in an accustomed environment did not result in a rise in serum cortisol levels. translocation of these dogs to a new environment resulted in a rapid but transient rise in serum cortisol levels.19827182497
comparative morphology of the mandibulodental complex in wild and domestic canids.the relationships between mandibular and dental measurements were investigated in a sample of 60 adult domestic dogs, 17 black-backed jackals canis mesomelas, 18 side-striped jackals c. adustus and 16 cape foxes vulpes chama. standard mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth measurements, together with 8 mandibular measurements (intercondylar distance, intercarnassial breadth, mandibular length, arch length, condylar height, canine-condylar length, mandibular width, mandibular height) were scaled allo ...19921487435
occurrence of hepatozoon canis (adeleorina: hepatozoidae) and anaplasma spp. (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae) in black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) in south africa.domestic dogs are not native to sub-saharan africa, which may account for their susceptibility to babesia rossi, of which endemic black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) are natural reservoirs. there is virtually no information on the occurrence of potentially pathogenic haemogregarines (e.g. hepatozoon canis) or even rickettsial bacteria (e.g. ehrlichia spp. and anaplasma spp.) in indigenous canids in sub-saharan africa. such organisms could pose a risk to domestic dogs, as well as to population ...201829554933
completing the cycle: haemaphysalis elliptica, the vector of babesia rossi, is the most prevalent tick infesting black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas), an indigenous reservoir host of b. rossi in south sub-saharan africa, virulent babesiosis in domestic dogs is primarily caused by babesia rossi. black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas), indigenous hosts of b. rossi, are the most likely reservoir from which b. rossi became established in domestic dog populations in south africa. haemaphysalis elliptica is the only confirmed vector transmitting b. rossi to domestic dogs; very little was known about the prevalence of h. elliptica infestation in black-backed jackal populations. all jackals (n = 9 ...202031718921
oral bait preferences for rabies vaccination in free-ranging black-backed jackal (canis mesomelas) and non-target species in a multi-site field study in a peri-urban protected area in south jackals (canis mesomelas) are small meso-predators that occur in the wild and around cities and towns in southern africa and have been associated with the spread of rabies in south africa. oral bait rabies vaccine has been used in europe and the usa for the control of rabies in reservoir species. the effectiveness of an oral vaccination strategy depends not only on the efficacy of the vaccine but on the uptake of the bait in the target species. this study evaluated factors associate ...202031927421
culling recolonizing mesopredators increases livestock losses: evidence from the south african karoo.populations of adaptable mesopredators are expanding globally where passive rewilding and natural recolonization are taking place, increasing the risk of conflict with remaining livestock farmers. we analysed data from two social surveys of farmers in the karoo, south africa, where black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) and caracals (caracal caracal) have re-emerged as a threat to sheep farms in the context of falling agricultural employment and the expansion of natural areas. we show that irres ...202031679108
patterns of livestock depredation and cost-effectiveness of fortified livestock enclosures in northern tanzania.human-carnivore conflicts and retaliatory killings contribute to carnivore populations' declines around the world. strategies to mitigate conflicts have been developed, but their efficacy is rarely assessed in a randomized case-control design. further, the economic costs prevent the adoption and wide use of conflict mitigation strategies by pastoralists in rural africa. we examined carnivore (african lion [panthera leo], leopard [panthera pardus], spotted hyena [crocuta crocuta], jackal [canis m ...201931641483
are the gut microbial systems of giant pandas unstable?animals have stable dominant gut microbiomes under similar diets. similar diets can also lead to similar gut microbial communities within host species levels. giant pandas (ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red pandas (ailurus fulgens) have had long-term and stable bamboo diets, and seem well adapted to this highly fibrous diet. when compared to the gut microbiomes of père david's deer (elaphurus davidianus), humans, cheetah (acinonyx jubatus), black-backed jackal (canis-mesomelas), and black bear (ur ...201931687574
species-specific differences in toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and besnoitia besnoiti seroprevalence in namibian wildlife.knowledge about parasitic infections is crucial information for animal health, particularly of free-ranging species that might come into contact with livestock and humans.202031915056
diversity of spirocerca lupi in domestic dogs and black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) from south africa.spirocerca lupi is a parasitic nematode that causes spirocercosis predominantly in domestic dogs. spirocerca lupi nematode samples were collected from four regions around south africa and analyzed to compare the genetic diversity among the regions. a total of 56 s. lupi nematodes were obtained by necropsy from domestic dogs and wild black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas). sixteen different haplotypes of cox1 were identified some of which are shared between regions as well as with black-backed ja ...201728917318
seasonal changes in the immunolocalization of cytoskeletal proteins and laminin in the testis of the black-backed jackal (canis mesomelas).manipulation of the reproductive activity of jackals is dependent on a thorough understanding of the reproductive biology of this species. this study describes seasonal morphological changes in the adult testis of the black-backed jackal in relation to the immunoexpression of the basement membrane marker, laminin and the cytoskeletal proteins, cytokeratin, smooth muscle actin and vimentin. laminin was immunolocalized in basement membranes surrounding seminiferous tubules, as well as in basement ...201727477545
oligotyping reveals differences between gut microbiomes of free-ranging sympatric namibian carnivores (acinonyx jubatus, canis mesomelas) on a bacterial species-like level.recent gut microbiome studies in model organisms emphasize the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the variation of the bacterial composition and its impact on the overall health status of the host. species occurring in the same habitat might share a similar microbiome, especially if they overlap in ecological and behavioral traits. so far, the natural variation in microbiomes of free-ranging wildlife species has not been thoroughly investigated. the few existing studies exploring micr ...201425352837
feliform carnivores have a distinguished constitutive innate immune response.determining the immunological phenotype of endangered and threatened populations is important to identify those vulnerable to novel pathogens. among mammals, members of the order carnivora are particularly threatened by diseases. we therefore examined the constitutive innate immune system, the first line of protection against invading microbes, of six free-ranging carnivore species; the black-backed jackal (canis mesomelas), the brown hyena (hyena brunnea), the caracal (caracal caracal), the che ...201627044323
non-adaptive phenotypic evolution of the endangered carnivore lycaon pictus.decline in wild populations as a result of anthropogenic impact is widely considered to have evolutionary consequences for the species concerned. here we examine changes in developmental stability in the painted hunting dog (lycaon pictus), which once occupied most of sub-saharan africa but has undergone a dramatic population decline in the last century. fluctuating asymmetry (fa) was used as an indicator of developmental stability and measured in museum skull specimens spanning a hundred year p ...201324086298
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