Publications

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leptospirosis in the melut district--upper nile province (south sudan)--an overview.the authors examined 195 domestic animals for leptospirosis serologically in sudan (170 cattle, 7 sheep and 18 goats) and 771 wild animals (36 species) with 13 serovars from 13 serogroups. 54% of domestic animals namely, 108 cattle and 1 sheep were positive in titer levels of 1:400 and higher. cattle sera with the serovars of the serogroup icterohaemorrhagiae were 2.4% positive with cynopteri 2.4%, autumnalis 3.5%, australis 1.2%, pomona 2.9%, grippotyphosa 2.9%, hebdonadis 17.1%, bataviae 9.4% ...19892599388
importation of canid rabies in a horse relocated from zimbabwe to south africa.in july 2003 a 2-year-old thoroughbred colt was imported from harare, zimbabwe to the ashburton training centre, pietermaritzburg, south africa. five months after importation, the colt presented with clinical signs suggestive of rabies: it was uncoordinated, showed muscle tremors and was biting at itself. brain tissue was submitted for analysis and the clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the fluorescent antibody test and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). phylogenetic anal ...200515991708
a retrospective study of rabies in humans in zimbabwe, between 1992 and 2003.this study aimed at examining the epidemiological features of rabies in humans in zimbabwe. the data were taken from internal reports of the department of veterinary technical services at harare covering the period 1st january 1992-31st december 2003 inclusive. positive cases were examined in relation to age and sex of the victim, animal vector involved, season, and land-use categories. the majority of the confirmed positive human cases (85.7%) were recorded in communal areas. the 5-19 year age ...200717543871
distribution of a community of mammals in relation to roads and other human disturbances in gabon, central africa.we present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in gabon (central africa). our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. we conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. we used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (l ...201323410077
on a new acanthocephalan, echinopardalis lerouxi n. sp., from a jackal (canis adustus) in central africa. 195613319682
a molecular phylogeny of the canidae based on six nuclear loci.we have reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of 23 species in the dog family, canidae, using dna sequence data from six nuclear loci. individual gene trees were generated with maximum parsimony (mp) and maximum likelihood (ml) analysis. in general, these individual gene trees were not well resolved, but several identical groupings were supported by more than one locus. phylogenetic analysis with a data set combining the six nuclear loci using mp, ml, and bayesian approaches produced a mo ...200516213754
wildlife rabies in zambia.wildlife species made up 26 (2.0%) of 1,304 positive rabies cases received between 1969 and 1976. the jackal (canis adustus) was the predominate wildlife species involved (69%) and played a role in the epidemiology of bovine rabies in remote farm areas. rabies appears to be absent from the intact wildlife communities in zambia, especially the national parks; this is considered in the light of the epidemiology of the disease in wildlife.1978105155
interspecific gene flow shaped the evolution of the genus canis.the evolutionary history of the wolf-like canids of the genus canis has been heavily debated, especially regarding the number of distinct species and their relationships at the population and species level [1-6]. we assembled a dataset of 48 resequenced genomes spanning all members of the genus canis except the black-backed and side-striped jackals, encompassing the global diversity of seven extant canid lineages. this includes eight new genomes, including the first resequenced ethiopian wolf (c ...201830344120
molecular assessment of hepatozoon (apicomplexa: adeleorina) infections in wild canids and rodents from north africa, with implications for transmission dynamics across taxonomic groups.parasites play a major role in ecosystems, and understanding of host-parasite interactions is important for predicting parasite transmission dynamics and epidemiology. however, there is still a lack of knowledge about the distribution, diversity, and impact of parasites in wildlife, especially from remote areas. hepatozoon is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that is transmitted by ingestion of infected arthropod vectors. however, alternative modes of transmission have been identified such as tr ...201425050803
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxii. ixodid ticks on domestic dogs and on wild carnivores.ixodid ticks were collected from 4 dogs on smallholdings near grahamstown, eastern cape province, on 1 or more occasions each week for periods ranging from 9-36 months. fourteen tick species were recovered and the seasonal abundance of adult haemaphysalis leachi and adult rhipicephalus simus was determined. complete collections of ticks were made from 50 caracals (felis caracal) in the cradock, graaff-reinet and southwell regions in the eastern cape province. the animals from cradock and graaff- ...19873444612
molecular characterization of canine kobuvirus in wild carnivores and the domestic dog in africa.knowledge of kobuvirus (family picornaviridae) infection in carnivores is limited and has not been described in domestic or wild carnivores in africa. to fill this gap in knowledge we used rt-pcr to screen fresh feces from several african carnivores. we detected kobuvirus rna in samples from domestic dog, golden jackal, side-striped jackal and spotted hyena. using next generation sequencing we obtained one complete kobuvirus genome sequence from each of these species. our phylogenetic analyses r ...201525667111
why is southern african canine babesiosis so virulent? an evolutionary perspective.abstract: canine babesiosis is a common, highly virulent disease in southern africa with even pups and juveniles being severely affected. this contrasts with bovine babesiosis, for example, where host, parasite and vector co-evolved and young animals develop immunity after infection without showing clinical signs. babesia rossi, the main causative organism of canine babesiosis in sub-saharan africa, was first described from a side-striped jackal (canis adustus) in kenya. although data are meagre ...201121489239
rabies status in zambia for the period 1985-2004.rabies has been present in zambia since the early years of the 20th century. it is a significant public health problem in zambia. domestic dogs accounted for 69.7% (1348/1935) of the samples received for rabies diagnosis for the period 1985-2004. of the 1069 positive cases confirmed by the fluorescent antibody test, 747 (69.9%) were from domestic dogs, 139 (13.0%) from cattle and 98 (9.2%) from humans. wildlife samples accounted for 4.5% (87/1935) of the samples tested with the jackal (canis adu ...201020887398
the epidemiology of rabies in zimbabwe. 2. rabies in jackals (canis adustus and canis mesomelas).the epidemiology of rabies in canis adustus (the side-striped jackal) and canis mesomelas (the black-backed jackal) in zimbabwe is described using data collected from 1950-1996. cases in the two species made up 25.2% of all confirmed cases, second only to domestic dogs. since the species of jackal cases was not recorded on rabies submission forms, the country was divided into areas according to species dominance and jackal cases were assigned to either c. adustus or c. mesomelas dominant zones o ...199910396757
efficacy of sag-2 oral rabies vaccine in two species of jackal (canis adustus and canis mesomelas).trials were carried out to test the efficacy of sag-2 oral rabies vaccine in two species of jackals, namely the side-striped jackal (c. adustus) and the black-backed jackal (c. mesomelas). the first trial tested the efficacy of sag-2 when given by direct oral administration at doses of 6.5 and 7.5 log10 median tissue culture infectious doses (tcid50). one side-striped jackal which had received the higher dose did not seroconvert and succumbed to challenge, while all other jackals seroconverted a ...199910075161
rabies in zimbabwe: reservoir dogs and the implications for disease control.using detailed field study observations of the side-striped jackal (canis adustus) and a simple stochastic model of the transmission dynamics of the virus and host demography, we discuss the epidemiology of rabies virus infection in the jackal population of zimbabwe. of the two jackal species in zimbabwe, the other being the black-backed jackal (canis mesomelas), the bulk of notified rabies cases are in side-striped jackals. specifically, we show that the side-striped jackal population itself do ...19989684293
presence of antibodies to canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus type 1 in free-ranging jackals (canis adustus and canis mesomelas) in zimbabwe.a survey of free-ranging jackals (canis adustus and canis mesomelas) in zimbabwe was conducted to determine the prevalence of serum antibodies to canine distemper virus (cdv), canine parvovirus (cpv) and canine adenovirus type 1 (cav-1). sera from 16 canis adustus and 22 canis mesomelas were collected from 1990 to 1993 from various regions of zimbabwe and assayed by means of immunofluorescent techniques. seroprevalence in c. adustus and c. mesomelas respectively were 50% and 63.6% for cdv, 12.5% ...199910631712
results of serological examination for leptospirosis of domestic and wild animals in the upper nile province (sudan).195 domestic and 766 wild animals were serologically examined for leptospirosis. cattle was found to be positive at titres 1 greater than or equal to 400 in 63.5%, namely 50.6% for tarassovi, 17.1% for sejroe-hebdomadis, 9.4% for bataviae, 1.2-3.5% for icterohaemorrhagiae, cynopteri, autumnalis, australis, pomona and grippotyphosa. sera from 35 animals reacted with the serovars from two or more serogroups. of 7 sheep 1 was positive for pomona and 18 goats proved to be negative. 10.2% of wild mam ...19892809189
efficacy of sad (berne) rabies vaccine given by the oral route in two species of jackal (canis mesomelas and canis adustus).eight black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas) and seven side-striped jackals (canis adustus) were given sad (berne) rabies vaccine by direct oral instillation. three different vaccine doses were used: 10(6.3), 10(6.8) and 10(7.5) median tissue culture infectious doses. two additional jackals were given vaccine in chicken heads. one group of jackals was challenged with a lethal dose of jackal-derived rabies virus 1 mo after vaccination and a second group 12 mo after vaccination. all 17 vaccinated ...19958592368
comparative morphology of the mandibulodental complex in wild and domestic canids.the relationships between mandibular and dental measurements were investigated in a sample of 60 adult domestic dogs, 17 black-backed jackals canis mesomelas, 18 side-striped jackals c. adustus and 16 cape foxes vulpes chama. standard mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth measurements, together with 8 mandibular measurements (intercondylar distance, intercarnassial breadth, mandibular length, arch length, condylar height, canine-condylar length, mandibular width, mandibular height) were scaled allo ...19921487435
serologic survey of selected canine pathogens among free-ranging jackals in kenya.serum samples from 76 free-ranging adult jackals of three species from four localities in kenya were examined for circulating antibodies against four canine pathogens: rabies virus, canine parvovirus (cpv-2), canine distemper virus (cdv), and ehrlichia canis. samples were collected between april 1987 and january 1988. among black-backed jackals (canis mesomelas), the most sampled species, the mean prevalence of antibodies to cpv-2, cdv, rabies virus, and e. canis was 34% (14 positive/55 sampled) ...19947760476
mandibulodental allometry in the african wild dog, lycaon pictus.mandibulodental relations were evaluated in a sample of 34 adult lycaon pictus crania (18 males, 16 females). standard mesiodistal and buccolingual measurements, together with 8 mandibular measurements (intercondylar distance, intercarnassial breadth, mandibular length, arch length, condylar height, canine-condylar length, mandibular width, mandibular height) were allometrically scaled to total skull length. these results were then compared with those of domestic dogs and of 3 smaller southern a ...19921294562
first molecular identification of kobuviruses in wolves (canis lupus) in italy.canine kobuviruses (cakovs) were first identified in diarrhoeic and asymptomatic dogs in 2011 in the usa. subsequent studies have demonstrated a worldwide distribution of these viruses, but it is not clear if cakovs play a role as enteric pathogens of dogs. more recently, cakov rna has been detected in wild carnivores, including red fox, golden jackal, side-striped jackal and spotted hyena. in this study, we addressed the hypothesis that wolves are susceptible to cakov infections. a total of 185 ...201829101539
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