genetic structure of the snakehead murrel, channa striata (channidae) based on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit i gene: influence of historical and geomorphological factors.nucleotide sequences of a partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit i gene were used to assess the manner in which historical processes and geomorphological effects may have influenced genetic structuring and phylogeographic patterns in channa striata. assaying was based on individuals from twelve populations in four river systems, which were separated into two regions, the eastern and western, of the biodiversely rich state of perak in central peninsular malaysia. in 238 specimens, a total of 368-bp ...201121637559
trianchoratus longianchoratus sp. n. (monogenea: ancyrocephalidae: heteronchocleidinae) from channa lucius (osteichthyes: channidae) in peninsular new and three previously described species of trianchoratus price et berry, 1966 were collected from the gills of channa lucius (cuvier) and channa striata (bloch) from the bukit merah reservoir, perak and endau-rompin, pahang, peninsular malaysia. they are trianchoratus longianchoratus sp.n., t. malayensis lim, 1986 and t. pahangensis lim, 1986 from c. lucius, and t. ophicephali lim, 1986 from c. striata. the new species differs from the trianchoratus species hitherto described from channid ...200919827361
gnathostoma infection in fish caught for local consumption in nakhon nayok province, thailand i. prevalence and fish species.between august 2000 and august 2001, 12,216 fish of 73 species were purchased from several local markets in nakhon nayok province, thailand, and examined for the presence of gnathostoma larvae. almost all species were fresh-water fish that had grown naturally, rather than raised commercially. eight species were found to be infected with gnathostome larvae. the overall prevalence was 5.1% (626/12,216) and a total of 5,969 larvae was recovered. the highest rate of infection (30.1 %) was found in m ...200415689060
concentrations of pesticide residues in tissues of fish from kolleru lake in india.kolleru lake is the largest natural freshwater lake of andhra pradesh in india. it is situated between latitudes 16 degrees 32' and 16 degrees 47'n and longitudes 81 degrees 05' and 81 degrees 27'e. the use of pesticides for agricultural purposes is widespread in the kolleru lake region. the biological indicators like fish help in the studies of aquatic pollution by pesticides. fish species channa striata and catla catla and water samples were collected from kolleru lake in each of three seasons ...200111769254
redescription of neocamallanus singhi (nematoda: camallanidae) with a note on related species.the present paper deals with the redescription of the nematode neocamallanus singhi ali, 1957 based on specimens collected from the fish, channa striata from burdwan, west bengal, india. comparative study of this species with other related forms described from freshwater fishes of india and pakistan indicates that neocamallanus bengalensis soota et chaturvedi, 1971 and n. ophicephali rehana et bilquees, 1972 are synonyms of n. singhi.19846745795
electron microscope studies of the in vitro phagocytosis of mycobacterium spp. by rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss head kidney macrophages.the cytological response of rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss head kidney macrophages to ingested mycobacterium spp. was examined in vitro. mycobacterium marinum or mycobacterium sp. tb267 isolated from snakehead fish channa striata bloch were opsonised with either fresh rainbow trout serum, serum which had been heat-inactivated, or rainbow trout antiserum against the extracellular products (ecp) of the 2 mycobacterium spp. a monoclonal antibody against the ecp was also used as an opsonin. suspe ...19989676251
distribution of ddt residues in fish from the songkhla lake, thailand.since the early 1950s ddt has been extensively used in thailand as a malaria repellent and as an agricultural pesticide, but was finally banned in 1994. in this study concentrations of p,p'-ddt, p,p'-dde, and p,p'-ddd in 113 fish of four species (scatophagus argus, protosus canius, channa striata and zonichthys nigrofasciata) are reported from the large, brackish songkhla lake and the gulf of thailand. the mean sigma ddt concentrations at different locations in the analysed fish species ranged f ...200111234535
effect of macrophages and serum of fish susceptible or resistant to epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus) on the eus pathogen, aphanomyces invadans.epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus) is one of the most destructive diseases of fresh and brackish water farmed and wild fish in the asia-pacific region. the in vitro germination and growth of the propagules of the eus pathogen, aphanomyces invadans (= a. piscicida), were assessed in the presence of the head-kidney macrophages, serum, and serum heated to inactivate complement proteins, of three eus-susceptible and one resistant fish species. the susceptible species were: striped snakehead (channa ...200111592585
isolation and multiplex genotyping of polymorphic microsatellite dna markers in the snakehead murrel, channa polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the snakehead murrel, channa striata (channidae), a valuable tropical freshwater fish species. among 25 specimens collected from kedah state in malaysia, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7. observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.120 to 0.880 and 0.117 to 0.698, respectively. a single locus (cs1-c07) was significantly deviated from hardy-weinberg equilibrium after bonferroni correction. these n ...201121734840
molecular cloning and ontogenic mrna expression of fatty acid desaturase in the carnivorous striped snakehead fish (channa striata).there is very little information on the capacity of freshwater carnivorous fish to biosynthesize highly unsaturated fatty acids (hufa). the striped snakehead fish (channa striata) is a carnivorous species cultured inland of several southeast asian countries due to its pharmaceutical properties in wound healing enhancement. we described here the full-length cdna cloning of a striped snakehead fatty acid desaturase (fads), which is responsible for desaturation of unsaturated fatty acids in the huf ...201121130179
osmoregulatory adaptations of freshwater air-breathing snakehead fish (channa striata) after exposure to brackish water.nacl-rich rock salt dissolved in natural water source leads to salinity fluctuation that profoundly affects freshwater ecosystem and aquatic fauna. the snakehead (channa striata) can live in saline water, but the osmoregulatory mechanisms underlying this ability remain unclear. herein, we found that exposure to salinities ≥ 10‰ nacl markedly elevated plasma cortisol and glucose levels, and caused muscle dehydration. in a study of time-dependent response after being transferred from fresh water ( ...201525899744
echium oil increased the expression of a δ4 fads2 fatty acyl desaturase and the deposition of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in comparison with linseed oil in striped snakehead (channa striata) muscle.despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (lc-pufa). echium oil (eo), which is rich in stearidonic acid (sda, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 lc-pufa as the biosynthesis of lc-pufa is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. we report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the pre ...201626842427
brain cholinesterase response in the snakehead fish (channa striata) after field exposure to diazinon.the snakehead channa striata is an economically important air-breathing fish species in the mekong delta of vietnam. rice paddies, which are disturbed by the frequent application of agro-chemicals, are among the preferred habitats for this species during the rainy season. diazinon is one of most commonly used chemicals in rice paddies. in the present study, exposure of adult snakehead fish to a single diazinon application in cages within a rice field resulted in long-term brain cholinesterase in ...200818514898
genotyping of microsatellite markers to study genetic structure of the wild striped snakehead channa striata in malaysia.genetic variability and differences in wild striped snakehead channa striata from malaysia were analysed by genotyping nine novel nuclear microsatellite loci. analysis revealed moderate-to-high genetic diversity in most of the populations, indicative of large effective population sizes. the highly diversified populations are admixed populations and, therefore, can be recommended as potential candidates for selective breeding and conservation since they each contain most of the alleles found in t ...201627027270
pallisentis rexus from the chiang mai basin, thailand: ultrastructural studies on egg envelope development and the mechanism of egg expansion.pallisentis rexus wongkham & whitfield, 1999 (eoacanthocephala: quadrigyridae) infects the freshwater snakehead fish, channa striata, in the chiang mai basin, thailand. all stages of egg development within the body cavity of the female parasite were observed, using transmission electron microscopy. changes in mature eggs after contact with water were also investigated. the mature egg has five egg envelopes separated from each other by four gaps. the fertilization membrane, which is formed first, ...200414972041
atpase 8/6 gene based genetic diversity assessment of snakehead murrel, channa striata (perciformes, channidae).the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) atpase 8/6 gene has been used in phylogenetic as well as in phylogeographic studies along with other mtdna markers. in this study, atpase gene sequences were used to assess the genetic structuring and phylogeographic patterns in channa striata. out of 884 nucleotide positions generated in atpase 8/6 genes, 76 were polymorphic. the study suggested 23 unique haplotypes from 67 individuals of nine populations collected from different riverine systems of india. the atpa ...201527169232
a fatty acyl desaturase (fads2) with dual δ6 and δ5 activities from the freshwater carnivorous striped snakehead channa striata.there is a lack of understanding on how the environment and trophic niche affect the capability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (lc-pufa) in freshwater carnivorous teleost. in this present study, we isolated and functionally characterised a fatty acyl desaturase (fads) from the striped snakehead channa striata. sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis suggested a fads2 protein that is closely related to previously characterised fads2 proteins from freshwater carnivorous and marine ...201627421235
on philippine mosquitoes, xx. species feeding on mudfish (ophicephalus striatus bloch). 19753856
histochemistry and the structure of the skin of a murrel, channa striata (bloch, 1797) (channiformes, channidae). ii. dermis and subcutis. 19751139468
histochemistry and the structure of the skin of a murrel, channa striata (bloch, 1797) (channiformes, channidae). i. epidermis. 19751139467
fish condensate as effective replacer of fish meal protein in diet for striped snakehead, channa striata (bloch).the optimal protein replacement of fish meal (fm) by fish condensate (fc) was investigated in striped snakehead, channa striata (bloch) (1.78 ± 0.02 g initial weight). the fm-based diet (0fc) was replaced by substituting protein from fc for 100 (100fc), 200 (200fc), 300 (300fc), 400 (400fc), 500 (500fc) or 600 (600fc) g kg(-1) of the fm, and a commercial diet (cd) for carnivorous fish was included for comparison. the experiment was conducted indoors under completely randomized design (8 treatmen ...201727589981
characterization of serum immunoglobulin in channa striata (bloch) and kinetics of its response to aeromonas hydrophila antigen.the immunoglobulin (ig) from the serum of channa striata was isolated by gel electroelution and characterized further to understand its nature and subsequent applications in studying the immune response. the purity of the sample was confirmed with the presence of a single band on native gradient page and the molecular weight of ∼897 kda was determined from the gel. in sds-page, c. striata ig was reduced to produce two bands corresponding to h (heavy) (∼72 kda) and l (light) (∼27 kda) chain subun ...201323656248
effect of growth hormone injection on the level of nucleic acids in the liver of intact fish (ophicephalus striatus). 19676033865
observations on certain physiological reactions in ophicephalus striatus exposed to air. 196214026477
effect of insulin on ophicephalus striatus (bloch). 196114039150
total and inorganic arsenic in freshwater fish and prawn in and inorganic arsenic levels were determined in 120 samples of eight freshwater animal species collected from five distribution centers in the central region of thailand between january and march 2011. eight species with the highest annual catch, consisting of seven fish species and one prawn species, were analyzed. concentrations of inorganic arsenic (on a wet weight basis) ranged from 0.010 μg/g in giant prawn (macrobrachium rosenbergii) to 0.230 μg/g in striped snakehead (channa striata ...201223043844
monoclonal antibody to serum immunoglobulins of clarias batrachus and its application in immunoassays.serum immunoglobulins of clarias batrachus (cb-ig) were purified by affinity chromatography using bovine serum albumin as capture ligand. under reducing conditions in sds-page, cb-ig was composed of a heavy (h) chain (68.7 kda) and two light (l) chains (27.4 and 26.3 kda). purified cb-ig was used to produce a monoclonal antibody (mab) designated e4 mab that belonged to igg1 subclass. in western blotting, this mab showed binding to h chain of purified cb-ig and putative h chains in reduced sera o ...201223000018
haematological and ion regulatory effects of nitrite in the air-breathing snakehead fish channa striata.the tolerance and effects of nitrite on ion balance and haematology were investigated in the striped snakehead, channa striata bloch 1793, which is an air-breathing fish with reduced gills of importance for aquaculture in south east asia. c. striata was nitrite tolerant with a 96 h lc50 of 4.7 mm. effects of sub-lethal exposures to nitrite (0mm, 1.4mm, and 3.0mm) were determined during a 7-day exposure period. plasma nitrite increased, but the internal concentration remained well below ambient l ...201222516674
cellular immune responses and phagocytic activity of fishes exposed to pollution of volcano mud.since may 29, 2006, a mud volcano in the brantas delta of the sidoarjo district has emitted mud that has inundated nearby villages. pollution in this area has been implicated in detrimental effects on fish health. in fishes, leukocyte and phagocytic cells play a vital role in body defenses. we report for the first time the effect of "lusi" volcano mud on the immune systems of fish in the brantas delta. the aim of this study was to find biomarkers to allow the evaluation of the effects of volcani ...201424631200
monoclonal antibodies to snakehead, channa striata immunoglobulins: detection and quantification of immunoglobulin-positive cells in blood and lymphoid organs.snakehead channa striata is an important freshwater food fish in many southeast asian countries. three monoclonal antibodies (c9, c10 and d10) were developed against purified serum immunoglobulins of channa striata (cs-ig) and characterized. c9 and d10 mabs were specific to heavy chain, while c10 mab detected only unreduced cs-ig in western blotting. in competitive elisa, c9 and c10 mabs were specific to c. striata ig and showed no cross reactivity with serum ig of other fish species i.e. channa ...201021167285
in silico analysis of myoglobin in channa striata.myoglobin is a cytoplasmic hemoprotein, expressed solely in cardiac myocytes and oxidative skeletal muscle fibers, that reversibly binds o2 by its heme residue. myoglobin is an essential oxygen-storage hemoprotein capable of facilitating oxygen transport and modulating nitric oxide homeostasis within cardiac and skeletal myocytes. functionally, myoglobin is well accepted as an o2- storage protein in muscle, capable of releasing o2 during periods of hypoxia or anoxia. there is no evidence availab ...201424516321
characterisation of asian snakehead murrel channa striata (channidae) in malaysia: an insight into molecular data and morphological approach.conservation is imperative for the asian snakeheads channa striata, as the species has been overfished due to its high market demand. using maternal markers (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (coi)), we discovered that evolutionary forces that drove population divergence did not show any match between the genetic and morphological divergence pattern. however, there is evidence of incomplete divergence patterns between the borneo population and the populations from peninsular mala ...201324396312
physical modification of palm kernel meal improved available carbohydrate, physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility in economic freshwater fish.unavailable carbohydrates are an important limiting factor for utilization of palm kernel meal (pkm) as aquafeed ingredients. the aim of this study was to improve available carbohydrate from pkm. different physical modifications including water soaking, microwave irradiation, gamma irradiation and electron beam, were investigated in relation to chemical composition, physicochemical properties and in vitro carbohydrate digestibility using digestive enzymes from economic freshwater fish.201323881536
phylogeographic pattern of the striped snakehead, channa striata in sundaland: ancient river connectivity, geographical and anthropogenic signatures [corrected].a phylogeographic study of an economically important freshwater fish, the striped snakehead, channa striata in sundaland was carried out using data from mtdna nd5 gene target to elucidate genetic patterning. templates obtained from a total of 280 individuals representing 24 sampling sites revealed 27 putative haplotypes. three distinct genetic lineages were apparent; 1)northwest peninsular malaysia, 2)southern peninsular, east peninsular, sumatra and sw (western sarawak) and 3) central west peni ...201223284881
cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress of malachite green on the kidney and gill cell lines of freshwater air breathing fish channa striata.the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress of malachite green (mg) was investigated using the fish channa striata kidney (csk) and channa striata gill (csg) cell lines. five concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 10 μg ml(-1) were tested in three independent experiments. cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (mtt) assay, rhodamine 123 and alamar blue. the mitochondrial changes and apoptosis of mg-exposed cells were observed by rhodamine ...201425023653
characterization of a virus obtained from snakeheads ophicephalus striatus with epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus) in the philippines.this is the first report of the isolation and characterization of a fish virus from the philippines. the virus was isolated using snakehead spleen cells (shs) from severely lesioned epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus)-affected snakehead ophicephalus striatus from laguna de bay, in january 1991. the virus induced cytopathic effects (cpe) in shs cells yielding a titer of 3.02 x 10(6) tcid50 ml(-1) at 25 degrees c within 2 to 3 d. other susceptible cell lines included bluegill fry (bf-2), catfish s ...200011206734
gastroprotective effect of freeze dried stripped snakehead fish (channa striata bloch.) aqueous extract against aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pylorus ligated rats.channa striata (bloch.) is a fresh water fish belonging to the family channidae. the stripped snakehead fish possesses wide range of medicinal properties. in view of traditional use of c. striata for wound healing, the present study was undertaken to investigate the beneficial effects of orally administered freeze dried aqueous extract of channa striata (aecs) in experimentally induced gastric ulcers in wistar rats. aspirin induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligation model was used for the assessm ...201424977051
preliminary studies on cryopreservation of snakehead (channa striata) embryos.this paper reports the findings of the ongoing studies on cryopreservation of the snakehead, channa striata embryos. the specific objective of this study was to collect data on the sensitivity of c. striata embryo hatching rate to low temperatures at two different developmental stages in the presence of four different cryoprotectants. embryos at morula and heartbeat stages were selected and incubated in 1m dimethyl sulfoxide (me2so), 1m ethylene glycol (eg), 1m methanol (meoh) and 0.1m sucrose s ...201424726775
gnathostomiasis in thailand: a survey on intermediate hosts of gnathostoma spp. with special reference to a new type of larvae found in fluta clarify current status of gnathostomiasis in thailand, a survey on intermediate hosts has been carried out at various localities since 1987. it was found that fluta alba (fresh water eel) as well as channa striata (snake-headed fish) might be important in playing a role of transmitting the infection either among humans or reservoir animals. during the three years from 1987 to 1989, larvae of gnathostoma spinigerum were found in 80-100% of f. alba obtained from markets in nakhon nayok, with a ...19911822890
evidence of geographical structuring in the malaysian snakehead, channa striata based on partial segment of the co1 gene.channa striata, locally known as "haruan", is economically important in fisheries and aquaculture industries in several asian countries. dna sequencing, based on a partial segment of the cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (co1) gene, was used to determine genetic variation in c. striata samples from four different populations on the west coast of peninsular malaysia. the highest nucleotide and haplotype diversities were observed in the linggi population (π = 0.0067, h = 0.835), and the lowest in the ...201121931528
snakehead-fish cell line, ssn-1 (ophicephalus striatus) as a model for cadmium genotoxicity testing.the purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential of snakehead-fish cell line (ssn-1 cells) derived from a striped snakehead (ophicephalus striatus) as a model in the genotoxic assessment of cadmium (cd). the first approach employed was to determine the contaminated cd levels in commercial snakehead fish by the graphite atomic absorption spectrophotometer. in the second approach, the sensitivity of ssn-1 cells to cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of cd was assessed by trypan blue and micronucle ...200919401229
effects of repeated exposure of diazinon on cholinesterase activity and growth in snakehead fish (channa striata).the organophosphate insecticide diazinon is widely used in the mekong river delta and often applied several times per rice crop. in the present study, juvenile snakehead fish channa striata, which is a commercially important inhabitant of rice fields, were exposed twice to 4-day pulses of 0.016, 0.079 or 0.35mg/l of diazinon, separated by a 2 week interval to imitate the exposure conditions in the field. after the 4-day exposures to these environmentally realistic concentrations, the fish were m ...200919054558
sensitivity of brain cholinesterase activity to diazinon (basudin 50ec) and fenobucarb (bassa 50ec) insecticides in the air-breathing fish channa striata (bloch, 1793).with the expansion of agricultural areas within the mekong river delta in vietnam, a concurrent, dramatic increase has occurred in agrochemical usage. to date, little consideration has been given to the negative impacts of this agricultural activity on the aquatic resources of the region. both acute toxicity and subacute effects on brain cholinesterase (che) of two of the most commonly used insecticides, diazinon and fenobucarb, on adult native snakehead (channa striata) were evaluated in a stat ...200616704077
horizontal transmission of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus)-associated virus in the snakehead ophicephalus striatus under simulated natural conditions.natural transmission of the epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus) was conducted on naïve snakeheads ophicephalus striatus (also known as channa striata) kept (a) in aquifer water, (b) in lakewater, (c) cohabiting with eus snakeheads in lakewater, and (d) cohabiting with apparently healthy snakeheads in lakewater during the 1994 to 1995 eus season. the results showed that eus-like lesions developed in 6 to 14 d among naïve snakeheads cohabiting with eus snakeheads and with apparently healthy snakeh ...200314960033
hepatic 5'-monodeiodinase activity in teleosts in vitro: a survey of thirty-three species.the in vitro hepatic 5'-monodeiodination of thyroxine (t4) to triiodothyronine (t3) in oreochromis mossambicus, channa striata, clarias batrachus, cyprinus carpio and oxyeleotris marmorata was found to be time, ph and temperature dependent, and related to the amount of substrate (t4) and homogenate introduced into the reaction vessel, in a manner which was consistent with menton-michaelis kinetics, and thus indicative of an enzyme-regulated process. dithiothreitol introduced into the reaction ve ...199024221892
a cytochemical study of the "chloride cells" in the skin of a fresh-water teleost (channa striata (bl.) channidae, pisces).the chloride cells in the skin of channa striata have been described. the cytoplasm of these cells is filled with acidophilic, osmiophilic and sudanophilic granules. the sudanophila is due to phospholipids. these cells give positive reaction for chloride ions and exhibit the presence of neutral mucopolysaccharides. the cytoplasm of these cells is packed with numerous mitochondria and exhibit high succinic dehydrogenase activity which may provide the energy needed for the active transportation of ...1975127502
action of insulin on the glycogen content of liver and muscle of the murrel, ophicephalus striatus (bloch). 19676051689
experimental infection of aphanomyces invadans and susceptibility in seven species of tropical fish.epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus) causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. the objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the eus and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups.201527047195
study of hmg-coa reductase inhibition activity of the hydrolyzed product of snakehead fish (channa striata) skin collagen with 50 kda collagenase from bacillus licheniformis f11.4.bioactive peptides produced from enzymatic hydrolysis fibrous protein have been proven to have several biological activities. previous study showed that the hydrolysis product of snakehead fish skin collagen with 26 kda collagenase from bacillus licheniformis f11.4 showed hmg-coa (hmgr) inhibition activity. the aim of this research was to determine the ability of the hydrolysis product produced from snakehead fish skin collagen hydrolysed by 50 kda collagenase from b. licheniformis f11.4 in inhi ...201727110500
the capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis in a carnivorous vertebrate: functional characterisation and nutritional regulation of a fads2 fatty acyl desaturase with δ4 activity and an elovl5 elongase in striped snakehead (channa striata).the endogenous production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (lc-pufa) in carnivorous teleost species inhabiting freshwater environments is poorly understood. although a predatory lifestyle could potentially supply sufficient lc-pufa to satisfy the requirements of these species, the nutrient-poor characteristics of the freshwater food web could impede this advantage. in this study, we report the cloning and functional characterisation of an elongase enzyme in the lc-pufa biosynthesis path ...201525542509
comparison of selected metals content in cambodian striped snakehead fish (channa striata) using solar drying system and open sun drying.the content of 12 elements in cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. the present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (sds) and open sun drying (osd). the skin of sds fish has lower level of as, pb, and cd compared to the osd sample. as such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during osd compared to sds. howev ...201525688274
dietary prebiotics and probiotics influence the growth performance, feed utilisation, and body indices of snakehead (channa striata) fingerlings.this study used a two-phase feeding trial to determine the influence of selected dietary prebiotics and probiotics on growth performance, feed utilisation, and morphological changes in snakehead (channa striata) fingerlings as well as the duration of these effects over a post-experimental period without supplementation. triplicate groups of fish (22.46 ±0.17 g) were raised on six different treatment diets: three prebiotics (0.2% β-glucan, 1% galacto-oligosaccharides [gos], 0.5% mannan-oligosacch ...201627688855
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