[immunodiffusion analysis of plasma proteins in the canine family].immunodiffusion studies have been made on the plasma of 9 species (vulpes vulpes, v. corsak, alopex lagopus, canis aureus, c. lupus, c. familiaris, c. dingo, nyctereutes procynoides, fennecus zerde) from the family of canidae using milk antisera. unlike rabbit antisera used earlier, milk antisera make it possible to detect more significant antigenic divergency with respect to 5 alpha- and beta-globulins. these globulins seem to have a higher evolution rate of antigenic mosaics as compared to oth ...197662473
studies of calcitonin cells & parathyroid glands of the indian jackal canis aureus (linn.-lex) in response to experimental hypercalcaemia. 1979317490
trichiniasis among the animals in north eastern iran (1), 1969, 1976, 1969, 1976 and 1977, 1,039 rodents and carnivores collected from north east iran were examined for trichinella spiralis. eighty four per cent of golden jackals, 30 per cent of red foxes and nine per dent of dogs were found to be infected. the importance of wild boar sus scrofa as the source of infection is discussed.1979318000
[visceral leishmaniasis in central asia and kazakhstan].at present sporadic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (vl) are encountered mainly in the natural foci. the natural foci of vl are situated mainly in valleys and foothills. in southern areas of the turkmen ssr the majority of cases were registered in small settlements situated near wells in interbarkhan lowerings. the reservoir of pathogen here may be vulpes vulpes and dogs and the most likely vector is phlebotomus turanicus. in kazakhstan cases of vl are encountered in the thickets of the syr-darya ...19902146471
hydatid disease in the turkana district of kenya. iii. the significance of wild animals in the transmission of echinococcus granulosus, with particular reference to turkana and masailand in kenya.the results are given of a study on the role of wildlife in the transmission of echinococcus granulosus in the turkana and narok districts of kenya. a total of 76 wild carnivores belonging to three separate species was examined from turkana district. echinococcus adults were found in 11 of 38 silver-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) and in six of 22 golden jackals (canis aureus). this is the first record of golden jackals being infected with this parasite in kenya. none of 16 spotted hyaenas (cro ...19836882057
comparative anatomy of the cardiac foramen ovale in cats (felidae), dogs (canidae), bears (ursidae) and hyaenas (hyaenidae).the structure of the foramen ovale from 16 species representing 4 carnivore families, the felidae, canidae, ursidae and hyaenidae, was studied using the scanning electron microscope. the felidae were represented by 9 domestic cat fetuses (felis catus), 2 snow leopard neonates (uncia uncia), an ocelot neonate (leopardus pardalis), 2 lion neonates (panthera leo), a panther neonate (panthera pardus) and 3 tigers (neofelis tigris), comprising 2 fetuses and a neonate. the canidae were represented by ...19957649822
serologic survey of selected canine pathogens among free-ranging jackals in kenya.serum samples from 76 free-ranging adult jackals of three species from four localities in kenya were examined for circulating antibodies against four canine pathogens: rabies virus, canine parvovirus (cpv-2), canine distemper virus (cdv), and ehrlichia canis. samples were collected between april 1987 and january 1988. among black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas), the most sampled species, the mean prevalence of antibodies to cpv-2, cdv, rabies virus, and e. canis was 34% (14 positive/55 sampled) ...19947760476
pathological study of visceral leishmaniasis in a jackal (canis aureus). 19968890465
oral rabies vaccination of red foxes and golden jackals in israel: preliminary bait evaluation.field trials were conducted in late april to early may of 1995 and 1996 in central israel to assess the potential for controlling rabies in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (canis aureus) by using vaccine-laden baits. of the bait types which were field tested, polymer fish meal baits were selected as the most suitable for both species. fish meal baits containing tetracycline hydrochloride, an oral biomarker, were distributed by four-wheel-drive vehicle at a density of approximately 3 ...19979567312
helminths of foxes and other wild carnivores from rural areas in greece.twenty species of helminth parasites were identified from fox, wolf, jackal and wild cat material collected in greece. of the 314 foxes (vulpes vulpes) examined, 18 helminth species were recovered comprising one trematode, eight cestodes, seven nematodes and two acanthocephalans, with the cestode species mesocestoides sp. (73.2%), joyeuxiella echinorhynchoides (24.5%) and the nematode species uncinaria stenocephala (43.9%), and toxara canis (28.6%) being the most prevalent. five cestode and thre ...19979705680
antibodies reactive with ehrlichia canis, ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup antigens and the spotted fever group rickettsial antigens, in free-ranging jackals (canis aureus syriacus) from israel.a seroepidemiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of antibodies reactive with the ehrlichia canis and ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup antigens, and the spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae antigens in jackals in israel (canis aureus syriacus), to assess the possible role of the jackal in the epidemiology of these diseases. fifty-three serum samples from jackals were assayed by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. antibodies to e. canis were detected in 35.8% ...199910321583
safety evaluation of the sag2 rabies virus mutant in tunisian dogs and several non-target species.the safety of the sag2 rabies virus, a highly attenuated mutant of the sad strain intended to vaccinate dogs by the oral route, was evaluated in local tunisian dogs and in five other local species likely to consume vaccine baits. these species were the domestic cat (felis catus), the jackal (canis aureus), the jerboa (jaculus orientalis), the merion (meriones sp.) and the gerbil (gerbillus campestris). the vaccine was administered orally to 21 dogs, 11 cats and eight jackals and orally or intram ...199910478416
isolation of pathogenic yersiniae from wild animals in bulgaria.pathogenic yersinia strains were isolated between december 1998 and april 1999 from 37 wild animals: rabbit (lepus europeus), boar (sus scrofa scrofa), asiatic jackal (canis aureus), red fox (vulpes vulpes), mouflon (ovis musimon), european river otter (lutra lutra), beech marten (martes foina), polecat (musleta putorius) and wild cat (felis silvestris). it was established that among the wild animals y. enterocolitica strains of serotype 0:3 predominated, accompanied by y. pseudotuberculosis str ...200111393816
antibodies to selected canine pathogens and infestation with intestinal helminths in golden jackals (canis aureus) in israel.blood and fecal samples, collected from 46 healthy adult free-ranging golden jackals captured in two different locations in israel, were examined. a serological study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of circulating antibodies reacting with four common canine pathogens: canine distemper virus (cdv), canine parvovirus (cpv), ehrlichia canis and leishmania infantum. faecal flotation and haematological tests were also performed. the seroprevalence of cpv, e. canis, cdv, and l. infantum we ...200111409931
echinococcosis/hydatidosis in western the present study, 115 stray dogs (56 males and 59 females, mixed breed), 86 golden jackal (canis aureus, 42 males and 44 females), 60 red foxes (vulpes vulpes, 33 males and 27 females), and three female wolves (canis lupus) were examined for echinococcus granulosus infection, as well as, 32,898 sheep, 10,691 goats, 15,779 cattle and 659 buffaloes for hydatid infection from five provinces in western iran during 3 years (1997-2000). meanwhile fertility rates of different types and forms of cys ...200211900930
epidemiological aspects of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the islamic republic of epidemiological study to examine the sero-prevalence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis (zvl) among domestic and wild canines in endemic foci of iran was carried out during 1999-2003 to assess the distribution of the disease and the possible association between infection in dogs, wild canines and people. anti-leishmanial antibodies were detected by the direct agglutination test (dat). parasitological study was performed for all captured wild canines and were detected in some of the seropositi ...200515845279
haematological and biochemical measurements in healthy, adult, free-ranging golden jackals (canis aureus syriacus) held in captivity.blood from 31 healthy, free-ranging golden jackals held in captivity for seven days was collected while they were anaesthetised. haematological and serum biochemical measurements were analysed and the 95 per cent confidence interval for each variable was compared with the reference value for domestic dogs. the measurements of their red blood cells were within the reference interval for dogs, but the jackals had higher white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts than dogs. the male jackals had ...200516155240
low seroprevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum in wild canids in israel.the role of domestic dogs in the epidemiology of neospora caninum as well as the relationship between n. caninum infection of farm dogs and cattle were demonstrated, however, evidence is scarce regarding the role of wild canids in domestic animal neosporosis. the present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of wild canids in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis in israel by analyzing the prevalence of antibodies to n. caninum in wild canids. sera samples were collected from 114 free rangi ...200616436314
seroprevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum among healthy dogs and horses in israel.the presence of reacting antibodies to anaplasma phagocytophilum has previously been demonstrated in israel, both in humans and the golden jackal (canis aureus syriacus). this study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of a. phagocytophilum antibodies in two additional potential hosts, domestic dogs and horses in order to investigate the possibility of exposure to the organism in israel. of 195 dogs tested, 9% were seroreactive with a. phagocytophilum antigen and 30% were seroreactive ...200616626404
[first report of a human case of trichinellosis due to trichinella britovi after jackal (canis aureus) meat consumption in algeria].we report a single case of trichinellosis contracted in algeria (batna region), in a practising moslim. shortly after returning to france in november 2004, the patient developed the typical clinical and biological signs of the disease. although the patient claimed having only eaten mutton, an unusual host for trichinella, a meticulous investigation revealed that he also had eaten a grilled leg of jackal (canis aureus). one of the four trichinella larvae detected in a muscular biopsy enabled us t ...200616821437
rabies vaccination programme for red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (canis aureus) in israel (1999-2004).since 1956, red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and, to a lesser extent, golden jackals (canis aureus), have been the primary vectors maintaining endemic wildlife rabies in israel. starting in the autumn of 1998, oral rabies vaccination campaigns have been conducted in israel targeting these two wildlife species, with increasing yearly geographical extension. significant data have been accumulated from an area of approximately 5,200 km2 in northern israel. in the spring of 2003 the project was extended to ...200616878470
a study on intestinal helminthes of dogs, foxes and jackals in the western part of iran.human infection especially with helminth parasites is an emerging health issue, as the human environment is increasingly shared with infected animals, either pets or wild life. in this survey, the intestinal content of 83 stray dogs, 22 red foxes and 10 golden jackals collected from the west azarbaijan, kordestan and kermanshah provinces in the west of iran, were studied for the presence of helminth parasites. the percentage of different species recovered from these animals is listed as follows: ...200616899340
hepatozoon canis infection in slovakia: imported or autochthonous?tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the michalovce district (slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by pcr method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18s rrna spanning the v4 region of babesia and theileria. an unexpected determination of 450 bp dna fragment of hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. partial sequences of the 18s rrna gene from the h. can ...200717627439
presence of antibotulinum neurotoxin antibodies in selected wild canids in israel.serum samples from 35 golden jackals (canis aureus syriacus), eight wolves (canis lupus), and four red foxes (vulpes vulpes) from various regions of israel were collected during the years 2001-04 and tested for antibodies to clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (bont) types c and d. antibodies against bont types c and d were detected in 10 (29%) and in 3 (9%) of 35 golden jackals, respectively, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. this report describes detection of anti bont antibodies in wild c ...200717699099
first identification of trichinella sp. in golden jackal (canis aureus) in romania.larvae of trichinella sp. were identified in a golden jackal (canis aureus) from romania by both trichinelloscopy and artificial digestion. the larvae were identified as trichinella britovi using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction biotyping method. this is the first report of trichinella sp. in a jackal in romania.200818436679
the rabies situation in the middle east.rabies is a public health problem of significant importance in the majority of southern and eastern mediterranean and middle eastern countries. in some of these countries, there is a considerable death rate due to rabies. dogs are the main source of human infection, while cats constitute the second most important group of domestic animals followed by cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys and then wild animals. there are around 300 reported human cases in these regions annually, with several hund ...200818634465
assessment of the efficacy of oral vaccination of livestock guardian dogs in the framework of oral rabies vaccination of wild canids in israel.since 1956, red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (canis aureus) have been the primary vectors maintaining wildlife rabies in israel. oral rabies vaccination of wild canids, initiated in 1998, resulted in near-elimination of the disease in wildlife by 2005. in 2005 and 2006, an outbreak of rabies was observed in stray dogs in the vaccinated area of the golan heights, with no cases in foxes or jackals. epidemiological investigations showed that the infected dogs were from territories acros ...200818634475
echinococcus in the wild carnivores and stray dogs of northern tunisia: the results of a pilot survey.echinococcus granulosus is endemic throughout tunisia and e. multilocularis has previously been reported as the cause of two cases of human alveolar echinococcosis in the north-west of the country. the aim of the present study was to screen wild carnivores from the north-western jendouba governorate and semi-stray dogs from the siliana and sejnane regions of northern tunisia for these two zoonotic cestodes. the results of the coproscopy, coproelisa and copropcr that were undertaken were compared ...200919508750
evaluation of the suitability of application of golden jackal (canis aureus) hair as a noninvasive technique for determination of body burden evaluation of suitability of applying hair as a noninvasive indicator for determination of the body burden mercury in mammals was carried out by determining the concentration of mercury in hair and liver tissue of the golden jackal, canis aureus . nineteen jackals killed on the roads along the caspian sea in the central region of mazandaran province, iran were collected. the mercury measurements were carried out by ama254 leco and the standard method astm-d6722. spss and excel were used for a ...201020596768
leishmania tropica infection in golden jackals and red foxes, israel.during a survey of wild canids, internal transcribed spacer 1 real-time pcr and high-resolution melt analysis identified leishmania tropica in samples from jackals and foxes. infection was most prevalent in ear and spleen samples. jackals and foxes may play a role in the spread of zoonotic l. tropica.201021122235
a large survey of croatian wild mammals for giardia duodenalis reveals a low prevalence and limited zoonotic potential.abstract wild mammals are considered an important source of potentially zoonotic giardia duodenalis parasites, yet surprisingly little information is available on the actual prevalence and the genetic identity of the species they harbor. a large survey was conducted in croatia by collecting 832 fecal samples from red deer (cervus elaphus, n = 374), roe deer (capreolus capreolus, n = 21), wild boars (sus scrofa, n = 144), foxes (vulpes vulpes, n = 66), bears (ursus arctos, n = 19), wolves (canis ...201021142957
first surveys to investigate the presence of canine leishmaniasis and its phlebotomine vectors in hungary.hungary is regarded as free of leishmaniasis because only a few imported cases have been reported. however, southern hungary has a sub-mediterranean climate, and so it was included in the eu fp6 eden project, which aimed to map the northern limits of canine leishmaniasis (canl) in europe. the numbers of traveling and imported dogs have increased in the last decade, raising concerns about the introduction of canl caused by leishmania infantum. serum samples were collected from 725 dogs (22 locali ...201121254904
[Leishmania infantum MON-1 isolated from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Grande Kabylie (Algeria).]In the north of Algeria, Leishmania infantum is responsible for two clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, for which dogs are the only proven reservoir host. In this study, the authors report, for the first time, the isolation of L. Infantum from a golden jackal (Canis aureus) trapped in the Illoulen ou Malou region (Grande Kabylie). Two isolates were thus obtained from bone marrow and spleen and were identified by starch gel isoenzyme electrophoresis as L. Infant ...201121874583
spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from wild animals in israel.we report molecular evidence for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae (sfgr) in ticks collected from roe deer, addax, red foxes, and wild boars in israel. rickettsia aeschlimannii was detected in hyalomma marginatum and hyalomma detritum while rickettsia massiliae was present in rhipicephalus turanicus ticks. furthermore, a novel uncultured sfgr was detected in haemaphysalis adleri and haemaphysalis parva ticks from golden jackals. the pathogenicity of the novel sfgr for humans is unk ...201122049050
first molecular evidence of hepatozoon canis infection in red foxes and golden jackals from hungary.recently, hepatozoon canis infection has been detected among shepherd, hunting and stray dogs in the southern part of hungary, which is considered to be free of rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and close to the border with croatia. the aim of this study was to acquire information on the possibility that red foxes and/or golden jackals could play a role in the appearance and spread of h. canis in hungary.201424985073
role of golden jackals (canis aureus) as natural reservoirs of dirofilaria spp. in romania.dirofilaria immitis and dirofilaria repens are mosquito-transmitted zoonotic nematodes, causing heartworm disease and skin lesions, respectively, in carnivores. in europe, the domestic dog is apparently the main definitive host, but patent infections occur also in other species of carnivores. the rapid spread of the golden jackals (canis aureus) throughout europe opens a question of involvement of this species in the sylvatic cycle of pathogens in the colonised territories, including dirofilaria ...201627121617
the geographical distribution and prevalence of echinococcus multilocularis in animals in the european union and adjacent countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.this study aimed to provide a systematic review on the geographical distribution of echinococcus multilocularis in definitive and intermediate hosts in the european union (eu) and adjacent countries (ac). the relative importance of the different host species in the life-cycle of this parasite was highlighted and gaps in our knowledge regarding these hosts were identified.201627682156
divergent sapovirus strains and infection prevalence in wild carnivores in the serengeti ecosystem: a long-term study.the genus sapovirus, in the family caliciviridae, includes enteric viruses of humans and domestic animals. information on sapovirus infection of wildlife is limited and is currently lacking for any free-ranging wildlife species in africa. by screening a large number of predominantly fecal samples (n = 631) obtained from five carnivore species in the serengeti ecosystem, east africa, sapovirus rna was detected in the spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta, family hyaenidae), african lion (panthera leo, f ...201627661997
endoparasitic fauna of red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (canis aureus) in serbia.wild canides have a high epizootiological - epidemiological significance, considering that they are hosts for some parasites which spread vector born diseases. increased frequency of certain interactions between domestic and wild canides increases the risk of occurrence, spreading and maintaining the infection of parasitic etiology in domestic canides. the research was conducted in 232 wild canides (172 red foxes and 60 golden jackals). the examined material was sampled from foxes and jackals, w ...201627078664
data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (canis aureus l., 1758) in hungary, twenty canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. two coccidia: cystoisospora canis (15%) and toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one trematoda: alaria alata (10%), six cestoda: mesocestoides lineatus (20%), echinococcus granulosus (10%), dipylidium caninums (5%), taenia hydatigena (15%), taenia pisiformis (20%), taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine nematoda: angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), crenosoma vulpis (30%), capillaria aerophila (5%), toxocara c ...201424334089
levels of infection of intestinal helminth species in the golden jackal canis aureus from serbia.during the past decade, golden jackal populations have substantially increased, yet little is known of their potential for transmitting parasites within animal and human hosts. in the present study, between 2005 and 2010, 447 jackals from six localities in serbia were examined for intestinal parasites. two species of trematodes (alaria alata, pseudamphistomum truncatum), three nematodes (toxocara canis, ancylostoma caninum, gongylonema sp.), and seven cestodes (taenia pisiformis, taenia hydatige ...201523941681
intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from tunisia.forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (canis aureus linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (vulpes vulpes linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. all jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. a total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, dipylidium caninum (55.6%), ...201424938826
combined serological detection of circulating angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and parasite-specific antibodies in dogs from hungary.the occurrence of the nematode angiostrongylus vasorum, also known as the french heartworm, is increasingly being reported from various european countries. the adults of this parasite species live in the pulmonary arteries and right cardiac ventricle of wild canids and domestic dogs. larval stages and eggs in the lungs induce inflammatory verminous pneumonia, causing severe respiratory disease in dogs. furthermore, haematological and neurological signs and even death may occur. in hungary, a. va ...201526152415
detection of bartonella spp. in wild carnivores, hyraxes, hedgehog and rodents from israel.bartonella infection was explored in wild animals from israel. golden jackals (canis aureus), red foxes (vulpes vulpes), rock hyraxes (procavia capensis), southern white-breasted hedgehogs (erinaceus concolor), social voles (microtus socialis), tristram's jirds (meriones tristrami), cairo spiny mice (acomys cahirinus), house mice (mus musculus) and indian crested porcupines (hystrix indica) were sampled and screened by molecular and isolation methods. bartonella-dna was detected in 46 animals: 9 ...201627210612
molecular evidence of ehrlichia canis and rickettsia massiliae in ixodid ticks of carnivores from south monitor the emergence of thermophilic, mediterranean ixodid tick species and tick-borne pathogens in southern hungary, 348 ticks were collected from shepherd dogs, red foxes and golden jackals during the summer of 2011. golden jackals shared tick species with both the dog and the red fox in the region. dermacentor nymphs were collected exclusively from dogs, and the sequence identification of these ticks indicated that dogs are preferred hosts of both d. reticulatus and d. marginatus nymphs, ...201323439290
retrospective study on the distribution of dirofilaria immitis in dogs in hungary.europe has experienced the spreading of vector-borne helminths including heartworms (dirofilaria immitis) from the mediterranean countries towards the northern ones in the past decades. recently, the establishment of d. immitis was confirmed in hungary on the basis of period prevalence studies involving dogs, red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (canis aureus). the aim of our retrospective study was to describe the spatial distribution of the parasite and the time course of spreading of ...201626995726
morphological and molecular identification of dirofilaria immitis from jackal (canis aureus) in north khorasan, northeast iran.the heartworm dirofilaria immitis is an important mosquito-borne zoonotic nematode of domestic and wild mammals throughout the world, causing cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. this parasite has been reported from carnivores in some provinces of iran. however, in the present study, the occurrence of this filarial nematode is reported for the first time in wild canids of the north khorasan province, located in northeast iran, based on morphological and molecular characteristics.201526714514
first findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from serbia.heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. during the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild ca ...201424951168
dirofilaria immitis: an emerging parasite in dogs, red foxes and golden jackals in hungary.hungary was not considered to be a heartworm (dirofilaria immitis) endemic country until 2007, when the first autochthonous canine infection was described. herein we report additional autochthonous heartworm infections in two dogs (canis familiaris), twenty red foxes (vulpes vulpes) (n=534; prevalence: 3.7%; 95% ci=2.4-5.7%) and two golden jackals (canis aureus) (n=27; prevalence: 7.4%; 95% ci=2.1-23.4%) coming from eight counties. the identification of the parasite was based on morphology, morp ...201424810374
first records of dirofilaria repens in wild canids from the region of central balkan.dirofilaria repens causes an emerging zoonotic disease in europe, particularly in its southern part, the mediterranean region. many reports on human dirofilariosis have been published recently, but little is known about the wildlife hosts and reservoirs of this parasite in nature. this paper presents the first records of adult d. repens specimens from free-ranging carnivores in central balkan countries (serbia and macedonia). during the period 2009-2013, a total of 145 regularly shot canids were ...201425410390
differential detection of echinococcus spp. copro-dna by nested-pcr in domestic and wild definitive hosts in moghan plain, iran.despite echinococcus granulosus, there are merely two old reports of e. multilocularis infection among iranian canids of moghan plain, the only area known endemic for the species. we detected specific dna markers in fecal samples by pcr (copro-pcr) for differential diagnosis of echinococcus species in living canids.201323682268
echinococcus multilocularis and trichinella spiralis in golden jackals (canis aureus) of hungary.over the last decades the distribution area of the golden jackal (canis aureus) has increased significantly in europe, particularly in the balkan peninsula and in central europe. vagrant individuals were described in many european countries. herein, we report echinococcus multilocularis (total worm count: 412) and trichinella spiralis (101 larvae/g for muscles of the lower forelimb) infections in two golden jackals shot in hungary. it is a new host record of e. multilocularis and t. spiralis in ...201323688637
rhipicephalus turanicus, a new vector of hepatozoon canis.the distribution of hepatozoon canis mainly encompasses areas where its main tick vector, rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, is present. however, the detection of this pathogen in dogs, foxes and golden jackals well outside the areas inhabited by this tick species reinforced the hypothesis that additional ixodids are involved in the life cycle and transmission of this protozoon. the present study provides, for the first time, data supporting the sporogonic development of h. canis in specimens ...201627998321
high prevalence of hepatozoon-infection among shepherd dogs in a region considered to be free of rhipicephalus sanguineus.blood samples and ticks were collected from 100 shepherd dogs, 12 hunting dogs and 14 stray dogs in southern hungary, in order to screen them for the presence of hepatozoon spp. by pcr. out of 126 blood samples, 33 were positive (26%). significantly more shepherd dogs (31%) were infected, than hunting (8%) and stray dogs (7%). three genotypes of hepatozoon canis were identified by sequencing, differing from each other in up to six nucleotides in the amplified portion of their 18s rrna gene. in d ...201323499483
a golden jackal (canis aureus) from austria bearing hepatozoon canis--import due to immigration into a non-endemic area?the protozoan hepatozoon canis, which is transmitted via ingestion of infected ticks by canine hosts, is not endemic to mid-latitude regions in europe. its distribution is supposed to be linked to the occurrence of its primary tick vector rhipicephalus sanguineus. a young male golden jackal (canis aureus) found as road kill close to vienna, austria, was infected by this pathogen. cloning and sequencing of the pcr product revealed 6 different haplotypes of h. canis. based on the sequences, no cle ...201323306030
canine visceral leishmaniasis in wild canines (fox, jackal, and wolf) in northeastern iran using parasitological, serological, and molecular methods.although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (cvl) in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of iran, investigations on cvl in wild canines are rare.201628032106
schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (canis aureus).this report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (canis aureus) housed in amirthi zoological park, javadu hills, vellore. the animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. the eggs were identif ...201525698875
thelazia callipaeda in wild carnivores from romania: new host and geographical records.thelazia callipaeda is a vector-borne zoonotic nematode parasitizing the conjunctival sac of domestic and wild carnivores, rabbits and humans, with a vast distribution in asia and the former soviet union. in europe, the nematode has an emerging trend, being reported in italy, france, switzerland, germany, spain, portugal, bosnia and herzegovina, croatia, romania, greece and serbia, with human cases known in italy, france, spain, serbia and croatia. in romania, the infection was so far reported o ...201627316971
high prevalence of trichinella spp. in sylvatic carnivore mammals of latvia.trichinella spp. are zoonotic parasites transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked meat of different animal species. carnivore mammals are important reservoir hosts of these nematodes. the aims of this work were to establish the prevalence of trichinella spp. and infection intensity in sylvatic carnivore mammals of latvia, to identify the etiological agents at the species level and their circulation in the latvian regions. from 2010 to 2014, muscle samples were coll ...201627091108
a large-scale study of the trichinella genus in the golden jackal (canis aureus) population in serbia.over the last decades the golden jackal (canis aureus) has significantly expanded its range throughout southeast and central europe, and the balkan peninsula is considered to be a core area of the species distribution in this part of the range. due to its increasing number, ability of long distance movement through a wide range of landscapes and opportunistic feeding habits, the golden jackal may represent an important reservoir and transmitter of a variety of zoonotic agents, including parasite ...201526260409
trichinella britovi in the jackal canis aureus from south-west iran.trichinellosis is an important helminthic food-borne zoonosis, which is caused by nematodes of the genus trichinella. although, trichinella spp. has been detected frequently in iranian wildlife, this parasitic infection is not considered a major public health problem. this is largely because islamic codes forbid consumption of pork meat in this country. however, knowledge about this zoonotic pathogen is important because human trichinellosis has been documented in countries where most of the pop ...201423656910
trichinella infections in different host species of an endemic district of serbia.trichinella infections are endemic in the balkan region of europe. though trichinellosis and agents thereof are serious problems for human health and animal husbandry, only a limited number of trichinella isolates from serbia have been identified at the species level so far. the aim of the present study was the surveillance and monitoring of trichinella in domestic pigs and wild animals from the endemic district of branicevo. investigations performed during the 2009-2010 period revealed trichine ...201323453823
molecular assessment of hepatozoon (apicomplexa: adeleorina) infections in wild canids and rodents from north africa, with implications for transmission dynamics across taxonomic groups.parasites play a major role in ecosystems, and understanding of host-parasite interactions is important for predicting parasite transmission dynamics and epidemiology. however, there is still a lack of knowledge about the distribution, diversity, and impact of parasites in wildlife, especially from remote areas. hepatozoon is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that is transmitted by ingestion of infected arthropod vectors. however, alternative modes of transmission have been identified such as tr ...201425050803
genome-wide evidence reveals that african and eurasian golden jackals are distinct species.the golden jackal of africa (canis aureus) has long been considered a conspecific of jackals distributed throughout eurasia, with the nearest source populations in the middle east. however, two recent reports found that mitochondrial haplotypes of some african golden jackals aligned more closely to gray wolves (canis lupus), which is surprising given the absence of gray wolves in africa and the phenotypic divergence between the two species. moreover, these results imply the existence of a previo ...201526234211
accumulation of metals in liver tissues of sympatric golden jackal (canis aureus) and red fox (vulpes vulpes) in the southern part of romania.several previous study results have already demonstrated that golden jackal and red fox may serve as biological indicators of trace elements and heavy metal concentrations in the various regions they inhabit. the aim of this study was to evaluate accumulation patterns of targeted elements (al, ca, cr, cu, fe, mg, mn, ni and pb) in liver samples of red foxes and golden jackals collected during the same period in the southern part of romania. the accumulation patterns of trace elements in the live ...201728194481
golden jackal (canis aureus) in the czech republic: the first record of a live animal and its long-term persistence in the colonized habitat.a golden jackal (canis aureus) individual was recorded ~40 km east of prague in the czech republic. it is the first record of a living golden jackal in the country; up to now several individuals have been recorded but all of them were either shot dead or killed by a vehicle. the observed animal was documented by camera traps set up for research of carnivore diversity in different habitats in the study area. it was first photographed on 19 june 2015, and in total there were 57 records made by 12 ...201628138295
molecular characterization of trichinella species from wild animals in israel.trichinellosis is a worldwide disease caused by nematode worms of the genus trichinella, frequently diagnosed in israel. however, the identity of the israeli isolates have not been studied. here we describe the molecular characterization of 58 isolates collected from jackals (canis aureus), wild boar (sus scrofa), foxes (vulpes vulpes) and a wolf (canis lupus) in central and northern israel. isolates were analyzed using the multiplex pcr analysis encompassing expansion segment v (esv) and intern ...201627838087
dna barcoding of three species (canis aureus, canis lupus and vulpes vulpes) of canidae.sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) gene have been used for dna barcoding and determining the genetic diversity of mammal species. in the current study, our intention was to test the validity of coi barcodes for detecting genetic divergence and to reveal whether or not there is a genetic variation at this marker within canids. three species (canis aureus, canis lupus and vulpes vulpes) from the family canidae were selected for dna barcoding using samples collected ...201627180732
first evidence of hybridization between golden jackal (canis aureus) and domestic dog (canis familiaris) as revealed by genetic markers.interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent in nature and numerous cases of hybridization between wild canids and domestic dogs have been recorded. however, hybrids between golden jackals (canis aureus) and other canids have not been described before. in this study, we combined the use of biparental (15 autosomal microsatellites and three major histocompatibility complex (mhc) loci) and uniparental (mtdna control region and a y-linked zfy intron) genetic markers to assess the admixed orig ...201527019731
assessment of heavy metal accumulation in the golden jackal (canis aureus) as a possible bioindicator in an agricultural environment in bulgaria.the aim of this study was to evaluate the residues of heavy metals as an indicator of environmental pollution in internal organs of golden jackal (canis aureus) from an agricultural region in bulgaria. it was demonstrated that the golden jackal has high potential for specific accumulation of heavy metals, thus implying that this species may serve as a biological indicator of their presence in the agricultural regions, which it inhabits. the concentrations of the targeted elements (mean [mg/kg of ...201626894493
a european concern? genetic structure and expansion of golden jackals (canis aureus) in europe and the the first continent-wide study of the golden jackal (canis aureus), we characterised its population genetic structure and attempted to identify the origin of european populations. this provided a unique insight into genetic characteristics of a native carnivore population with rapid large-scale expansion. we analysed 15 microsatellite markers and a 406 base-pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region. bayesian-based and principal components methods were applied to evaluate whether the g ...201526540195
phylogeography of the golden jackal (canis aureus) in india.the golden jackal (canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in india but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) dna diversity in european populations while some north african populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (canis lupus lupaster) mtdna lineages. in the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (cr) and 412 bp of cytochro ...201526414163
first detection of sarcoptes scabiei from domesticated pig (sus scrofa) and genetic characterization of s. scabiei from pet, farm and wild hosts in this report we describe for the first time the detection of sarcoptes scabiei type suis mites on domestic pigs in israel and examine its genetic variation compared with s. sabiei from other hosts. microscopic examination of skin samples from s. scabiei-infested pigs (sus scrofa domesticus) revealed all developmental stages of s. scabiei. to detect genetic differences between s. scabiei from different hosts, samples obtained from pig, rabbits (orictolagus cuniculus), fox (vulpes vulpes), jacka ...201526002310
community resource uses and ethiopian wolf conservation in mount abune yosef.people who perceive economic benefits and enjoy unrestricted access to natural resources tend to support ecosystem conservation efforts. our study explores whether this remains true in remnant patches of afroalpine ecosystem in north ethiopia, where communal land provides valuable natural resources for the local communities and also sustain small populations of the endangered ethiopian wolf (canis simensis). questionnaires were designed to assess ecological and socio-economic characteristics of ...201525971736
presence of leishmania and brucella species in the golden jackal canis aureus in serbia.the golden jackal canis aureus occurs in south-eastern europe, asia, the middle east, the caucasus, and africa. in serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over serbia. of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as ...201424967397
comparative molecular phylogeny and evolution of sex chromosome dna sequences in the family canidae (mammalia: carnivora).to investigate the molecular phylogeny and evolution of the family canidae, nucleotide sequences of the zinc-finger-protein gene on the y chromosome (zfy, 924-1146 bp) and its homologous gene on the x chromosome (zfx, 834-839 bp) for twelve canid species were determined. the phylogenetic relationships among species reconstructed by the paternal zfy sequences closely agreed with those by mtdna and autosomal dna trees in previous reports, and strongly supported the phylogenetic affinity between th ...201222379982
the cryptic african wolf: canis aureus lupaster is not a golden jackal and is not endemic to egypt.the egyptian jackal (canis aureus lupaster) has hitherto been considered a large, rare subspecies of the golden jackal (c. aureus). it has maintained its taxonomical status to date, despite studies demonstrating morphological similarities to the grey wolf (c. lupus). we have analyzed 2055 bp of mitochondrial dna from c. a. lupaster and investigated the similarity to c. aureus and c. lupus. through phylogenetic comparison with all wild wolf-like canids (based on 726 bp of the cytochrome b gene) w ...201121298107
genetic variability, differentiation, and founder effect in golden jackals (canis aureus) from serbia as revealed by mitochondrial dna and nuclear microsatellite loci.we analyzed 121 golden jackals (canis aureus) from six sample sites in serbia with regard to genetic variability and differentiation as revealed by mitochondrial control region sequences and eight nuclear microsatellite loci. there was no variation at all in the mtdna sequences, and nuclear variability was very low (average observed and expected heterozygosity of 0.29 and 0.34, respectively). this is in line with the considerable recent range expansion of this species in the balkans and indicate ...200919169806
field anesthesia of golden jackals (canis aureus) with the use of medetomidine-ketamine or medetomidine-midazolam with atipamezole reversal.twenty-two free-ranging golden jackals (canis aureus) were immobilized with a combination of 113 +/- 24 microg/kg medetomidine and 2.1 +/- 0.3 mg/kg ketamine (m-k) or 88 +/- 16 microg/kg medetomidine and 0.47 +/- 0.08 mg/ kg midazolam (m-m) by i.m. injection. induction and recovery times were recorded. pulse rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and oxygen saturation were measured. anesthesia depth indicators were observed. there was no significant dif ...200819110699
acral lick dermatitis in a jackal (canis aureus).acral lick dermatitis was diagnosed in a 6-mo-old female jackal (canis aureus) that was born and housed in a zoological garden in hafez-haim, israel. other dermatologic diseases were ruled out. although the lesions were presumed to be psychogenic in origin, they resolved with topical therapy using an ointment containing benzocaine, neomycin sulfate, and hydrocortisone acetate. no recurrence has been observed.19989732044
thyroid calcitonin cells in response to glucagon-induced hypocalcaemia in the indian jackal, canis aureus (linnaeus--lex).jackal (canis aureus) puppies (10) were subjected to hypocalcaemia by a single intravenous injection of crystalline porcine glucagon (eli lilly and co.) in a dosage of 0.2 mg/kg body weight. fasting blood samples from each specimen were collected 30 minutes before injection. then again after an interval of 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270 and 300 minutes blood samples were taken. for histological study animals were killed after 30, 90, 120, 240 and 300 minutes of the injection. the m ...19807424080
[studies on the digestive physiology of the wolf (canis lupus l.), dingo (canis dingo l.) and jackal (canis aureus l.). ii. digestive capacity of the pancreas, duodenum and salivary glands; size of the digestive system; weight of internal organs]. 200714196030
[studies on the digestive physiology of the wolf (canis lupus l.), dingo (canis dingo l.) and jackal (canis aureus l.). i. effect of histamine on the course of digestive-excretory processes of the stomach under morphine-eunarcon anesthesia]. 201314196029
dietary items as possible sources of (137)cs in large carnivores in the gorski kotar forest ecosystem, western croatia.the mountain forest ecosystem of gorski kotar is distant from any significant sources of environmental pollution, though recent findings have revealed that this region is among the most intense (137)cs contaminated area in croatia. therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate (137)cs and (40)k load in three large predator species in the mountain forest ecosystem. radionuclides mass activities were determined by the gamma-spectrometric method in the muscle tissue of brown bear (47), wolf ( ...201626556746
reviving the african wolf canis lupus lupaster in north and west africa: a mitochondrial lineage ranging more than 6,000 km wide.the recent discovery of a lineage of gray wolf in north-east africa suggests the presence of a cryptic canid on the continent, the african wolf canis lupus lupaster. we analyzed the mtdna diversity (cytochrome b and control region) of a series of african canis including wolf-like animals from north and west africa. our objectives were to assess the actual range of c. l. lupaster, to further estimate the genetic characteristics and demographic history of its lineage, and to question its taxonomic ...201222900047
analysis of structural diversity in wolf-like canids reveals post-domestication variants.although a variety of genetic changes have been implicated in causing phenotypic differences among dogs, the role of copy number variants (cnvs) and their impact on phenotypic variation is still poorly understood. further, very limited knowledge exists on structural variation in the gray wolf, the ancestor of the dog, or other closely related wild canids. documenting cnvs variation in wild canids is essential to identify ancestral states and variation that may have appeared after domestication.201424923435
genome sequencing highlights the dynamic early history of identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (basenji and dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-diver ...201424453982
road killed carnivores illustrate the status of zoonotic helminthes in caspian sea littoral of iran.carnivore carcasses on the roads can be regarded as study materials in parasitology and eco-epidemiology. stray carnivores such as dogs and cats are known to harbor so many different pathogens like zoonotic helminthes. the current investigation, apparent the status of the helminthic parasites found in road killed carnivores from different parts of guilan province north of iran.201728761483
eurasian golden jackal as host of canine vector-borne protists.jackals are medium-sized canids from the wolf-like clade, exhibiting a unique combination of ancestral morphotypes, broad trophic niches, and close phylogenetic relationships with the wolf and dog. thus, they represent a potential host of several pathogens with diverse transmission routes. recently, populations of the eurasian golden jackal canis aureus have expanded into the western palaearctic, including most of europe. the aim of our study was to examine eurasian golden jackals from romania, ...201728410591
filarioid infections in wild carnivores: a multispecies survey in romania.filarioids are vector-borne parasitic nematodes of vertebrates. in europe, eight species of filarioids, including zoonotic species, have been reported mainly in domestic dogs, and occasionally in wild carnivores. in romania, infections with dirofilaria spp. and acanthocheilonema reconditum are endemic in domestic dogs. despite the abundant populations of wild carnivores in the country, their role in the epidemiology of filarioid parasites remains largely unknown. the aim of the present study was ...201728705255
molecular characterization of canine kobuvirus in wild carnivores and the domestic dog in africa.knowledge of kobuvirus (family picornaviridae) infection in carnivores is limited and has not been described in domestic or wild carnivores in africa. to fill this gap in knowledge we used rt-pcr to screen fresh feces from several african carnivores. we detected kobuvirus rna in samples from domestic dog, golden jackal, side-striped jackal and spotted hyena. using next generation sequencing we obtained one complete kobuvirus genome sequence from each of these species. our phylogenetic analyses r ...201525667111
apex predatory mammals as bioindicator species in environmental monitoring of elements in dinaric alps (croatia).tissue element investigations of apex terrestrial mammals are very scarce in europe. we quantified 16 essential and nonessential elements in the kidney cortex, liver, and muscle tissue of 467 brown bears (ursus arctos), 125 gray wolves (canis lupus), one eurasian lynx (lynx lynx), and three golden jackals (canis aureus) from croatia by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (icp-ms). renal cadmium (0.6% of animals) and lead (1%) and hepatic lead (5%) were found in toxicologically relevant ...201728879543
gastrointestinal parasites of canids, a latent risk to human health in tunisia.although data on the parasite environmental contamination are crucial to implement strategies for control and treatment, information about zoonotic helminths is very limited in tunisia. contamination of areas with canid faeces harboring infective parasite elements represents a relevant health-risk impact for humans. the aim of this study was to assess the environmental contamination with eggs and oocysts of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs and wild canids in tunisia with special attention to t ...201728583158
lessons from the canine oxtr gene: populations, variants and functional aspects.oxytocin receptor (oxtr) acts as a key behavioral modulator of the central nervous system, affecting social behavior, stress, affiliation and cognitive functions. variants of the oxtr gene are known to influence behavior both in animals and humans; however, canine oxtr polymorphisms are less characterized in terms of possible relevance to function, selection criteria in breeding and domestication. in this report, we provide a detailed characterization of common variants of the canine oxtr gene. ...201727860243
determinants of emigration and their impact on survival during dispersal in fox and jackal populations.animals disperse in response to poor resource conditions as a strategy of escaping harsh competition and stress, but may also disperse under good resource conditions, as these provide better chances of surviving dispersal and gaining fitness benefits such as avoiding kin competition and inbreeding. individual traits should mediate the effect of resources, yielding a complex condition-dependent dispersal response. we investigated how experimental food reductions in a food-rich environment around ...201627050564
identification of dermacentor reticulatus ticks carrying rickettsia raoultii on migrating jackal, denmark.from a migrating golden jackal (canis aureus), we retrieved 21 live male dermacentor reticulatus ticks, a species not previously reported from wildlife in denmark. we identified rickettsia raoultii from 18 (86%) of the ticks. this bacterium is associated with scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after tick bite syndrome among humans.201729148376
a synoptic overview of golden jackal parasites reveals high diversity of species.the golden jackal (canis aureus) is a species under significant and fast geographic expansion. various parasites are known from golden jackals across their geographic range, and certain groups can be spread during their expansion, increasing the risk of cross-infection with other carnivores or even humans. the current list of the golden jackal parasites includes 194 species and was compiled on the basis of an extensive literature search published from historical times until april 2017, and is sh ...201728915831
first molecular identification of kobuviruses in wolves (canis lupus) in italy.canine kobuviruses (cakovs) were first identified in diarrhoeic and asymptomatic dogs in 2011 in the usa. subsequent studies have demonstrated a worldwide distribution of these viruses, but it is not clear if cakovs play a role as enteric pathogens of dogs. more recently, cakov rna has been detected in wild carnivores, including red fox, golden jackal, side-striped jackal and spotted hyena. in this study, we addressed the hypothesis that wolves are susceptible to cakov infections. a total of 185 ...201829101539
interspecific gene flow shaped the evolution of the genus canis.the evolutionary history of the wolf-like canids of the genus canis has been heavily debated, especially regarding the number of distinct species and their relationships at the population and species level [1-6]. we assembled a dataset of 48 resequenced genomes spanning all members of the genus canis except the black-backed and side-striped jackals, encompassing the global diversity of seven extant canid lineages. this includes eight new genomes, including the first resequenced ethiopian wolf (c ...201830344120
examining human-carnivore interactions using a socio-ecological framework: sympatric wild canids in india as a case study.many carnivores inhabit human-dominated landscapes outside protected reserves. spatially explicit assessments of carnivore distributions and livestock depredation patterns in human-use landscapes are crucial for minimizing negative interactions and fostering coexistence between people and predators. india harbours 23% of the world's carnivore species that share space with 1.3 billion people in approximately 2.3% of the global land area. we examined carnivore distributions and human-carnivore int ...201931218031
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