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bats: important reservoir hosts of emerging viruses.bats (order chiroptera, suborders megachiroptera ["flying foxes"] and microchiroptera) are abundant, diverse, and geographically widespread. these mammals provide us with resources, but their importance is minimized and many of their populations and species are at risk, even threatened or endangered. some of their characteristics (food choices, colonial or solitary nature, population structure, ability to fly, seasonal migration and daily movement patterns, torpor and hibernation, life span, roo ...200616847084
development of multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase pcr assays for detecting eight medically important flaviviruses in mosquitoes.a multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase pcr has been developed for the rapid detection and identification of eight medically important flaviviruses from laboratory-reared, virus-infected mosquito pools. the method used involves the gene-specific amplification of yellow fever virus (yfv), japanese encephalitis virus (jev), west nile virus (wnv), st. louis encephalitis virus (slev), and dengue virus (denv) serotypes 1 to 4 (denv-1 to denv-4, respectively) by use of the flavivirus consensus amp ...200717108075
characterization of sepik and entebbe bat viruses closely related to yellow fever virus.yellow fever virus has a special place in medical history as the first animal virus isolated and as the prototype virus in the genus flavivirus, which contains many serious human pathogens. only recently, its closely related viruses within the group were identified phylogenetically. in this study, we obtained complete or near complete genome sequences of two viruses most closely related to yellow fever virus: sepik virus of papua new guinea and entebbe bat virus of africa. based on full-genomic ...200617172387
epizootology and experimental infection of yokose virus in bats.to reveal whether bats serve as an amplifying host for yokose virus (yokv), we conducted a serological survey and experimentally infected fruit bats with yokv isolated from microbats in japan. yokv belongs to the entebbe bat virus group of vector unknown group within the genus flavivirus and family flaviviridae. to detect antibodies against yokv, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using biotinylated anti-bat igg rabbit sera. serological surveillance was conducted with samp ...201018789527
characterization of a novel flavivirus from mosquitoes in northern europe that is related to mosquito-borne flaviviruses of the tropics.a novel flavivirus was isolated from mosquitoes in finland, representing the first mosquito-borne flavivirus from northern europe. the isolate, designated lammi virus (lamv), was antigenically cross-reactive with other flaviviruses and exhibited typical flavivirus morphology as determined by electron microscopy. the genomic sequence of lamv was highly divergent from the recognized flaviviruses, and yet the polyprotein properties resembled those of mosquito-borne flaviviruses. phylogenetic analys ...200919570865
virus-host coevolution: common patterns of nucleotide motif usage in flaviviridae and their hosts.virus-host biological interaction is a continuous coevolutionary process involving both host immune system and viral escape mechanisms. flaviviridae family is composed of fast evolving rna viruses that infects vertebrate (mammals and birds) and/or invertebrate (ticks and mosquitoes) organisms. these host groups are very distinct life forms separated by a long evolutionary time, so lineage-specific anti-viral mechanisms are likely to have evolved. flaviviridae viruses which infect a single host l ...200919617912
genomics and evolution of aedes-borne flaviviruses.we analysed the complete coding sequences of all recognized species of aedes-borne flavivirus, including previously uncharacterized viruses within the yellow fever virus (yfv), spondweni virus (spov) and dengue virus (denv) groups. two major phylogenetic lineages were revealed: one included the yfv and entebbe bat virus groups, and the other included the denv, spov and culex-borne flavivirus groups. this analysis supported previous evidence that culex-borne flaviviruses have evolved from ancestr ...201019741066
structure of yellow fever virus envelope protein domain iii.the structure of recombinant domain iii of the envelope protein (red3) of yellow fever virus (yfv), containing the major neutralization site, was determined using nmr spectroscopy. the amino acid sequence and structure of the yfv-red3 shows differences from ed3s of other mosquito-borne flaviviruses; in particular, the partially surface-exposed bc loop where methionine-304 and valine-324 were identified as being critical for the structure of the loop. variations in the structure and surface chemi ...200919818466
structural and functional analyses of a conserved hydrophobic pocket of flavivirus methyltransferase.the flavivirus methyltransferase (mtase) sequentially methylates the n7 and 2'-o positions of the viral rna cap (gpppa-rna → m(7)gpppa-rna → m(7)gpppam-rna), using s-adenosyl-l-methionine (adomet) as a methyl donor. we report here that sinefungin (sin), an adomet analog, inhibits several flaviviruses through suppression of viral mtase. the crystal structure of west nile virus mtase in complex with sin inhibitor at 2.0-å resolution revealed a flavivirus-conserved hydrophobic pocket located next t ...201020685660
Tembusu virus in ducks, china.In China in 2010, a disease outbreak in egg-laying ducks was associated with a flavivirus. The virus was isolated and partially sequenced. The isolate exhibited 87%-91% identity with strains of Tembusu virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Ntaya virus group. These findings demonstrate emergence of Tembusu virus in ducks.201122000358
Molecular evolution of the insect-specific flaviviruses.There has been an explosion in the discovery of 'insect-specific' flaviviruses and/or their related sequences in natural mosquito populations. Herein we review all 'insect-specific' flaviviral sequences currently available and conduct phylogenetic analyses of both the 'insect-specific' flaviviruses and available sequences of the entire genus Flavivirus. We show that there is no statistical support for virus-mosquito co-divergence, suggesting that the 'insect-specific' flaviviruses may have under ...201122012464
biological transmission of arboviruses: reexamination of and new insights into components, mechanisms, and unique traits as well as their evolutionary trends.among animal viruses, arboviruses are unique in that they depend on arthropod vectors for transmission. field research and laboratory investigations related to the three components of this unique mode of transmission, virus, vector, and vertebrate host, have produced an enormous amount of valuable information that may be found in numerous publications. however, despite many reviews on specific viruses, diseases, or interests, a systematic approach to organizing the available information on all f ...016223950
bed bugs and infectious disease: a case for the arboviruses. 201323966852
ecuador paraiso escondido virus, a new flavivirus isolated from new world sand flies in ecuador, is the first representative of a novel clade in the genus flavivirus.a new flavivirus, ecuador paraiso escondido virus (epev), named after the village where it was discovered, was isolated from sand flies (psathyromyia abonnenci, formerly lutzomyia abonnenci) that are unique to the new world. this represents the first sand fly-borne flavivirus identified in the new world. epev exhibited a typical flavivirus genome organization. nevertheless, the maximum pairwise amino acid sequence identity with currently recognized flaviviruses was 52.8%. phylogenetic analysis o ...201526355096
new insights into flavivirus evolution, taxonomy and biogeographic history, extended by analysis of canonical and alternative coding sequences.to generate the most diverse phylogenetic dataset for the flaviviruses to date, we determined the genomic sequences and phylogenetic relationships of 14 flaviviruses, of which 10 are primarily associated with culex spp. mosquitoes. we analyze these data, in conjunction with a comprehensive collection of flavivirus genomes, to characterize flavivirus evolutionary and biogeographic history in unprecedented detail and breadth. based on the presumed introduction of yellow fever virus into the americ ...201525719412
novel flaviviruses from mosquitoes: mosquito-specific evolutionary lineages within the phylogenetic group of mosquito-borne flaviviruses.novel flaviviruses that are genetically related to pathogenic mosquito-borne flaviviruses (mbfv) have been isolated from mosquitoes in various geographical locations, including finland. we isolated and characterized another novel virus of this group from finnish mosquitoes collected in 2007, designated as ilomantsi virus (ilov). unlike the mbfv that infect both vertebrates and mosquitoes, the mbfv-related viruses appear to be specific to mosquitoes similar to the insect-specific flaviviruses (is ...201425108382
characterization of a novel insect-specific flavivirus from brazil: potential for inhibition of infection of arthropod cells with medically important flaviviruses.in the past decade, there has been an upsurge in the number of newly described insect-specific flaviviruses isolated pan-globally. we recently described the isolation of a novel flavivirus (tentatively designated 'nhumirim virus'; nhuv) that represents an example of a unique subset of apparently insect-specific viruses that phylogenetically affiliate with dual-host mosquito-borne flaviviruses despite appearing to be limited to replication in mosquito cells. we characterized the in vitro growth p ...201425146007
rapid evolutionary dynamics of structural disorder as a potential driving force for biological divergence in flaviviruses.protein structure is commonly regarded to be conserved and to dictate function. most proteins rely on conformational flexibility to some degree. are regions that convey conformational flexibility conserved over evolutionary time? can changes in conformational flexibility alter protein function? here, the evolutionary dynamics of structurally ordered and disordered (flexible) regions are investigated genome-wide in flaviviruses, revealing that the amount and location of structural disorder fluctu ...023418179
a review of flaviviruses that have no known arthropod vector.most viruses in the genus flavivirus are horizontally transmitted between hematophagous arthropods and vertebrate hosts, but some are maintained in arthropod- or vertebrate-restricted transmission cycles. flaviviruses maintained by vertebrate-only transmission are commonly referred to as no known vector (nkv) flaviviruses. fourteen species and two subtypes of nkv flaviviruses are recognized by the international committee on taxonomy of viruses (ictv), and tamana bat virus potentially belongs to ...201728635667
[taxonomy of the sokuluk virus (sokv) (flaviviridae, flavivirus, entebbe bat virus group) isolated from bats (vespertilio pipistrellus schreber, 1774), ticks (argasidae koch, 1844), and birds in kyrgyzstan].complete genome sequencing of the sokuluk virus (sokv) isolated in kyrgyzstan from bats vespertilio pipistrellus and their obligatory parasites--argasidae koch, 1844, ticks was carried out. sokv was classified as attributed to the flaviviridae family, flavivirus genus. the maximum homology (71% for nucleotide and 79% for amino acid sequences) was detected with respect to the entebbe bat virus (entv). entv and sokv form a group joining to the yellow fever virus (yfv) within the limits of the mosq ...201625065143
bat distribution size or shape as determinant of viral richness in african bats.the rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (eid) is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. bats are linked to a growing number of eid but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. these may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. we investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of african bats (8 pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera) in central and west africa for which we ...201424959855
detection of entebbe bat virus after 54 years.entebbe bat virus (entv; flaviviridae: flavivirus), closely related to yellow fever virus, was first isolated from a little free-tailed bat (chaerephon pumilus) in uganda in 1957, but was not detected after that initial isolation. in 2011, we isolated entv from a little free-tailed bat captured from the attic of a house near where it had originally been found. infectious virus was recovered from the spleen and lung, and the viral rna was sequenced and compared with that of the original isolate. ...201526101270
flavidb: a data mining system for knowledge discovery in flaviviruses with direct applications in immunology and vaccinology.the flavivirus genus is unusually large, comprising more than 70 species, of which more than half are known human pathogens. it includes a set of clinically relevant infectious agents such as dengue, west nile, yellow fever, and japanese encephalitis viruses. although these pathogens have been studied extensively, safe and efficient vaccines lack for the majority of the flaviviruses.025544857
a new flavivirus and a new vector: characterization of a novel flavivirus isolated from uranotaenia mosquitoes from a tropical rain forest.a novel flavivirus was isolated from uranotaenia mashonaensis, a mosquito genus not previously known to harbor flaviviruses. mosquitoes were caught in the primary rain forest of the taï national park, côte d'ivoire. the novel virus, termed nounané virus (nouv), seemed to grow only on c6/36 insect cells and not on vertebrate cells. typical enveloped flavivirus-like particles of 60 to 65 nm in diameter were detected by electron microscopy in the cell culture supernatant of infected cells. the full ...200919224998
genetic characterization of yokose virus, a flavivirus isolated from the bat in japan.yokose virus (strain oita-36) was isolated from the bat in japan in 1971. in the present study, we determined complete nucleotide sequences of yokose virus using rt-pcr and race techniques. yokose virus genome consists of 10,857 nucleotides in length (accession no. ab114858), containing a single open reading frame (3425 amino acids) encoding 11 viral proteins. we deduced the boundaries of each protein in the polyprotein sequence according to the protein cleavage sites of other flaviviruses. the ...200515661139
identification of gbv-d, a novel gb-like flavivirus from old world frugivorous bats (pteropus giganteus) in bangladesh.bats are reservoirs for a wide range of zoonotic agents including lyssa-, henipah-, sars-like corona-, marburg-, ebola-, and astroviruses. in an effort to survey for the presence of other infectious agents, known and unknown, we screened sera from 16 pteropus giganteus bats from faridpur, bangladesh, using high-throughput pyrosequencing. sequence analyses indicated the presence of a previously undescribed virus that has approximately 50% identity at the amino acid level to gb virus a and c (gbv- ...201020617167
structure and functionality in flavivirus ns-proteins: perspectives for drug design.flaviviridae are small enveloped viruses hosting a positive-sense single-stranded rna genome. besides yellow fever virus, a landmark case in the history of virology, members of the flavivirus genus, such as west nile virus and dengue virus, are increasingly gaining attention due to their re-emergence and incidence in different areas of the world. additional environmental and demographic considerations suggest that novel or known flaviviruses will continue to emerge in the future. nevertheless, u ...201019945487
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