an evaluation of methods for obtaining mycelium-free oospores of pythium aphanidermatum and p. myriotylum. 1977326359
pythium aphanidermatum: culture, cell-wall composition, and isolation and structure of antitumour storage and solubilised cell-wall (1----3),(1----6)-beta-d-glucans.under optimal conditions for the culture of the fungus phytium aphanidermatum, no polysaccharides were excreted into the medium. the mycelium contained up to 38% of a slightly branched, storage (1----3),(1----6)-beta-d-glucan with a mw of 20,000. the cell-wall polysaccharides of the mycelium comprised 18% of cellulose and 82% of (1----3),(1----6)-beta-d-glucans. of the non-cellulosic glucans, approximately 33% could be solubilised by extraction with water at 121 degrees, and they had a mw of 10, ...19921394320
coordinated regulation of two indole alkaloid biosynthetic genes from catharanthus roseus by auxin and elicitors.catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) produces a wide range of terpenoid indole alkaloids, including several pharmaceutically important compounds, from the intermediate strictosidine. the complete mrna sequence for the enzyme strictosidine synthase (sss) was determined. comparison of the primary structure of the encoded protein with the amino-terminal sequence of purified sss indicated the presence of a signal peptide of 31 amino acids in the putative primary translation product. sss is encoded by a ...19921600148
elicitor-mediated induction of tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase activities in cell suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus.treatment of one cell line (no. 615) of catharanthus roseus c.v. little delicata with an elicitor preparation of autoclaved and homogenized pythium aphanidermatum culture resulted in rapid accumulation of indole alkaloids. alkaloid formation was preceded by rapid transient increases in the extractable activities of the enzymes tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase. the induction of these two enzyme activities occurred when cells were transferred to alkaloid production medium or tre ...19873579315
increased synthesis of ajmalicine and catharanthine by cell suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus in response to fungal culture-filtrates.the ammonium sulfate-precipitated fraction from mycelia and culture-filtrates and the crude, cell-free culture filtrates from the growth medium of the fungi chrysosporium palmorum, eurotium rubrum, micromucor isabellina, and pythium aphanidermatum when aseptically added to cell suspensions of cantharanthus roseus caused a rapid and dramatic increase in indole alkaloid biosynthesis. up to 400 micrograms/l ajmalicine and 600 micrograms/l catharanthine were detected in c. roseus cell suspension gro ...19873619437
serological differentiation of pythium aphanidermatum from phytophthora parasitica var. nicotiane and ph parasitica. 19676030060
changes in the chemical composition of oospores of pythium aphanidermatum during bimodal germination.the developmental mode by which oospores of pythium aphanidermatum germinate may be controlled by the concentration of glucose present in the germination medium. when incubated in a liquid medium containing emulsified lecithin without added glucose (s + l), oospores germinated indirectly, with zoospore release occurring during the 10th to 13th h. a decrease in dry weight of the fungus took place by the 13th h of indirect germination. when 0.2 mm glucose was added to s + l, the dry weight of germ ...19817248857
carbon and nitrogen nutrition of plant pathogenic fungi associated with basal stem rots of cowpeas, vigna unguiculata (l) walp in nigeria.pythium aphanidermatum, rhizoctonia bataticola (syn. = macrophomina phaseolina), botryodiplodia theobromae, and two strains of sclerotium rolfsii readily utilized for growth the monosaccharides glucose, fructose and mannose, the disaccharides sucrose and maltose and the polysaccharides dextrin and starch. in addition, s. rolfsii grew appreciably well on carboxymethylcellulose (cmc). when filter paper (nature cellulose) was supplied as sole carbon source, it was decomposed by b. theobromae, s. ro ...19807376690
pulsed growth of fungal hyphal tips.somatic fungal hyphae are generally assumed to elongate at steady linear rates when grown under constant environmental conditions with ample nutrients. however, patterns of pulsed hyphal elongation were detected during apparent steady growth of hyphal tips in fungi from several major taxonomic groups (oomycetes, pythium aphanidermatum and saprolegnia ferax; zygomycetes, gilbertella persicaria; deuteromycetes, trichoderma viride; ascomycetes, neurospora crassa and fusarium culmorum; basidiomycete ...19947991610
uncoupled defense gene expression and antimicrobial alkaloid accumulation in elicited opium poppy cell cultures.treatment of opium poppy (papaver somniferum l.) cell cultures with autoclaved mycelial homogenates of botrytis sp. resulted in the accumulation of sanguinarine. elicitor treatment also caused a rapid and transient induction in the activity of tyrosine/dopa decarboxylase (tydc, ec, which catalyzes the conversion of l-tyrosine and l-dopa to tyramine and dopamine, respectively, the first steps in sanguinarine biosynthesis. tydc genes were differentially expressed in response to elicitor ...19968754678
cell-specific production and antimicrobial activity of naphthoquinones in roots of lithospermum erythrorhizonpigmented naphthoquinone derivatives of shikonin are produced at specific times and in specific cells of lithospermum erythrorhizon roots. normal pigment development is limited to root hairs and root border cells in hairy roots grown on "noninducing" medium, whereas induction of additional pigment production by abiotic (cuso4) or biotic (fungal elicitor) factors increases the amount of total pigment, changes the ratios of derivatives produced, and initiates production of pigment de novo in epide ...19999952436
phytotoxicity of indole-3-acetic acid produced by the fungus, pythium aphanidermatum.pythium aphanidermatum causes the serious disease of pythium red blight on bentgrass. iaa, one of the metabolites that has been isolated from this fungus, showed the same symptom of pythium red blight on bentgrass at a concentration of 1,000 mg/1. the iaa content in the foliage of bentgrass infected by this fungus was about 200 times that of an untreated control. these results suggest that iaa produced by this fungus was the causal substance of pythium red blight on bentgrass.200010705467
induced expression of sarcotoxin ia enhanced host resistance against both bacterial and fungal pathogens in transgenic tobacco.we demonstrate here that induced expression of sarcotoxin ia, a bactericidal peptide from sarcophaga peregrina, enhanced the resistance of transgenic tobacco plants to both bacterial and fungal pathogens. the peptide was produced with a modified pr1a promoter, which is further activated by salicylic acid treatment and necrotic lesion formation by pathogen infection. host resistance to infection of bacteria erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci was shown to be d ...200010939257
control of pythium root rot on hydroponically grown cucumbers with silver-coated cloth.silver-coated cloth (scc) effectively controlled root rot that was caused by pythium aphanidermatum in hydroponically grown cucumber plants. the presence of scc in the hydroponic solution reduced the root rot from 100% to 10% 20 days after inoculation with zoospores of p. aphanidermatum. it was suggested that the inhibition of scc was caused not only by the silver ion dissolved from scc, but also by the metallic silver and silver compounds formed on the surface of the root.200010945273
development of formulations of biological agents for management of root rot of lettuce and cucumber.the effect of various carrier formulations of bacillus subtilis and pseudomonas putida were tested on germination, growth, and yield of lettuce and cucumber crops in the presence of pythium aphanidermatum and fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucurbitacearum, respectively. survival of b. subtilis and p. putida in various carriers under refrigeration (about 0 degree c) and at room temperature (about 22 degrees c) was also studied. in all carrier formulations, b. subtilis strain bact-0 survived up to 45 da ...200011006841
zoospore homing and infection events: effects of the biocontrol bacterium burkholderia cepacia ammdr1 on two oomycete pathogens of pea (pisum sativum l.).burkholderia cepacia ammdr1 is a biocontrol agent that protects pea and sweet corn seeds from pythium damping-off in field experiments. the goal of this work was to understand the effect of b. cepacia ammdr1 on pythium aphanidermatum and aphanomyces euteiches zoospore homing events and on infection of pea seeds or roots. in vitro, b. cepacia ammdr1 caused zoospore lysis, prevented cyst germination, and inhibited germ tube growth of both oomycetes. b. cepacia ammdr1 also reduced the attractivenes ...200011097889
a novel protein elicitor (panie) from pythium aphanidermatum induces multiple defense responses in carrot, arabidopsis, and tobacco.a novel protein elicitor (panie(234)) from pythium aphanidermatum (edson) fitzp. was purified, microsequenced, and the corresponding cdna was cloned. the deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative eukaryotic secretion signal with a proteinase cleavage site. the heterologously expressed elicitor protein without the secretion signal of 21 amino acids (panie(213)) triggered programmed cell death and de novo formation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in cultured cells of carrot (daucus carota). program ...200111706166
development of a nested polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection and identification of pythium insidiosum.pythium insidiosum is an important cause of cutaneous and gastrointestinal disease in horses and dogs in the southeastern united states. culture-based diagnosis of pythiosis is rarely definitive because production and identification of reproductive structures is difficult. the purpose of this study was to develop a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based assay for the identification of p insidiosum. genomic dna was extracted from 3 clinical isolates of p insidiosum and i isolate each of pythium gr ...200211899029
nicotinamide and structurally related compounds show halting activity against zoospores of the phytopathogenic fungus aphanomyces a survey of plant secondary metabolites regulating the behavior of phytopathogenic aphanomyces cochlioides zoospores, we found that leaf extracts of amaranthus gangeticus and cotyledon extracts of pea (pisum sativum) remarkably halted the motility of zoospores. bioassay-directed fractionation of a. gangeticus and pea constituents revealed that the halting activity was dependent on a single chemical factor (halting factor). the active principle was identified as nicotinamide (1) by comparing i ...200212064735
population dynamics of pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber grown in closed systems.foot and root rot in cucumber, caused by pythium aphanidermatum (edson) fitzp., is an economically important disease in soilless culture systems. nevertheless, very few data are available on the populations of this pathogen. therefore, two detection methods, nested pcr (polymerase chain reaction) and plating on a selective medium after concentration of samples, were optimised and evaluated. with both methods very low concentrations of p. aphanidermatum could be detected; i.e. the detection limit ...200112425020
[purification and characterization of antifungal peptide lp-1].an antifungal peptide lp-1 from bacillus subtilis tg26 strain was purified by acid precipitation, acetone precipitation and hi-pore reversed phase column chromatography. the molecular weight of lp-1 is 1057.3 d as determined by maldi-tof mass spectrometry, and its pi is 4.75 by pag-ief. it was also found to be thermostable. its antifungal spectrum showed that lp-1 has strong inhibitory activity against many plant pathogenic fungi, such as pythium aphanidermatum, gibberella zeae, alternaria longi ...199912555526
an integrated control of pythium root rot of greenhouse tomato.pythium root rot caused by pythium aphanidermatum is one of the most important diseases of greenhouse tomatoes. hydroponic culture exacerbates the problem. both nutrient film technique (nft) and recirculating growing systems pose a challenge in the control of this disease, because the pathogen, especially the zoospores, can spread easily in the recirculating solution to the whole growing system. fortunately, hydroponically grown plants are easier to manipulate than soil grown plants, proper mani ...200212701425
biochemical characterization and antifungal activity of an endo-1,3-beta-glucanase of paenibacillus sp. isolated from garden soil.a 44-kda 1,3-beta-glucanase was purified from the culture medium of a paenibacillus strain with a 28-fold increase in specific activity with 31% recovery. the purified enzyme preferentially catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucans with 1,3-beta-linkage and has an endolytic mode of action. the enzyme also showed binding activity to various insoluble polysaccharides including unhydrolyzable substrates such as xylan and cellulose. the antifungal activity of this paenibacillus enzyme and a previously pur ...200312764561
species-specific pcr primers for pythium developed from ribosomal its1 develop a specific method for distinguishing and detecting pythium species.200312859654
characterisation of lysobacter enzymogenes (christensen and cook 1978) strain 3.1t8, a powerful antagonist of fungal diseases of cucumber.isolate 3.1t8 of lysobacter enzymogenes (christensen and cook 1978), originating from the rhizosphere of cucumber and shown to have the potential to control pythium aphanidermatum, is described. the strain produces extracellular proteases and lipases and shows high levels of resistance against streptomycin, kanamycin and tetracycline, but not to chloramphenicol. it shows strong in vitro antibiosis against p. aphanidermatum and several other phytopathogenic fungi. in order to identify the isolate ...200312906383
stimulation of pythium aphanidermatum in soil amended with chitinous materials. 196514338067
biological activity of tropolone.tropolone (1). showed strong insecticidal activity on tyrophagus putrescentiae and dermatophagoides farinae. the insecticidal effect of 1 on both insects was stronger than that of hinokitiol (2, 4-isopropyltropolone: major component of thujopsis dolabrata sieb. et zucc. hondai makino). the insecticidal activity of both compounds was higher than that of n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet), used as a positive control. compound 1 had potent insecticidal activity against coptotermes formosanus, although ...200314519960
evaluation of trichoderma spp. for biocontrol of tomato sudden caused by pythium aphanidermatum following flooding in tropical hot season.tomato sudden death is a major problem in tomato production in tropical lowland areas. the plant wilts and dies following artificial or natural flooding for 48-72 hrs in the summer season. occurrence of this disease is related to aggressiveness of pythium aphanidermatum on tomato at high soil temperature (>30 degrees c). several methods such as using biological control agents, fungicides and other cultural practices were applied in attempts to control tomato sudden death. three trichoderma harzi ...200315151279
the global regulator genes from biocontrol strain serratia plymuthica ic1270: cloning, sequencing, and functional studies.the biocontrol activity of various fluorescent pseudomonads towards plant-pathogenic fungi is dependent upon the gaca/gacs-type two-component system of global regulators and the rpos transcription sigma factor. in particular, these components are required for the production of antifungal antibiotics and exoenzymes. to investigate the effects of these global regulators on the expression of biocontrol factors by plant-associated bacteria other than pseudomonas spp., gaca/gacs and rpos homologues w ...200415262936
a non-specific lipid transfer protein with antifungal and antibacterial activities from the mung bean.a non-specific lipid transfer peptide (nsltp) with antimicrobial activity was isolated from the mung bean (phaseolus mungo) seeds. the procedure entailed aqueous extraction, ion exchange chromatography on cm-sephadex and high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) on poros-hs-20. the peptide exhibited a molecular mass of 9.03 kda in mass spectrometry. it exerted antifungal action toward fusarium solani, fusarium oxysporum, pythium aphanidermatum and sclerotium rolfsii, and antibacterial action ...200415350690
biological activity of beta-dolabrin, gamma-thujaplicin, and 4-acetyltropolone, hinokitiol-related compounds.beta-dolabrin, gamma-thujaplicin, and 4-acetyltropolone, the components of aomori hiba (thujopsis dolabrata sieb. et zucc. var. hondai makino), showed antifungal activity on seven kinds of plant-pathogenic fungi, antibacterial activity against two kinds of legionella sp., and in vitro cytotoxic effect on murine p388 lymphocytic leukemia cell line. firstly, beta-dolabrin, gamma-thujaplicin and 4-acetyltropolone had clear antifungal activity against seven kinds of plant-pathogenic fungi tested. in ...200415467216
bacillus subtilis m4 decreases plant susceptibility towards fungal pathogens by increasing host resistance associated with differential gene expression.results presented in this paper describe the ability of bacillus subtilis strain m4 to reduce disease incidence caused by colletotrichum lagenarium and pythium aphanidermatum on cucumber and tomato, respectively. disease protection in both pathosystems was most probably due to induction of resistance in the host plant since experiments were designed in order to avoid any direct contact between the biocontrol agent and the pathogen. pre-inoculation with strain m4 thus sensitised both plants to re ...200415578181
first report of a novel plant lysozyme with both antifungal and antibacterial activities.a novel lysozyme exhibiting antifungal activity and with a molecular mass of 14.4kda in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was isolated from mung bean (phaseolus mungo) seeds using a procedure that involved aqueous extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on cm-sephadex, and high-performance liquid chromatography on poros hs-20. its n-terminal sequence was very different from that of hen egg white lysozyme. its pi was estimated to be above 9.7. the specific act ...200515649419
[isolation and purification of ribosome-inactivating proteins from bitter melon seeds by ion exchange chromatographic columns in series].an anion exchange chromatographic column (deae-650c) and a cation exchange chromatographic column (cm-650c) were connected in series on a perfusion chromatography workstation. the crude extract of bitter melon seeds flowed through the two columns and the unadsorbed fraction on the deae-650c column was then directly readsorbed on the cm-650c column. two protein components with antifungal activity were eluted from the cation exchange chromatographic column by linear salt gradient. both of them wer ...200415706947
synthesis and fungicidal activity of novel 2-oxocycloalkylsulfonylureas.a series of 2-oxocycloalkylsulfonylureas (2) have been synthesized in a six-step, three-pot reaction sequence from readily available cyclododecanone, cycloheptanone, and cyclohexanone. their structures were confirmed by ir, 1h nmr, and elemental analysis. the bioassay indicated that some of them possess certain fungicidal activity against gibberella zeae petch. in general, compounds containing a 12-membered ring (2a) are more active than those containing a 6- or 7-membered ring (2b, 2c). in the ...200515769157
suppression of meloidogyne javanica by antagonistic and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.four rhizobacteria selected out of over 500 isolates from rhizosphere of the vegetables in china were further studied for suppression of the root-knot nematode and soil-borne fungal pathogens in laboratory and greenhouse in belgium. they were identified as brevibacillus brevis or bacillus subtilis by biolog test and partial 16s rdna sequence comparison. they not only inhibited the radial growth of the root-infecting fungi rhizoctonia solani sx-6, pythium aphanidermatum zjp-1 and fusarium oxyspor ...200515909333
sodium, potassium-atpases in algae and oomycetes.we have investigated the presence of k(+)-transporting atpases that belong to the phylogenetic group of animal na(+),k(+)-atpases in the pythium aphanidermatum stramenopile oomycete, the porphyra yezoensis red alga, and the udotea petiolata green alga, by molecular cloning and expression in heterologous systems. pcr amplification and search in est databases allowed one gene to be identified in each species that could encode atpases of this type. phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of these at ...200516167182
two widely accessible media for growth and reproduction of phytophthora and pythium species.tomato agar and soybean agar were found to be comparable to or in some cases better than the popular v8 vegetable juice agar in supporting linear growth of phytophthora cactorum, phytophthora capsici, phytophthora parasitica, pythium aphanidermatum, and pythium splendens; sporangium production of p. capsici, p. palmivora, and pythium splendens; and oospore formation of p. cactorum, p. parasitica, pythium aphanidermatum and pythium splendens. these two media with readily accessible ingredients ca ...199316349002
antifungal activity of 4-methyl-6-alkyl-2h-pyran-2-ones.a number of 4-methyl-6-alkyl-alpha-pyrones were synthesized and characterized on the basis of 1h nmr and mass spectroscopy. these compounds were tested in vitro against pathogenic fungi, namely, sclerotium rolfsii saccardo, rhizoctonia bataticola (taub.) butler, pythium aphanidermatum (edson) fitz., macrophomina phaseolina (tassi), pythium debaryanum (hesse), and rhizoctonia solani nees. lower homologues were less effective, whereas compounds such as 4-methyl-6-butyl-alpha-pyrone, 4-methyl-6-pen ...200616536586
immunological detection and quantitation of tryptophan decarboxylase in developing catharanthus roseus seedlings.l-tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc) (ec enzyme activity was induced in cell suspension cultures of catharanthus roseus after treatment with a pythium aphanidermatum elicitor preparation. the enzyme was extracted from lyophilized cells containing high levels of tdc and the protein was purified to homogeneity. the pure protein was used to produce highly specific polyclonal antibodies, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to quantitate the level of tdc antigen durin ...198916667047
microbial community responses associated with the development of oomycete plant pathogens on tomato roots in soilless growing determine the spread of different oomycete pathogens in hydroponic, soilless tomato growing systems and their impact on established microbial communities, as baseline studies prior to future introduction of microbial inoculants for disease suppression.200616696667
isolation and characterization of a novel mung bean protease inhibitor with antipathogenic and anti-proliferative activities.a novel protease inhibitor, designated mungoin, with both antifungal and antibacterial activities, and exhibiting a molecular mass of 10kda in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was isolated from mung bean (phaseolus mungo) seeds. the isolation procedure involved a combination of extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on cm-sephadex, and high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) on sp-toyopearl. its isoelectric point was estimated to be 9.8 by isoelectri ...200616971020
resistance to pythium aphanidermatum in diploids and induced autotetraploids of catharanthus roseus.resistance to pythium aphanidermatum (which causes die-back and collar and root rot) in seven diploid and four induced autotetraploid lines of catharanthus roseus was studied in the field during 1983 to 1985. the tetraploid lines were, depending on the year of evaluation, about 13 to 155, 18 to 218, and 17 to 366 times more resistant than diploid lines, when resistance was measured in terms of plant mortality, infection rate, and area under disease curve, respectively. on an average over three y ...198817265286
diversity of root-associated fluorescent pseudomonads as affected by ferritin overexpression in tobacco.a transgenic tobacco overexpressing ferritin (p6) was recently shown to accumulate more iron than the wild type (wt), leading to a reduced availability of iron in the rhizosphere and shifts in the pseudomonad community. the impact of the transgenic line on the community of fluorescent pseudomonads was assessed. the diversity of 635 isolates from rhizosphere soils, rhizoplane + root tissues, and root tissues of wt and p6, and that of 98 isolates from uncultivated soil was characterized. their abi ...200717564606
pathogen-induced calmodulin isoforms in basal resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens in tobacco.thirteen tobacco calmodulin (cam) genes fall into three distinct amino acid homology types. wound-inducible type i isoforms ntcam1 and 2 were moderately induced by tobacco mosaic virus (tmv)-mediated hypersensitive reaction, and the type iii isoform ntcam13 was highly induced, while the type ii isoforms ntcam3-ntcam12 showed little response. type i and iii knockdown tobacco lines were generated using inverted repeat sequences from ntcam1 and 13, respectively, to evaluate the contribution of path ...200717251204
remote detection of biological stresses in plants with infrared leaves of mature sugar beets infected with pythium aphanidermatum and cotton infected with phymatotrichum omnivorum had midday radiant leaf temperatures 3 degrees to 5 degrees warmer than adjacent plants with no sign of disease. the temperature difference persisted under varying conditions of soil moisture and could be used to detect biological stress imposed by these soilborne root-rotting fungi.197917729682
production of potato intraspecific somatic hybrids with improved tolerance to pvy and pythium aphanidermatum.somatic hybridization can be an interesting alternative for the selection of heterozygous and vigorous potato plants through combination of dihaploid genomes. the resulting hybrids can harbour interesting characters and thus can be used in agriculture if they are in agreement with agronomic criteria. in this report, we used an intraspecific somatic hybridization technique for the production of tetraploid potato lines. two parental combinations were used in protoplast electrofusion procedure: ami ...200616904234
zoospore encystment and pathogenicity of phytophthora and pythium species on plant plant species (lucerne, maize, oat, sugarbeet, sorghum, tomato, wheat) and 12 pythium and phytophthora species were used in a comparative study designed to investigate the effects of plant and oomycete inter-specific variation on zoospore encystment density and pathogenicity. zoospores showed differential encystment behaviour and they encysted more on dicotyledonous than on monocotyledonous plants. pythium aphanidermatum, p. deliense, and phytophthora nicotianae were the most aggressive sp ...200616338584
enhancement of growth and coumarin production in hairy root cultures of witloof chicory (cichorium intybus lucknow local) under the influence of fungal elicitors.studies were conducted to determine the possible production of coumarins in hairy root cultures of cichorium intybus lucknow local under the influence of microbial agents. pythium aphanidermatum and phytopthora parasitica var. nicotiana were cultured and their mycelial and medium filtrate were used for the elicitation of coumarin production. the media filtrate of p. parasitica at 1.0% v/v added to the ms basal medium led to the maximum growth of hairy roots of c. intybus, which was 1.57-fo ...200016232926
selective enhancement of the fluorescent pseudomonad population after amending the recirculating nutrient solution of hydroponically grown plants with a nitrogen stabilizer.fluorescent pseudomonads have been associated, via diverse mechanisms, with suppression of root disease caused by numerous fungal and fungal-like pathogens. however, inconsistent performance in disease abatement, after their employment, has been a problem. this has been attributed, in part, to the inability of the biocontrol bacterium to maintain a critical threshold population necessary for sustained biocontrol activity. our results indicate that a nitrogen stabilizer (n-serve, dow agrosciences ...200818347844
a chitinase with antifungal activity from the mung bean.a chitinase with antifungal activity was isolated from mung bean (phaseolus mungo) seeds. the procedure entailed aqueous extraction, (nh4)2so4 precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on cm-sepharose, high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) on poros hs-20, and gel filtration on sephadex g-75. the protein exhibited a molecular mass of 30.8 kda in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. its pi was 6.3 as determined by isoelectric focusing. the specific activity of the chitinase was estimat ...200515766863
antagonistic effects of pseudomonas jessenii against pythium aphanidermatum: morphological, ultrastructural and cytochemical aspects.pseudomonas jessenii isolate ec-s101, an antagonistic rhizobacterium, induces morphological abnormalities such as topical swelling and excessive lateral branching in phytopathogenic peronosporomycetes pythium aphanidermatum hyphae as a result of radial growth inhibition in a dual culture assay. rhodamine-phalloidin staining revealed that these abnormalities were associated with disorganization of actin cytoskeleton. both the morphological forms of actin, filaments and plaques, were affected prog ...200818383229
possibilities of the use of vinasses in the control of fungi phytopathogens.the purpose of this research was to study the biocide effect of three agroindustrial subproducts, concretely sugar beet, sugar cane and wine vinasse. results from in vitro testing determined that wine vinasse is what shows a 100% capacity to suppress fungal growth with concentrations between 5% and 7% for fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis race 0 and 1, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, pythium aphanidermatum and phytophthora parasitica and 10-15% for f. oxysporum f.sp. radicis-cucumerinum. on the other h ...200818519163
expression analysis of defense-related genes in zingiber (zingiberaceae) species with different levels of compatibility to the soft rot pathogen pythium aphanidermatum.ginger (zingiber officinale roscoe) cultivars are susceptible to soft rot disease caused by pythium aphanidermatum. we analyzed changes in transcript levels of 41 genes in the highly susceptible ginger cultivar varada, a less susceptible wild accession (wild ginger), and a pythium aphanidermatum-resistant relative, z. zerumbet, following treatment with pythium aphanidermatum or one of three signaling molecules: salicylic acid (sa), jasmonic acid (ja), or ethylene (et). the 41 studied genes were ...200818704430
in vitro antifungal activity and mechanism of action of chitinase against four plant pathogenic determine why chitinase has different antifungal activity on different pathogenic fungi in vitro, we purified recombinant rice chitinase from pichia pastoris and investigated its antifungal activity against four fungi - rhizopus stolonifer (ehrenb. et fr.) vuill, botrytis squamosa walker, pythium aphanidermatum (eds.) fitzp, and aspergillus niger van tiegh. scanning electron microscopy (sem) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ftir) were used to analyze the surface microstructure and ...200818720488
characterization of the microbial community involved in the suppression of pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber grown on rockwool.abstract the root pathogen pythium aphanidermatum induced lower levels of disease in cucumber (cucumis sativus) plants on unsterilized, re-used rockwool slabs than on heat-sterilized, re-used rockwool. several recolonization treatments of the sterilized rockwool enhanced the suppressiveness of the rockwool. microbial community structures in the different rockwool treatments were investigated by plate counts on selective media. disease suppressiveness in the different rockwool treatments showed t ...200518943014
net carbon gain and growth of bell peppers, capsicum annuum 'cubico', following root infection by pythium aphanidermatum.abstract the first characterization of alterations in whole-plant photosynthetic rate and carbon assimilation of bell peppers associated with infection by pythium aphanidermatum is described. relationships of root disease caused by p. aphanidermatum to whole-plant net carbon exchange rate (ncer), total carbon accumulation, dark respiration rates, water loss, and destructive growth parameters were quantified in vegetative, hydroponically grown pepper plants (capsicum annuum 'cubico'). inoculated ...200518943036
stress-responsive alpha-dioxygenase expression in tomato roots.alpha-dioxygenase (alpha-dox) enzymes catalyse the oxygenation of fatty acids to yield a newly identified group of oxylipins that play a role in protecting tissues from oxidative damage and cell death. in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) alpha-dox was identified as salt-regulated by differential display of mrna, and is represented by a small gene family comprising at least three members: lealpha-dox1, -2, and -3 of which only lealpha-dox1 was salt-responsive. the enhancement of lealpha-dox ...200415618300
postinfection biological control of oomycete pathogens of pea by burkholderia cepacia ammdr1.abstract burkholderia cepacia ammdr1 is a biocontrol agent that reduces pythium damping-off and aphanomyces root rot severity on peas in the field. we studied the effect of b. cepacia ammdr1 on post-infection stages in the life cycles of these pathogens, including mycelial colonization of the host, production of oogonia, and production of secondary zoospore inoculum. we used burkholderia cepacia 1324, a seed and rootcolonizing but antibiosis-deficient tn5 mutant of b. cepacia ammdr1, to study me ...200118943851
effect of the indigenous microflora on the development of root and crown rot caused by pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber grown on rockwool.abstract the capacity of the microflora in rockwool to suppress pythium aphanidermatum, the causative agent of root and crown rot in cucumber, was assessed. disease development of cucumber (cucumis sativus) grown on rockwool was evaluated in an "ebb-and-flood" system with a recirculating nutrient solution after inoculation with p. aphanidermatum. in five independent experiments from 1995 to 1998, 11 batches of used rockwool were tested. all batches without p. aphanidermatum problems in the prece ...200018944600
disinfection of pythium-infested recirculation water by uv-oxidation technology.selective disinfection against pythium aphanidermatum in recirculation water was tested with uv-irradiation and with uv-oxidation technology with the objective to reduce the electrical energy consumption per cubic meter treated water. uv-oxidation technology is based on injection of hydrogen peroxide in recirculation water, just before passage along a uv-lamp, thus creating hydroxyl radicals. pythium aphanidermatum was applied artificially to recirculation water from tomatoes, grown, in rockwool ...200112425022
purification, crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis of an oomycete-derived nep1-like protein.the elicitor protein nep1-like protein from the plant pathogen pythium aphanidermatum was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. a native data set was collected to 1.35 a resolution at 100 k using synchrotron radiation. since selenomethionine-labelled protein did not crystallize under the original conditions, a second crystal form was identified that yielded crystals that diffracted to 2.1 a resolution. a multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (mad) experimen ...200819052381
plant growth promotion and biological control of pythium aphanidermatum, a pathogen of cucumber, by endophytic evaluate the potential of actinoplanes campanulatus, micromonospora chalcea and streptomyces spiralis endophytic in cucumber roots, to promote plant growth and to protect seedlings and mature plants of cucumber from diseases caused by pythium aphanidermatum, under greenhouse conditions.200919120624
elicitor-induced changes in ca2+ influx, k+ efflux, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid synthesis in protoplasts of daucus carota l.suspension-cultured carrot cells (daucus carota) and their protoplasts respond to a fungal elicitor prepared from the culture medium of pythium aphanidermatum by accumulating 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-hba). protoplasts release the compound into the culture medium. using 45cacl2 as a tracer, we were able to demonstrate that the secretion of 4-hba is preceded by a rapid increase in the ca2+ influx and a concomitant k+ efflux. if the increased ca2+ influx was prevented by ethyleneglycol-bis([beta]-a ...199312231948
paenibacillus polymyxa antagonizes oomycete plant pathogens phytophthora palmivora and pythium find sustainable alternatives to the application of synthetic chemicals for oomycete pathogen suppression.200919226403
biosynthesis of salicylic acid in fungus elicited catharanthus roseus cells.feeding experiments using [1-(13)c]-d-glucose to catharanthus roseus (l.) g.don cell suspension cultures followed by elicitation with pythium aphanidermatum extract were performed in order to study the salicylic acid (sa) biosynthetic pathway and that of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-dhba) as a comparison. a strongly labeled c-7 and a symmetrical partitioning of the label between c-2 and c-6 would occur if sa was synthesized from phenylalanine. in case of the isochorismate pathway, a relatively ...200919251288
coastal bermudagrass rotation and fallow for management of nematodes and soilborne fungi on vegetable crops.the efficacy of clean fallow, bermudagrass (cynodon dactylon) as a rotational crop, and fenamiphos for control of root-knot nematode (meloidogyne incognita race 1) and soilborne fungi in okra (hibiscus esculentus), snapbean (phaseolus vulgaris), and pepper (capsicum annuum) production was evaluated in field tests from 1993 to 1995. numbers of m. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were greater on okra than on snapbean or pepper. application of fenamiphos at 6.7 kg a.i./ha did not suppres ...199719274273
formation of di-isodityrosine and loss of isodityrosine in the cell walls of tomato cell-suspension cultures treated with fungal elicitors or h2o2.about 84% of the hydroxyproline residues in a cell culture of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum x lycopersicon peruvianum) were present in phenol-inextractable (i.e. covalently wall-bound) material. treatment of the cells with any of three fungal elicitors (wall fragments from phytophthora megasperma and pythium aphanidermatum and xylanase from aureobasidium pullulans) or with 1 mm h2o2 had little effect on the quantity of phenolinextractable hydroxyproline per milligram of freeze-dried cells. how ...199712223793
pathogenicity of pythium aphanidermatum to chrysanthemum in combined inoculations with belonolaimus longicaudatus or meloidogyne incognita.rooted cuttings of 'iceberg' chrysanthemum in steamed soil were inoculated with the nematodes belonolaimus longicaudatus, and meloidogyne incognita, alone and combined with pythium aphanidermatum, a fungus pathogen of chrysanthemum. b. longicaudatus alone severely restricted the root system; with p. aphanidermatum also present, plant weight and height were further reduced and onset of symptoms was earlier. m. incognita + fungus interaction was similar but less intense. the fungus suppressed egg ...197019322307
ecophysiological characterization of rhizosphere bacterial communities at different root locations and plant developmental stages of cucumber grown on rockwool.bacterial communities from the rhizosphere of cucumber were characterized with respect to growth rates and carbon source utilization, in order to develop a selection strategy for biocontrol agents against pythium aphanidermatum. rhizosphere samples were collected from different root regions (root tips, the root base, and the intermediate region where lateral roots emerge) and developmental stages (the seedling, vegetative, and generative stage) from plants cultivated on reused rockwool. by colon ...200112024241
a common toxin fold mediates microbial attack and plant defense.many plant pathogens secrete toxins that enhance microbial virulence by killing host cells. usually, these toxins are produced by particular microbial taxa, such as bacteria or fungi. in contrast, many bacterial, fungal and oomycete species produce necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (nep1)-like proteins (nlps) that trigger leaf necrosis and immunity-associated responses in various plants. we have determined the crystal structure of an nlp from the phytopathogenic oomycete pythium aphanider ...200919520828
isolation of a thermostable legume chitinase and study on the antifungal activity.chitinases are listed as one class of pathogenesis-related proteins, and they have become a popular research topic because of their resistance to plant-pathogenic diseases. a chitinase with antifungal activity was isolated from the canadian cranberry beans (phaseolus vulgaris). the procedure included extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, cm-sephadex c-50, and sephadex g-75. there was an almost 108-fold increase in specific activity of the purif ...200919547968
regulation of enzymes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in carrot cell cultures in response to treatment with ultraviolet light and fungal elicitors.the accumulation of anthocyanins in cell cultures of daucus carota l. and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis were investigated under growth in the dark, continuous irradiation with uv light, incubation with elicitors from pythium aphanidermatum, and elicitor treatment of uv-irradiated cells. upon uv irradiation, anthocyanin accumulation was strongly enhanced, and the enzymes of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, including the "late" enzymes cyanidin galactosyltransferase, cyanid ...19989684371
zoosporic plant pathogens produce bacterial autoinducer-2 that affects vibrio harveyi quorum sensing.the frequent coisolation of bacteria with phytophthora and pythium species suggests possible interspecies communication. zoospore-free fluids (zff) from bacteria-free and nutrient-depleted zoospore suspensions were examined to investigate the production of autoinducer-2 (ai-2), a bacterial interspecies signal molecule, by zoosporic oomycetes. zff from phytophthora nicotianae, phytophthora sojae, and pythium aphanidermatum triggered luminescence of the vibrio harve7yi ai-2 reporter, indicating th ...201020002192
genetically pyramiding protease-inhibitor genes for dual broad-spectrum resistance against insect and phytopathogens in transgenic tobacco.protease inhibitors provide a promising means of engineering plant resistance against attack by insects and pathogens. sporamin (trypsin inhibitor) from sweet potato and cecpi (phytocystatin) from taro were stacked in a binary vector, using pmspoa (a modified sporamin promoter) to drive both genes. transgenic tobacco lines of t0 and t1 generation with varied inhibitory activity against trypsin and papain showed resistance to both insects and phytopathogens. larvae of helicoverpa armigera that in ...201020055959
antagonistic effects of trichoderma harzianum on pythium aphanidermatum causing the damping-off disease of tobacco in nigeria.culture filtrates of trichoderma harzianum rifai have been found to inhibit zoospore germination, germ tube elongation and mycelial growth of pythium aphanidermatum causing the damping-off disease of tobacco in nigeria. further, the invasion of the hyphae of p. aphanidermatum by hyphae of t. harzianum has been demonstrated in mixed cultures of the two fungi. the results of investigations on the role of t. harzianum as an agent of biological control of the damping-off disease in sterilized and u ...19751239662
influence of cellular differentiation and elicitation on intermediate and late steps of terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in catharanthus roseus.the invaluable antineoplastic bisindole alkaloids of catharanthus roseus and their precursor, vindoline, are not produced in cell cultures. the intricacies involved in endogenous (cellular differentiation) and exogenous (elicitation) regulation of their biosynthesis need to be dissected out for favorable exploitation. this study aimed at elucidating the effect of pythium aphanidermatum homogenate and methyl jasmonate (meja) on in vitro cultures (of cv. 'dhawal') representing increasing level of ...201020217156
purification and properties of cysteine protease from rhizomes of curcuma longa (linn.).turmeric rhizome (curcuma domestica linn.) contains proteases and has proteolytic activity. curcumin from turmeric rhizomes has been used for healing many ailments, including cancer. the purpose of this study was to purify turmeric protease and to research their biochemical characteristics [corrected].201020355018
genetic structure and distribution of pythium aphanidermatum populations in pennsylvania greenhouses based on analysis of aflp and ssr markers.pythium aphanidermatum is one of the most aggressive species in the genus and has a wide host range, but little is known about its population genetic structure. we tested 123 p. aphanidermatum isolates with six aflp primer combinations and four ssr markers. the genetic diversity of p. aphanidermatum was 0.34 with aflp and 0.55 with ssr markers. ssr genotypes totaled 3-8 for each locus, and a total of 14 ssr genotypes were found among all isolates. three major genetic groups were identified with ...201020648746
hypotin, a novel antipathogenic and antiproliferative protein from peanuts with a sequence similar to those of chitinase precursors.a protein designated hypotin, with both antifungal and antibacterial activity, was isolated from peanut (arachis hypogaea) seeds. the isolation procedure included extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion chromatography, and gel filtration. the protein exhibited a molecular mass of 30.4 kda in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under both reducing and nonreducing conditions, indicating that it is a monomeric protein. its n-terminal sequence ...200717979231
inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis and growth in plant pathogenic fungi in vitro.polyamine (pa) biosynthesis inhibitors, difluoromethylornithine (dfmo), difluoromethylarginine (dfma), methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) (mgbg) and bis-(cyclohexylammonium) sulphate (bcha) have been tested for their effects on colony diameters at different intervals after inoculation of four plant pathogenic fungi (helminthosporium oryzae, curvularia lunata, pythium aphanidermatum and colletotrichum capsici). all these inhibitors, except dfma had strongly retarded the growth of four fungi in a ...199620882469
zoospore interspecific signaling promotes plant infection by phytophthora.oomycetes attack a huge variety of economically and ecologically important plants. these pathogens release, detect and respond to signal molecules to coordinate their communal behaviors including the infection process. when signal molecules are present at or above threshold level, single zoospores can infect plants. however, at the beginning of a growing season population densities of individual species are likely below those required to reach a quorum and produce threshold levels of signal mole ...201021138563
intraspecific strains of pythium aphanidermatum induced disease resistance in ginger and response of host proteins.intraspecific strains of pythium aphanidermatum induced resistance in ginger against rhizome rot and activated biosynthesis of selected host proteins. pre-inoculation of plants with ir strain (avirulent) or co-inoculation with sr2 (virulent) caused significant reduction in disease severity. analysis of protein profiles of ginger leaves of inoculated and non-inoculated plants by sds-page and image master vds-id gel analysis version : 3.0 revealed that some specific defence proteins/stress protein ...200616430094
pythium aphanidermatum infection following combat trauma.pythium aphanidermatum is a fungus-like plant pathogen which has never been reported as a cause of human infection. we report a case of p. aphanidermatum invasive wound infection in a 21-year-old male injured during combat operations in afghanistan.201121813724
toward improvements of oomycete transformation protocols.some of the most important plant pathogens worldwide are oomycetes, and billions of dollars are expended annually to suppress diseases they cause. more efficient disease suppression technologies will be derived from a better understanding of the basic biology of these organisms, but inefficient transformation currently limits basic molecular investigations. of the various approaches, transformation of protoplasts using polyethylene glycol/calcium chloride remains most successful, but the frequen ...200818318863
Colonization of cucumber seeds by bacteria during germination.Detailed analysis revealed fundamental differences between bacterial association with cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seeds and seedlings roots. Seed colonization by bacteria seems to result from passive encounter between bacteria, conveyed by imbibed soil solution, and the germinating seed. In accordance, the seed-associated bacterial community composition directly reflected that of the germination medium and was characterized by low dominance. Transition from seed to root was marked by a shift in b ...201121883798
cotton seedling preemergence damping-off incited by rhizopus oryzae and pythium spp. and its biological control with trichoderma spp.abstract planting the cotton cv. sure-grow 747 in cotton seedling disease plots during the 2001 growing season resulted in high levels of preemergence damping-off among the seedlings. four cotton pathogens, pythium aphanidermatum, p. ultimum, an unidentified pythium sp., and rhizopus oryzae, were isolated from diseased seed embryos and seedlings. disease incited by the pythium spp. could be controlled by seed treatment with metalaxyl, but disease incited by r. oryzae could not. seed treatment wi ...200218943091
potassium homeostasis influences the locomotion and encystment of zoospores of plant pathogenic oomycetes.zoospores of plant pathogenic oomycetes exhibit distinct swimming speeds and patterns under natural conditions. zoospore swimming is influenced by ion homeostasis and changes in the ionic composition of media. therefore, we used video microscopy to investigate swimming patterns of five oomycete species in response to changes in potassium homeostasis. in general, zoospore speed tended to be negatively correlated with zoospore size. three phytophthora species (phytophthora palmivora, phytophthora ...200515707842
evaluation of indigenous trichoderma isolates from manipur as biocontrol agent against pythium aphanidermatum on common beans.pythium aphanidermatum is one of the common causal pathogen of damping-off disease of beans (phaseolus vulgaris l.) grown in manipur. a total of 110 indigenous trichoderma isolates obtained from north east india were screened for their biocontrol activity which can inhibit the mycelial growth of p. aphanidermatum, the causal organism of damping-off in beans. out of the total isolates, 32% of them showed strong antagonistic activity against p. aphanidermatum under in vitro condition and subsequen ...201122558540
transformation of pythium aphanidermatum to geneticin resistance.conditions for the production of protoplasts and gene transfer in pythium aphanidermatum were investigated. efficient protoplast generation was possible after culture of mycelium in potato dextrose broth followed by digestion with 0.5% (w/v) each of cellulase and beta- d-glucanase. plasmid phamt35n/sk encoding the nptii gene under control of the ham34 promoter from the oomycete bremia lactucae was used to define electroporation parameters for gene transfer. a square-wave electroporation pulse of ...200312612808
combat-related pythium aphanidermatum invasive wound infection: case report and discussion of utility of molecular diagnostics.we describe a 22-year-old soldier with 19% total body surface area burns, polytrauma, and sequence- and culture-confirmed pythium aphanidermatum wound infection. antemortem histopathology suggested disseminated pythium infection, including brain involvement; however, postmortem pcr revealed cunninghamella elegans, lichtheimia corymbifera, and saksenaea vasiformis coinfection. the utility of molecular diagnostics in invasive fungal infections is discussed.201525832301
inability to find consistent bacterial biocontrol agents of pythium aphanidermatum in cucumber using screens based on ecophysiological traits.a collection of 821 rhizobacteria from cucumber, originating from different root locations and stages of plant development, was screened for potential biocontrol agents of pythium aphanidermatum (edson) fitzp. the screening procedure exploited carbon source utilization profiles and growth rates of bacteria as indicators of a partial niche overlap with the pathogen. the bacteria were tested for growth on nine carbon sources (glucose, fucose, sucrose, maltose, asparagine, alanine, galacturonic aci ...200312469246
ecology of root colonizing massilia (oxalobacteraceae).ecologically meaningful classification of bacterial populations is essential for understanding the structure and function of bacterial communities. as in soils, the ecological strategy of the majority of root-colonizing bacteria is mostly unknown. among those are massilia (oxalobacteraceae), a major group of rhizosphere and root colonizing bacteria of many plant species.201222808103
greenhouse evaluation of bacillus subtilis ap-01 and trichoderma harzianum ap-001 in controlling tobacco diseases.two biological control agents, bacillus subtilis ap-01 (larminar(™)) and trichoderma harzianum ap-001 (trisan(™)) alone or/in combination were investigated in controlling three tobacco diseases, including bacterial wilt (ralstonia solanacearum), damping-off (pythium aphanidermatum), and frogeye leaf spot (cercospora nicotiana). tests were performed in greenhouse by soil sterilization prior to inoculation of the pathogens. bacterial-wilt and damping off pathogens were drenched first and followed ...200824031219
genome-wide identification and functional analyses of calmodulin genes in solanaceous species.calmodulin (cam) is a major calcium sensor in all eukaryotes. it binds calcium and modulates the activity of a wide range of downstream proteins in response to calcium signals. however, little is known about the cam gene family in solanaceous species, including the economically important species, tomato (solanum lycopersicum), and the gene silencing model plant, nicotiana benthamiana. moreover, the potential function of cam in plant disease resistance remains largely unclear.201323621884
utilisation of carbon sources by pythium, phytophthora and fusarium species as determined by biolog microplate assay.this study examined the metabolic activity of pure cultures of five root pathogens commonly found in closed hydroponic cultivation systems (phytophthora cryptogea (pc), phytophthora capsici (pcp), pythium aphanidermatum (pa), fusariumoxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (forl) and fusarium solani (fs)) using sole carbon source utilisation in order to develop effective biocontrol strategies against these pathogens. aliquots of 150 microl of the mycelial suspension were inoculated in each well of g ...200919294012
bioactivities by a crude extract from the greenlandic pseudomonas sp. in5 involves the nonribosomal peptides, nunamycin and nunapeptin.background. bioactive microbial metabolites provide a successful source of novel compounds with pharmaceutical potentials. the bacterium pseudomonas sp. in5 is a biocontrol strain isolated from a plant disease suppressive soil in greenland, which produces two antimicrobial nonribosomal peptides (nrps), nunapeptin and nunamycin. methods. in this study, we used in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer bioassays to evaluate the potential bioactivities of both a crude extract derived from pseudomonas s ...201526734508
cyclic nucleotide gated channel gene family in tomato: genome-wide identification and functional analyses in disease resistance.the cyclic nucleotide gated channel (cngc) is suggested to be one of the important calcium conducting channels. nevertheless, genome-wide identification and systemic functional analysis of cngc gene family in crop plant species have not yet been conducted. in this study, we performed genome-wide identification of cngc gene family in the economically important crop tomato (solanum lycopersicum l.) and analyzed function of the group ivb slcngc genes in disease resistance. eighteen cngc genes were ...201525999969
antimicrobial constituents of the leaves of mikania micrantha h. b. isolate plant-derived compounds with antimicrobial activity from the leaves of mikania micrantha, to determine the compounds configuration, and to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against eight plant pathogenic fungi (exserohilum turcicum, colletotrichum lagenarium, pseudoperonispora cubensis, botrytis cirerea, rhizoctonia solani, phytophthora parasitica, fusarium solani, and pythium aphanidermatum,) and four plant pathogenic bacteria (gram negative bacteria: ralstonia dolaanacearum, xan ...201324098556
chitinolytic and cellulolytic pseudomonas sp. antagonistic to fungal pathogens enhances nodulation by mesorhizobium sp. cicer in chickpea.pseudomonas strains isolated from the rhizosphere of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) and green gram (vigna radiata l.) were screened for the production of chitinases and cellulases. five pseudomonas strains were found to produce appreciable amounts of both enzymes in culture-free supernatants and showed growth inhibition of the two fungi pythium aphanidermatum (oomycete) and rhizoctonia solani (basidiomycete) in plates on potato dextrose agar medium. the fungal growth inhibition was not correlated ...200111770853
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