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trypanosomes in horse flies and deer flies in central new york state.tabanids were collected during 2 consecutive summers from 3 counties in new york using a canopy trap and insect net. twenty-seven per cent of all fly specimens (n equals 641) representing 69% of the species collected (n equals 36) were infected with flagellates. tabanid intestines harbored amastigote, choanomastigote, and epimastigote forms. epimastigotes were frequently found, and trypomastigotes and choanomastigotes rarely found in cultures of tabanid intestinal flagellates. epimastigote and t ...19751117353
morphology of typanosomes from white-tailed deer and wapiti in michigan.trypanosomes were isolated from a wapiti (cervus canadensis) and 72 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from several locations in michigan. although significantly fewer fawns were infected, there were no significant differences in rate of infection between sexes or among geographic areas. from appearance of the trypomastigote, the trypanosome from white-tailed deer belongs in the genus trypanosoma and the subgenus megatrypanum. it was morphometrically similar to the common trypanosome of ...19751142559
prevalence of trypanosoma theileri in louisiana cattle.cattle (from 5 sites in louisiana) were examined by blood culture for the presence of trypanosoma theileri. a prevalence of 81% was found in the 291 cattle examined. a greater number of beef cattle (93%) than dairy cattle (73%) was infected. differences in prevalence in cattle from different regions of the state were not noted.19902213419
trypanosoma theileri laveran, 1902, in naturally and experimentally infected cattle: parasite isolation, serological and cellular reactions and berenil sensitivity. 19873687290
transmission of a trypanosoma sp. to cattle by the tick hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum.hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum engorged nymphs and flat adults were collected from two areas in northern sudan. various developing stages of trypanosoma theileri-like flagellates were observed in the engorged nymphs, freshly moulted adults and mature adults partially engorged on rabbits. when these ticks were applied to two calves, one calf became infected with the trypanosome. the parasites were observed for one day in the enlarged lymph node nearest to the tick-feeding site 5 days after the ti ...19863962154
detection of trypanosoma theileri in ethiopian cattle ticks. 19734149680
some protozoan parasites of tragelaphine antelopes in south africa with special reference to a babesia sp. in a bushbuck and a trypanosoma theileri-like parasite in a nyala. 19724197847
the morphology of trypanosoma theileri in the blood of cattle, and the rediscovery of theileria mutans in england. 19724625621
isolation of trypanosoma theileri from the blood of two cows, one leukotic, one exhibiting lymphocytosis. 19724673738
gel-diffusion and hemagglutination studies with trypanosoma theileri. 19674962447
[simplified, contamination-free, cultural demonstration of trypanosoma theileri (laveran, 1902) in cattle blood in north germany. isolation and culture]. 19714400551
observations on trypanosoma theileri infection in cattle.naturally occurring trypanosoma theileri infection was studied in two cattle herds. herd a was a dairy herd of approximately 250. herd b was an isolated herd of 32 and contained both dairy and beef breeds. blood samples were collected from all animals in herd a during july and august on two successive years. samples were collected from herd b at monthly intervals. total leukocyte and differential counts packed cell volume determinations, and trypanosome cultures were made on each sample. infecti ...19714251408
cytoplasmic inclusions and organelles of in vitro cultured trypanosoma theileri and trypanosoma melophagium and some speculations on their function. 19654158528
antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of trypanosoma theileri mediated by purified bovine isotypes and subisotypes.bovine neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages mediated in vitro cytotoxicity against trypanosoma theileri in the presence of purified igm, igg1 and igg2 from immune bovine serum. when the immunoglobulin fractions were assayed at similar concentrations, igm was the most effective isotype mediating killing with all three effector cell types. using the elisa with monospecific antisera against the different bovine isotypes and subisotypes, igm was shown to be contaminated by less than 1%. the addi ...19854000701
in vitro continuous cultivation of trypanosoma theileri utilizing a modified splitter's medium. 19705413835
prevalence of trypanosoma theileri in cows and fetuses at slaughter.blood from 171 pregnant and 65 nonpregnant cows was taken at slaughter for culture and examined during the culturing period for trypanosoma theileri once a week for 5 weeks. of the 171 fetuses from the pregnant cows, 119 (69.6%) were greater than or equal to 4 months gestation; blood samples from these fetuses were also taken for culture. of 236 cows (81 of 171 [47.4%] pregnant and 20 of 65 [30.8%] nonpregnant cows), 101 (42.8%) were culture positive. more of the pregnant than nonpregnant cows w ...19853896064
isolation and continuous cultivation of trypanosoma theileri in media containing tissue culture fluids. 19674169719
the use of amphotericin b in prevention of trypanosoma theileri growth in bovine cell culture.trypanosoma theileri is an ubiquitous blood parasite of cattle. this parasite grows easily in rpmi medium and perturbs lymphocyte tests based on [3h]thymidine uptake. this paper reports that 0.5 microgram ml-1 amphotericin b in the medium is adequate to get trypanosoma growth inhibition without alteration of either mitogenic or allogenic stimulation of bovine lymphoid cells in vitro.19883176303
trypanosoma theileri associated with t-lymphocytes isolated from a latently infected cow.trypanosoma theileri infection, latent in a mature hereford cow, could not be demonstrated in routine blood smears or cultures. throughout the 2-year period an intravenous injection of dexamethasone consistently produced parasitaemia which was detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (pbmc) cultures. fractionation techniques such as plastic adherence and sephadex-g10 fractionation, designed to deplete monocytes and enrich t-lymphocytes, increased trypanosome-positive cultures from 25 to 1 ...19892788733
[supplementary description of trypanosoma theileri laveran, 1902. special reference to the forms observed in casamance (republic of senefal)]. 19685744936
indirect immunofluorescence (ifa) on kinetoplasts of trypanosoma theileri for serological diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (les) in the dog.an indirect immunofluorescence technique was developed to detect antibodies to ds-dna in a dog affected by systemic lupus erythematosus (les). the assay was based upon the use of the antigen substrate trypanosoma theileri, isolated from samples of bovine blood and maintained in culture tubes. slides were prepared by the drop method and maintained at -20 degrees c until used. this t. theileri immunofluorescence test, evaluated with positive and discriminant results in a previous study on human se ...19892486998
zymogram and life-history studies on trypanosomes of the subgenus megatrypanum.of 13 swedish dairy cows examined, 12 (92.3%) were found to be infected with trypanosomes by cultivation of blood samples. of the two species of tabanid fly caught close to the cattle, 33.3% of the tabanus bromius and 8.6% of the haematopota pluvialis were also found to be infected with trypanosomes on dissection. isoenzyme patterns of trypanosome isolates from one h. pluvialis and from six cattle were identical, incriminating this fly species as a vector of the trypanosome. comparison of these ...19902123546
bovine leukosis. iv. trypanosomiasis, lymphocytosis and dna synthesis.the possible influence of natural trypanosome infection on lymphocytosis and dna synthesizing lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood was determined on 220 cows from two leukosis herds and 25 cows from leukosis free control herd. trypanosome incidences were determined during summers of 1969 and 1970 by inoculating whole blood onto blood agar slants and incubating at room temperature. incidence of trypanosomiasis in cattle was found to be variable, possibly due to factors affecting the primary isol ...19751172771
importance of competitive binding in the detection of antigen specific bovine isotypes and subisotypes by the micro elisa.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to detect and quantify the specific bovine immunoglobulin class response to trypanosoma theileri, dictyocaulus viviparus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. comparative measurement of the specific immunoglobulin classes in whole serum was achieved using monospecific rabbit antibovine igg1, igg2 and igm, followed by a goat anti-rabbit ig-enzyme conjugate (antiglobulin elisa). the results obtained in the antiglobulin elisa compared favour ...19826296953
trypanosomes in cattle in southern ontario.trypanosomes were found in the blood of 155 out of 274 holstein cows of various ages from southern ontario. the incidence varied from about 8% in one herd to about 85% in another herd. two species of trypanosomes were found in cattle in the guelph area. one was trypanosoma theileri. the other was a much smaller trypanosome which morphologically resembles t. uniforme of the salivaria. this is the first report of such a trypanosome in cattle in north america. epimastigotes from blood agar slants o ...19704246837
continuous cultivation of trypanosoma theileri at 37 c in bovine cell culture.trypanosoma theileri was cultivated at 37 c in bovine bone marrow cell culture through 50 consecutive subcultures. medium 199, supplemented with bacto-peptone, vitamin b12, and fetal bovine serum, was utilized both for primary and continuous cultivation. the number of trypanosomes produced in culture averaged 8 x 10(6) (1-26 x 10(6)) trypanosomes/ml. in each subculture the organisms divided as epimastigotes and transformed into trypomastigotes; a round from was observed during the stationary and ...1978722655
transmission of trypanosoma theileri to cattle by tabanidae.tabanids were collected in an area in northern germany, where pastured cattle were abundant. trypanosomatidae were identified in 14% of tabanids examined. twelve cattle became infected with trypanosoma theileri after applying usually 2-5 infected tabanids, to the intact oral mucosa. haematopota pluvialis, haematopota italica, hybomitra micans and tabanus bromius were identified as vectors. infective stages of trypanosoma theileri were identified in the gut and in the faeces of tabanids by transm ...19873658973
hemoparasitism, humoral immunodeficiency, and an igg1 fragment in a cow.an adult cow with nonregenerative anemia was found to be infected with eperythrozoon wenyoni and trypanosoma theileri. further laboratory testing revealed hypoalbuminemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, decreased numbers of circulating b lymphocytes, and presence of a serum immunoglobulin g1 fragment. reduced b-lymphocyte regions in lymphoid tissue, evidence of chronic nephritis, and infection with fasciola hepatica and sarcocystis spp were found at necropsy. the cause of the acquired humoral immunodefi ...19827130011
the incidence of trypanosoma theileri among cattle in iran.t. theileri has been reported as a parasite of cattle from many parts of the world. the parasites generally are scanty in the peripheral blood and more readily detected by cultural methods than by microscopical examination of stained smears (herbert, 1964; wells, 1971). the presence and distribution of the parasite in iran has not been reported previously. this communication presents the results of studies which have been undertaken to find t. theileri and to determine its seasonal distribution ...1978625794
[culture in vitro of trypanosoma theileri on bovine thyroid cells]. 19827170363
trypanosoma theileri: a literature review and report of incidence in new york cattle.the incidence of infection in adult dairy cattle in new york state with trypanosoma (megatrypanum) theileri (laveran 1902) was determined by culturing buffy coats of peripheral blood samples in tissue culture growth media. three sample groups of cattle were studied and revealed an overall rate of trypanosome infection of 44.4% (67 of 151) as determined by a single culture. fifty-seven cows, representing four herds from three different geographic locations in the southern-tier region of the state ...1979527346
an attempt to infect the stable fly stomoxys calcitrans with trypanosoma theileri. 1979487051
studies on the generation of biologically active substances by trypanosoma theileri in vitro.trypanosoma theileri was grown in bovine primary spleen cell cultures. these organisms were tested for phospholipase activity which was found to be very low, for haemolytic activity which was very weak and for lymphocyte mitogenicity which was found to be absent. high concentrations of t theileri were found to activate bovine complement probably by both the alternate and classical pathways. there was no evidence that these organisms exerted any significant toxic effect in vitro or in vivo. this ...19807414063
trypanosoma theileri laveran, 1902, in wyoming cattle.trypanosoma theileri laveran, 1902, a cosmopolitan blood parasite of cattle, was found in 86 of 377 wyoming cattle. acute infection was experimentally produced in 22 cattle, with blood stream trypanosomes reaching peaks (up to 8,00/ml) in the first 2 weeks of infection. infection subsided after 3 to 4 weeks. in studies of animals with chronic infection, the parasites reappeared in the blood 4 to 6 months after initial exposure and again at 8 months. morphologically, three trypomastigote forms we ...1979475108
presence of trypanosoma theileri in herds with a high incidence of enzootic bovine leukosis. 1976189704
observations on the incidence and importance of trypanosoma theileri in nigeria. 19675625696
trypanosome infection rate in cattle at nguruman, kenya.trypanosome infection rate in cattle at nguruman was investigated in a study conducted in 1984-1986. shifting pastoralism significantly reduced trypanosome infections in cattle. the cattle were more heavily infected with trypanosoma congolense (16.5%) than trypanosoma vivax (4.95%) and trypanosoma brucei (0.19%). trypanosoma theileri was observed only once among the cattle examined. mixed trypanosome infections in cattle were observed to be 2.75% and 0.014% for t. congolense/t. vivax and t. cong ...199910030753
trypanosoma theileri: in vitro cultivation in tsetse fly and vertebrate cell culture systems. 1979120349
ultrastructure of trypanosoma theileri in bovine spleen culture. 19725061938
evaluation of the indirect fluorescent antibody test for detecting trypanosoma vivax in south american cattle.the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) as used in africa for detecting bovine trypanosomiasis was adapted for use in south america and evaluated. antigen consisted of trypanosoma vivax laden bovine blood fixed in a 60 : 40 : : acetone : methanol solution. the test detected initial titres of 1 : 50 and 1 : 100 at an average of 13.1 and 15.9 days post parasitaemia (pp). maximum titres as high as 1 : 400 developed in eight calves at an average of 23.4 days pp. in another calf, 109 days pp we ...1976781765
[extravascular occurrence of trypanosoma theileri in the cerebellum of a zebu cow associated with meningoencephalomyelitis]. 19725065775
identification of trypanosoma theileri as a contaminant in primary cultures of bovine retina.t. theileri has been isolated from primary cultures of bovine retina and subcultered successfully for 2 passages in sub-confluent cultures. when cultures reached confluency no trypomastigotes or epimastigotes could be detected and attempts to recover trypanosomes from these cultures were unsuccessful. the presence of intracellular forms could not formally be excluded.1978639941
cultivation of trypanosoma theileri in liquid medium at 37 c. 195913639580
detection and identification of trypanosoma of african livestock through a single pcr based on internal transcribed spacer 1 of rdna.primers hybridising with the rdna cistron have previously been evaluated for pcr diagnosis specific for kinetoplastids, and shown to detect and differentiate the trypanosoma brucei complex and trypanosoma cruzi. kin1 and kin2 primers, amplifying internal transcribed spacer 1, were subsequently evaluated for the diagnosis of african livestock trypanosomosis. based on the size of the pcr products obtained, kin primers allowed detection and identification of three trypanosoma congolense types (sava ...200111334950
elimination of trypanosoma theileri from cell cultures by amphotericin b treatment. 19695388320
studies on the relationship between persistent lymphocytosis, infection with c-type particles and presence of trypanosoma theileri, associated with bovine enzootic leukosis. 1975170761
stimulation of dna synthesis in bovine leukocyte cultures by trypanosoma theileri antigen. 19695391314
high infection rates of the tick hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum with trypanosoma theileri.a crossbred calf (3 months old) obtained from a farm where regular control of ticks was practised and found to be free of blood parasites was inoculated with 20 ml pooled blood collected from four field cattle which had very low trypanosoma theileri parasitaemias (one parasite per 70 microl blood as determined by the haematocrit centrifugation technique). trypanosoma theileri was present in the blood 6 days after injection and a peak parasitaemia of 42 parasites per 70 microl blood was recorded ...200415732451
a new lineage of trypanosomes from australian vertebrates and terrestrial bloodsucking leeches (haemadipsidae).little is known about the trypanosomes of indigenous australian vertebrates and their vectors. we surveyed a range of vertebrates and blood-feeding invertebrates for trypanosomes by parasitological and pcr-based methods using primers specific to the small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna) gene of genus trypanosoma. trypanosome isolates were obtained in culture from two common wombats, one swamp wallaby and an australian bird (strepera sp.). by pcr, blood samples from three wombats, one brush-tail ...200515777919
studies on trypanosoma theileri-like trypanosomes of cattle. i. culture and storage of isolations. 19715133539
alberta.trypanosoma theileri in cattle of central alberta. 198817423173
cultivation of trypanosoma theileri at 37 c in partially defined media. 19685703078
prevalence and molecular phylogenetic characterization of trypanosoma (megatrypanum) minasense in the peripheral blood of small neotropical primates after a quarantine period.neotropical primates of the cebidae and callitrichidae, in their natural habitats, are frequently infected with a variety of trypanosomes including trypanosoma cruzi, which causes a serious zoonosis, chagas' disease. the state of trypanosome infection after a 30-day quarantine period was assessed in 85 squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus) and 15 red-handed tamarins (saguinus midas), that were wild-caught and exported to japan as companion animals or laboratory animals, for biomedical research, re ...200818576832
characteristics of trypanosoma theileri-like isolations from a single ayrshire cow. 19695815237
phylogenetic analysis reveals the presence of the trypanosoma cruzi clade in african terrestrial mammals.despite the impact of some trypanosome species on human and livestock health, the full diversity of trypanosomes in africa is poorly understood. a recent study examined the prevalence of trypanosomes among a wide variety of wild vertebrates in cameroon using species-specific pcr tests, but six trypanosome isolates remained unidentified. here they have been re-examined using fluorescent fragment length barcoding (fflb) and phylogenetic analysis of glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase ...200919027884
presence of trypanosoma theileri in spanish cattle.trypanosoma theileri (laveran, 1902) has been diagnosed in many countries and is commonly considered as a nonpathogenic hemoparasite, although some authors have described clinical signs in cattle infected with t. theileri. in april and may, 2005, 12 blood samples were received at the exopol diagnostic laboratory (zaragoza, spain) from a spanish bull-fighting farm located at seville province. clinical exploration of the animals revealed fever, progressive weight loss, anemia, and frequent recumbe ...200819120247
studies on trypanosoma theileri-like trypanosomes of cattle. ii. the characteristics of infection in a single ayrshire cow. 19715133540
immunohistochemical demonstration of trypanosoma evansi in tissues of experimentally infected rats and a naturally infected water buffalo (bubalus bubalis).trypanosoma evansi was demonstrated by an immunohistochemical technique in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of experimentally infected rats. trypanosoma evansi was visible readily, nuclei were stained darkly, the cytoplasm was stained moderately, and the cell membranes were delineated clearly. the parasites were present in small- to large-sized blood vessels of all organs, in extravascular spaces of ventricles and neuropil of the brain, and in interstitial tissues of the lung and testes. ...19902319414
the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for trypanosoma vivax and its use in a seroepidemiological survey of the eastern caribbean basin.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for igg antibodies against a south american (new world) strain of trypanosoma vivax was developed and used for mass screening of cattle from 20 islands in the eastern caribbean basin. the sensitivity and specificity of antigens prepared from a bovine-derived field strain and a murine-adapted laboratory strain of t. vivax, both of new world origin, were compared using an indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test, and an antigen prepared from the murine- ...19902312226
[fetal central nervous system disorders in a suckling calf injected with trypanosoma theileri. (short communication)]. 19705463769
first record of a reptile trypanosome isolated from glossina pallidipes in kenya.trypanosomes, isolated from the gut of a naturally infected glossina pallidipes in kiboko, kenya, were grown in vitro. the cultured trypanosomes ("f4"-stock) showed a wide variety in morphological stages, not characteristic of the salivarian trypanosomes that are known to occur in the kiboko area. identification of the "f4"-stock was attempted by isoenzyme studies, infection of tsetse flies and of experimental animals. electrophoretic isoenzyme patterns of the "f4"-organisms were developed for t ...19836837099
trypanosoma theileri: antibody-dependent killing by purified populations of bovine leucocytes.bovine leucocytes were assayed for their cytotoxic activity against trypanosoma theileri, a large haemoflagellate parasite of cattle. cytotoxicity was assessed by 3h-uridine release from pre-labelled parasites and also by light microscopy. cytotoxicity proved to be totally dependent upon the presence of specific antibody. serum and the immunoglobulin fraction of colostrum from normal adult cattle and serum from normal colostrum fed calves mediated cytotoxicity; serum from spf colostrum deprived ...19827105486
trypanosomes of australian mammals: a review.approximately 306 species of terrestrial and arboreal mammals are known to have inhabited the mainland and coastal islands of australia at the time of european settlement in 1788. the exotic trypanosoma lewisi was the first mammalian trypanosome identified in australia in 1888, while the first native species, trypanosoma pteropi, was taxonomically described in 1913. since these discoveries, about 22% of the indigenous mammalian fauna have been examined during the surveillance of trypanosome biod ...201425161902
hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (koch, 1844) as a possible vector for transmission of trypanosoma theileri, laveran, 1902 in cattle.amastigotes, sphaeromastigotes, epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of trypanosoma theileri, laveran, 1902 have been observed in the nymphs and adults of hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (koch, 1844). there ticks were obtained from engorged larvae and nymphs collected from a cross-bred bull with detectable parasitaemia. infection with t. theileri was established in two 6-8-month old cross-bred calves by subcutaneous inoculation of trypanosomatid flagellates collected from ticks and by feeding of the ...19817201190
trypanosoma theileri in direct tissue cultures prepared from naturally infected cattle.trypanosoma theileri was identified in 44 of 125 (35.2%) buffy coat cultures prepared from peripheral blood samples collected from 11 holstein heifers. nine of these animals had received steroid treatment, but trypanosomes were also recovered from two untreated controls. when direct tissue cultures were prepared from tissues collected from eight of these naturally infected heifers, t. theileri appeared in cultures from seven of them. this suggests that t. theileri can survive the procedures empl ...19807391865
[observation of a case of massive trypanosoma theileri, laveran 1902 infection in a calf in france]. 19675629308
clinical trypanosomosis due to trypanosoma theileri in a cow in iran. 19957652945
isolation of trypanosoma theileri laveran 1902, from cattle in scotland. 19655840146
a tsetse and tabanid fly survey of african great apes habitats reveals the presence of a novel trypanosome lineage but the absence of trypanosoma brucei.tsetse and tabanid flies transmit several trypanosoma species, some of which are human and livestock pathogens of major medical and socioeconomic impact in africa. recent advances in molecular techniques and phylogenetic analyses have revealed a growing diversity of previously unidentified tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes potentially pathogenic to livestock and/or other domestic animals as well as wildlife, including african great apes. to map the distribution, prevalence and co-occurrence of kno ...201526219672
phylogenetic analysis of the trypanosoma genus based on the heat-shock protein 70 gene.trypanosome evolution was so far essentially studied on the basis of phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu-rrna) and glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (ggapdh) genes. we used for the first time the 70kda heat-shock protein gene (hsp70) to investigate the phylogenetic relationships among 11 trypanosoma species on the basis of 1380 nucleotides from 76 sequences corresponding to 65 strains. we also constructed a phylogeny based on combined datasets of ssu-rdna, ...201627180897
occurrence of trypanosoma theileri in bovine peripheral blood. 19676067868
trypanosoma theileri as a contaminant of tissue origin in cultures of fetal bovine kidney cells in vitro. 195913669361
trypanosoma theileri in the cerebrospinal fluid and brain of a heifer with suppurative meningoencephalitis. 200211817859
pcr-rflp using ssu-rdna amplification: applicability for the diagnosis of mixed infections with different trypanosome species in cattle.the use of a single restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp)-pcr assay which is able to characterise all important bovine trypanosome species was evaluated for the detection of mixed infections with trypanosoma brucei brucei, trypanosoma theileri, trypanosoma congolense and trypanosoma vivax. results showed that mixed infections are detectable at a minimum ratio of 2%/98% of standardised dna solutions with a concentration of 10 ng ml(-1). all mixed infections gave clear profiles that coul ...200314630427
trypanosomosis prevalence in cattle on mafia island (tanzania).during two consecutive surveys (february and august/sept 2002), a total of 970 cattle from the cattle population of mafia island (united republic of tanzania) were blood-sampled. all blood samples were microscopically screened for the presence of trypanosomes and a portion of these were checked for antibodies with an ab-elisa and for the presence of trypanosomal dna with pcr. microscopic evidence of trypanosomes of the congolense group (sub-genus nannomonas) was found in 0.8% of the animals (8/9 ...200616574325
tripanosomatides like trypanosoma theileri in the cattle tick boophilus microplus.findings of epimastigotes forms of a tripanosomatide is reported in the hemolymph of the cattle tick boophilus microplus in the state of rio grande do sul, southern brazil. morphological evidences suggest they are similar to trypanosoma theileri, a species described as non pathogenic to cattle, and usually transmitted by tabanids.200818823581
surprising variety in energy metabolism within trypanosomatidae.the metabolism of trypanosomatidae differs significantly between distinct species and can even be completely different between various life-cycle stages of the same species. it has been proposed that differences in energy metabolism are related to differences in nutrient supply in the environments of the various trypanosomatids. however, the literature shows that availability of substrates does not dictate the type of energy metabolism of trypanosomatids, as trypanosoma theileri, trypanosoma lew ...200919748317
accidental discovery of trypanosoma theileri in the in vitro culture of the heifer lymphocytes.the diagnostics of the trypanosoma sp. invasion by means of the classic methods i.e. the methods of thin smears or thick drop or even the microhematocrite method, especially when intensity of infection is low, is very difficult. in our climatic zone, trypanosomosis is usually considered as an exotic disease. an opportunistic model of the infection with the parasite and a lack of current data on the prevalence of t. theileri in the cattle in poland cause that it is neglected as a potential reason ...200919886263
a comparison of six primer sets for detection of trypanosoma evansi by polymerase chain reaction in rodents and thai livestock.to face the worldwide threat of surra caused by trypanosoma evansi, international organizations have stressed the need to evaluate and standardize diagnostic tools. pcr detection of t. evansi has known a great expansion during the last 20 years, but primer sets are often insufficiently assessed and compared. in this work, we compared the performances of six primer pairs-tbr1/2 (masiga et al., 1992), esag6/7 (holland et al., 2001a, b), tepan1/2 (panyim et al., 1993), pmutec f/r (wuyts et al., 199 ...201020466489
high genetic diversity in field isolates of trypanosoma theileri assessed by analysis of cathepsin l-like sequences disclosed multiple and new genotypes infecting cattle in thailand.in this study, we describe the first survey in thailand of trypanosoma theileri, a widespread and prevalent parasite of cattle that is transmitted by tabanid flies. investigation of 210 bovine blood samples of thai cattle from six farms by hematocrit centrifuge technique (hct) revealed 14 samples with trypanosomes morphologically compatible to t. theileri. additional animals were positive for t. theileri by pcr based on the cathepsin l-like sequence (tthcatl-pcr) despite negative by hct, indicat ...201121477926
trypanosoma spp. in swedish game animals.serum and blood samples from 36 game animals, shot during the hunting seasons 2007-2009, were collected and analyzed for the presence of trypanosoma spp. by three methods: isolation, polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and serology. only fissiped animals were included, four different ruminants and wild boar. trypanosomes could be isolated from two of the animals, and eight had detectable parasite dna. seven animals had high titers of anti-trypanosoma igg antibodies. the two isolated strains, one fr ...201121614542
anaemia associated with a high parasitaemia of trypanosoma theileri in a dairy cow. 19846525119
targeting cattle-borne zoonoses and cattle pathogens using a novel trypanosomatid-based delivery system.trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout africa and south america. however, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. one example is trypanosoma (megatrypanum) theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to catt ...201122046137
an ultrastructural study of the interaction in vitro between trypanosoma theileri and bovine leucocytes.bovine neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages obtained from the mammary gland were cytotoxic to trypanosoma theileri epimastigotes in vitro in the presence of specific antibody. a detailed ultrastructural study revealed that all types of effector cell phagocytosed t. theileri despite the relatively large size of this parasite (10-130 microns). phagocytosis proceeded in the classical manner by envelopment of the trypanosome by long pseudopodia. with eosinophils and macrophages structural damage ...19827166572
clinical disease associated with trypanosoma theileri infection in a calf in ireland.a four-month-old calf had a clinical history of pyrexia, anaemia, weight loss and behavioural abnormality. clinical examination revealed evidence of regenerative anaemia and a lymphocytosis which was characterised by a relatively large b cell population. the calf deteriorated clinically while under observation and its prescapular and prefemoral lymph nodes became enlarged. examination of a blood smear revealed the presence of a large number of circulating trypanasoma theileri. serological examin ...19938362471
first isolation of trypanosoma theileri in sicilian cattle. 200011085467
pcr and microsatellite analysis of diminazene aceturate resistance of bovine trypanosomes correlated to knowledge, attitude and practice of livestock keepers in south-western ethiopia.african animal trypanosomosis is threatening the agricultural production and cattle breeding more severely than any other livestock disease in the continent, even more since the advent of drug resistance. a longitudinal study was conducted from november 2012 to may 2013 in the ghibe valley to evaluate diminazene aceturate (da) resistance and assess livestock owner's perception of trypanocidal drug use. four peasant associations (pas) were purposively selected and the cattle randomly sampled in e ...201525738729
parasitemia in a neonatal bison calf.a 3-day old female bison calf (bison bison) was presented in lateral recumbency to the université de montréal veterinary teaching hospital. the animal was severely depressed and dehydrated (10%) and died a few hours after admission. prior to death, blood samples were obtained for cbc, clinical chemistry, and serology tests. abnormal cbc findings included thrombocytopenia, lymphocytosis, mild monocytosis, and a toxic left shift. abnormal serum clinical chemistry findings included marked azotemia, ...200415334355
demonstration of trypanosoma theileri in the stomach of an aborted bovine fetus. 195713437686
energy metabolism of bloodstream form trypanosoma theileri.bloodstream form trypanosoma theileri degrades glucose to acetate (47%) and succinate (45%) and, therefore, does not solely rely on glycolysis for atp production. this trypanosomatid does not use amino acids for energy metabolism. these results refute the prevailing hypothesis that substrate availability determines the type of energy metabolism of trypanosomatids.200717644652
type-specific pcr assays for babesia bovis msa-1 genotypes in asia: revisiting the genetic diversity in sri lanka, mongolia, and vietnam.babesia bovis is the most virulent babesia organism, resulting in a high mortality rate in cattle. the genetic diversity of b. bovis merozoite surface antigens (msas), such as msa-1, msa-2b, and msa-2c, might be linked to altered immune profiles in the host animals. the present study aimed to develop type-specific pcr assays for asian msa-1 genotypes, thereby re-analyzing the genetic diversity of msa-1 in sri lanka, mongolia, and vietnam. specific primers were designed for nine asian msa-1 genot ...201626520797
parasitological and molecular surveys reveal high rates of infection with vector-borne pathogens and clinical anemia signs associated with infection in cattle from two important livestock areas in colombia.in colombia, vector-borne diseases are one of the most important problems in the livestock industry. the present study reports parasitological and molecular surveys of vector-borne pathogens in cattle from two high-value livestock areas in colombia. a total of 464 samples (226 from antioquia and 238 from arauca) were analyzed. while the blood smear analysis identified 98 (21.1%), 14 (3.0%) and 30 (6.5%) positive samples for anaplasma spp., babesia spp. and trypanosoma spp., respectively, the mol ...201727956049
cytochemistry of in vitro cultured trypanosoma theileri. 196514324308
[absence of interaction between trypanosoma theileri infections with the diagnosis of animal trypanosomiasis by detection of circulating antigens].this work presents data gathered at the cirdes (centre international de recherche-développement sur l'elevage en zone subhumide) during epidemiological monitoring. the prevalence levels of trypanosoma vivax, trypanosoma congolense and trypansoma brucei obtained using antigen-detection elisa were compared in non-infected animals and in animals infected with trypanosoma theileri. the aim was to investigate whether there were any serological cross-reactions between t. theileri and the pathogenic tr ...19957569224
serum biochemical parameters and cytokine profiles associated with natural african trypanosome infections in cattle.animal african trypanosomiasis (aat) greatly affects livestock production in sub-saharan africa. in ghana prevalence of aat is estimated to range between 5 and 50%. studies have reported serum biochemical aberrations and variability in cytokine profiles in animals during infection. however, information regarding the biochemical parameters and cytokine profiles associated with natural infections are limited. this study was therefore aimed at investigating changes in the levels of serum biochemica ...201728655350
comparative in vitro isolation of trypanosoma theileri from cattle in belgium.ten blood samples randomly collected from cows on a farm nearby antwerp, belgium, were inoculated into kivi culture medium (kit for in vitro isolation of trypanosomes) and rpmi 10%+feeder medium. within 3 weeks of incubation all kivi cultures and four rpmi 10%+feeder revealed presence of trypanosoma theileri. some practical implications regarding the use of kivi for isolation of pathogenic african trypanosomes from cattle and other bovidae are discussed.200010729652
epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in vietnam.a pcr-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected babesia bigemina, theileria orientalis and trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in vietnam, and a new babesia sp. closely related to babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. in addition, theileria annulata and trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. phylogenetic analysis detected t. orientalis mpsp genotypes 3, 5, 7 and n3 in cattle and 5, 7, n1 and n2 in water buffalo. additionally, water buffa ...201627149894
diagnostic value of the recombinant tandem repeat antigen tegm6-4r for surra in water buffaloes.trypanosoma evansi infection, or surra, is currently affecting various species of animals, especially water buffaloes. since diagnosis is an important aspect of surra control, development of novel diagnostic antigens is of interest to implement and improve the currently utilized methods. our study evaluated the tandem repeat antigen tegm6-4r in t. evansi antibody detection in water buffaloes. tegm6-4r-based elisa was performed with 20 positive and 8 negative controls and 484 field samples from w ...201424524896
pcr detection and genetic diversity of bovine hemoprotozoan parasites in vietnam.hemoprotozoan infections often cause serious production losses in livestock. in the present study, we conducted a pcr-based survey of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, theileria annulata, theileria orientalis, trypanosoma evansi and trypanosoma theileri, using 423 dna samples extracted from blood samples of cattle (n=202), water buffaloes (n=43), sheep (n=51) and goats (n=127) bred in the hue and hanoi provinces of vietnam. with the exception of t. annulata and t. evansi, all other parasite speci ...201323856762
characterization of tabanid flies (diptera: tabanidae) in south africa and zambia and detection of protozoan parasites they are harbouring.tabanids are haematophagous flies feeding on livestock and wildlife. in the absence of information on the relationship of tabanid flies and protozoan parasites in south africa and zambia, the current study was aimed at characterizing tabanid flies collected in these two countries as well as detecting protozoan parasites they are harbouring. a total of 527 tabanid flies were collected whereby 70·2% were from south africa and 29·8% were from zambia. morphological analysis revealed a total of five ...201728502276
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